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The second edition (1984) is cited in Sheehy. The third edition has been significantly updated and expanded with some 500 new entries on New Age topics and other notable paranormal happenings. The Encyclopedia offers objective coverage of people, places, events, and ideas in alphabetically-arranged entries that range from a paragraph to several pages in length, depending on the importance of the subject discussed. In certain controversial areas, the cases both for and against are presented. In addition to a comprehensive general index, there are nine topic indexes which include: animals, birds, insects; demons; gems; geographical areas; Gods; paranormal phenomena; periodicals; plants and flowers; and societies and organizations.

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A Compendium of Information on the Occult Sciences, Magic, Demonology, Superstitions, Spiritism, Mysticism, Metaphysics, Psychical Science, and Parapsychology, with Biographical and Bibliographical Notes and Comprehensive Indexes FIFTH EDITION

In Two Volumes


Edited by J. Gordon Melton

J. Gordon Melton Gale Group Staff Jolen Marya Gedridge, Editor Christy Wood, Associate Editor Pamela A. Dear, Contributing Associate Editor Jason Everett, Contributing Assistant Editor Rita Runchock, Managing Editor Mary Beth Trimper, Production Director Evi Seoud, Production Manager Rita Wimberley, Buyer Kenn Zorn, Manager, Production Design Barbara J. Yarrow, Manager, Imaging and Multimedia Content Tracey Rowens, Senior Art Director Michael Logusz, Graphic Artist Datapage Technologies International, Inc., Typesetting

While every effort has been made to ensure the reliability of the information presented in this publication, Gale does not guarantee the accuracy of the data contained herein. Gale accepts no payment for listing; and inclusion in the publication of any organization, agency, institutional, publication, service, or individual does not imply endorsement of the editors or publisher. Errors brought to the attention of the publisher and verified to the satisfaction of the publisher will be corrected in future editions. This publication is creative work fully protected by all applicable copyright laws, as well as by misappropriation, trade secret, unfair competition and other applicable laws. The authors and editors of this work have added value to the underlying factual material herein through one or more of the following: unique and original selection, coordination, expression, arrangement, and classification of the information. All rights to the publication will be vigorously defended. Copyright © 2001 Gale Group, Inc. 27500 Drake Rd. Farmington Hills, MI 48331-3535 All rights reserved including the right of reproduction in whole or in part of any form. ISBN 0-8103-8570-8 (Complete Set) ISBN 0-8103-9488-X (Volume 1) ISBN 0-8103-9489-8 (Volume 2) Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Contents VOLUME I Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii Encyclopedia A-L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

VOLUME II Encyclopedia M-Z . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .951 Internet Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1713 General Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1721 General Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1829

M M. A., Oxon Pseudonym of William Stainton Moses, prominent British Spiritualist, author of Spirit Teachings (1833) and other books.

Maa-Kheru According to Egyptologist Gaston Maspero, Maa-Kheru is the Egyptian name of the true intonation with which the dead must recite those magic incantations that would give them power in Amenti, the Egyptian Hades. (See also Egypt)

Mabinogion A collection of ancient Welsh legends translated into English by Lady Charlotte Guest (1812–1895) and published 1838–49. The title is the plural form of the Welsh maginogi, originally indicating stories of a hero’s childhood, but is here used in the wider sense of ‘‘hero tale.’’ The stories in this collection are from various manuscript sources, originally part of the oral tradition of professional minstrels known as cyvarwyddon. In this collection, the section entitled the Four Branches of the Mabinogi derives from a manuscript ca. 1060 C.E., dealing with pre-Christian myths that have affinities with traditional Irish folklore. Kilhwch and Olwen is from a manuscript ca. 1100 C.E. and is an early Arthurian romance. The Dream of Rhonabwy is another Arthurian story, related to the French recension of Didot Perceval. The Lady of the Fountain, Geraint, and Peredur are also Arthurian, ca. 1200 C.E., colored by Breton and French culture, although Celtic in origin. The Dream of Maxen, dating from the twelfth century, is a literary work rather than folk tale, the plot resembling the Irish Dream of Oengus. Taliesin dates from a sixteenth-century manuscript; it concerns a famous bard of the sixth century and has affinities with Irish legends. In addition to the translation by Lady Charlotte Guest, there is also a later translation by Gwyn Jones and Thomas Jones (1949). (See also Wales)

Machell, Reginald Willoughby (1854–1927) Artist and theosophist, born on June 20, 1854, in Crackenthorpe, Westmoreland, England. His father was the canon at York Cathedral. Machell attended Owen’s College, Manchester, where he was an outstanding student in the classics and in art. In 1875 he moved to London and then Paris to pursue artistic endeavors and won prizes at the Academy de Juliens. In 1880 he settled in London as a professional painter, successfully specializing in portraits. In 1887 Machell encountered Theosophy and found himself immediately drawn to it. He soon met Helena Petrovona Blavatsky, cofounder of the Theosophical Society, and joined that organization. He redecorated the facilities at 19 Avenue Rd., Regents Park, where Blavatsky moved in 1890, and she invited him to move his studio into the same building. He designed the urn that held Blavatsky’s ashes following her death and cremation in 1891.

Machell’s art took on a mystical/Gnostic cast and realism gave way to symbolism. He soon produced some of his most famous paintings, including Dweller on the Threshold, The Birth of the Planet and Lead Kindly Light. In 1900 he moved to the United States and joined the theosophical community at Point Loma, San Diego, California, established by the independent American branch of the Theosophical Society by Katherine Tingley. Over the next years he worked on the decor of the buildings, wrote articles for the community’s periodical, The Theosophical Path, and did numerous illustrations for the Path. His painting ‘‘The Path’’ was used as the cover art of the journal for many years. Machell died at Point Loma on October 9, 1927.

Machen, Arthur (Llewellyn) (1863–1947) British novelist born March 3, 1863, at Carleon-on-Usk, Wales, who became one of the leading authors of English occult fiction, but was undeservedly neglected during his lifetime. He was a close friend of Arthur Edward Waite, one of Britain’s greatest authorities on occult literature. His books include: The Great God Pan (1894), The House of Souls (1906), The Hill of Dreams (1907), The Great Return (1915), and The Terror (1917). In addition to his powerful stories on occult themes, he also published a number of volumes of essays and translations. One of Machen’s short stories brought a legend to real life. On September 29, 1914, his story ‘‘The Bowmen’’ appeared in the London Evening News. The story describes how British troops, hopelessly outnumbered in the French trenches of World War I, are miraculously rescued by phantom English archers from Agincourt, led by St. George. Many people read it as a factual account of what had happened, and a few months after publication, a number of eyewitness accounts of the Angels of Mons began to appear. Throughout the twentieth century people have believed the events actually occurred. Machen reiterated that his story was fiction in the introduction to the later publication of his story in the book The Bowmen and Other Legends of the War (London, 1915), but the actual semi-miraculous retreat of the British from Mons had such an overpowering effect on the British public that they seemed to want to believe in divine intervention. He died December 15, 1947, at Beaconsfield, England. Sources: Machen, Arthur. The Great God Pan. 1894. Reprint, London: M. Secker, 1926. ———. The Great Return. London: Faith Press, 1915. ———. The Hill of Dreams. 1907. Reprint, New York: Dover, 1986. ———. The House of Souls. 1906. Reprint, Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1971. ———. The Terror. 1917. Reprint, New York: W. W. Norton, 1965. Reynolds, Aidan, and William Charlton. Arthur Machen: A Short Account of His Life and Work. London, 1963. 951


Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed.

Sullivan, Jack, ed. The Penguin Encyclopedia of Horror and the Supernatural. New York: Viking, 1986.

W. Westcott, one of the founding chiefs, presuming a continuity of occult tradition through Rosicrucianism.


Sources: Mackenzie, Kenneth. Royal Masonic Cyclopaedia. 1877. Reprint, New York: Sterling Publishing, 1987.

Slavonic name for a witch. (See Slavs)

Mackenzie, William (1877– Mackenzie, Kenneth R(obert) H(enderson) (1833–1886) Prominent British occultist, an honorary magus of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, and a member of the Hermetic Society of the Golden Dawn. During 1858–59 he edited four issues of Biological Review, devoted to Spiritualism, homeopathy, and electro-dentistry. Mackenzie was born on October 31, 1833, in London. The following year his family lived in Vienna, where his father, Dr. Rowland H. Mackenzie, was assistant surgeon in the midwifery department at Imperial Hospital. Mackenzie and his wife returned to England about 1840, but it is probable that Kenneth Mackenzie was educated abroad. According to William Wynn Westcott, Mackenzie received a Rosicrucian initiation in Austria while living with Count Apponyi as an English tutor. Mackenzie returned to London by 1851 and contributed a series of learned notes to Notes and Queries. As a young man he had an impressive knowledge of German, French, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew and had a precocious talent for antiquarian studies. He had ambitions to follow a literary career, and as early as 1852 he translated K. R. Lepsius’s Briefe aus Aegypten, Aethiopen, 1842–45 into English. He also contributed articles on Peking, America, and Scandinavia to Theodore Alois Buckley’s work Great Cities of the Ancient World (1852). The next year he assisted Walter Savage Landor in a new edition of Imaginary Conversations. In 1870 Mackenzie married Alexandrina Aydon, daughter of a Freemason. His marriage became the occasion of his joining the craft in the same year. He was author of the Royal Masonic Cyclopaedia (1877) and also planned a work called The Game of Tarot: Archaeologically and Symbolically Considered, which was announced but not published. In 1861 Mackenzie visited the famous French occultist Éliphas Lévi (Alphonse Louis Constant) in Paris and published vivid personal recollections of the man and his outlook in the Rosicrucian, the journal of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia. He also studied occultism with Frederick Hockley (1808–1885). Mackenzie’s other literary publications include Burmah and the Burmese (1853), Zythogala; or, Borne by the Sea (a novel, 1872), and the Fundamental Constitutions of Freemasonry (1877). In addition he translated and/or edited Schamyl and Circassia by F. Wagner (1854), Fairy Tales by J. W. Wolf (1855), The Marvellous Adventures . . . of Tyll Owlglass by T. Eulenspiegel (1859), The Life of Bismarck by J. G. L. Hesekiel (1870), and Bismarck: His Authentic Biography by G. E. L. von Bismarck-Schoenhausen. He also edited early issues of a Masonic periodical titled Kneph in 1881. On April 21, 1873, Mackenzie read a paper on Éliphas Lévi to the Rosicrucian Society (Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia), of which he became a member. He subsequently contributed papers to their journal, the Rosicrucian. He resigned from the society in 1875 while preparing his Royal Masonic Cyclopaedia. In subsequent years, he seems to have lived precariously on a modest income from journalism. He developed a system of astrological prediction of horse race winners and also became involved with the promotion of fringe Masonic orders, such as Sat B’Hai. He died July 3, 1886, before the formation of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, but was claimed posthumously as an adept of the order (together with Lévi and Hockley) by W. 952


British biologist and writer, living in Italy, who played a prominent part in the scientific study of parapsychology. Mackenzie, born March 25, 1877, in Genoa, Italy, studied at the University of Turin (Ph.D., 1900). In 1905 he founded the first Marine Biological Laboratory at the University of Genoa and during 1912–13 conducted research in Germany on the phenomenon of ‘‘thinking animals.’’ During World War I he was a volunteer in the Italian Army; during World War II (1939–45), he lectured on biological philosophy at the University of Geneva and was a consultant on foreign scientific literature to publishers in Florence beginning in 1960. He was president of the Second International Congress of Psychical Research, held in Warsaw in 1923, then served as president of the Italian Society for Parapsychology, 1951–54, and honorary president beginning in 1954. He was president of the Third National Congress of Parapsychology, held at the University of Rome in 1956, and honorary member of the Institut Métapsychique International, Paris, and the Institut Francais de Florence. Mackenzie edited Parapsicologia (quarterly journal of parapsychology) from 1955 to 1956. He conducted a special study of psychobiology (parapsychology in living organisms) and investigated psychic animals and mathematical mediumship. He published many articles on parapsychology in English and Italian journals such as Psiche, Archives de Psycholgie, Proceedings of the Italian Society for the Advancement of Science, Quaderni di Psichiatria, Journal of the ASPR, Revue Métapsychique, and Uomini e Idee.

Mackey, Albert Gallatin (1807–1881) American authority on Freemasonry and editor of numerous books on the subject, including Encyclopedia of Freemasonry (1874). Mackey was born in Charleston, South Carolina, on March 12, 1807. He was a disciple of the great nineteenthcentury Masonic leader Albert Pike (1809–1891), one of those falsely charged by fictitious Satanic priestess Diana Vaughan and others with the practice of devil worship and sorcery. The whole campaign proved to be a conspiracy on the part of journalist Gabriel Jogand-Pagés to discredit and embarrass both the Roman Catholic Church and Freemasonry. One of the earliest writers to throw doubt on the revelations of Jogand-Pagès was British occultist and mystic Arthur E. Waite in his book Devil-Worship in France (1896). He died on June 20, 1881, in Virginia. Sources: Mackey, Albert Gallatin. Encyclopedia of Freemasonry. 1874. Reprint, Chicago: Masonic History, 1927. Stein, Gordon. Encyclopedia of Hoaxes. Detroit: Gale Research, 1993.

MacLaine, Shirley (Shirley MacLean Beatty) (1934– ) World-famous actress, dancer, movie star, and writer, whose books on her search for spiritual fulfillment have created widespread popular interest in psychic phenomena, channeling of spirit guides, and New Age teachings. She was born on April 24, 1934, in Richmond, Virginia, and attended high school in Washington, D.C. She began taking dancing lessons before she

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. was three years old; by the time she was 16 she was a chorus girl in New York in a City Center revival of Oklahoma! Four years later, she was dancing in the chorus of Pajama Game and acting as understudy to Carol Haney, the show’s leading dancer. When Haney injured her ankle soon after the show’s opening, MacLaine replaced her in the lead. After enthusiastic reviews, the Hollywood producer Hal B. Wallis signed her for a longterm film contract. Her first motion picture role was in The Trouble with Harry, directed by Alfred Hitchcock. Later, her performance in Irma la douce earned her a Golden Globe Award and the third of four Academy Award nominations. Honors for her acting have continued into the 1990s. Apart from her acting, MacLaine has gained a considerable reputation as an outspoken political and humanitarian activist, notably for civil rights, women’s rights, and environmental protection. During the Vietnam War, she supported George McGovern’s 1972 presidential campaign. She was the first woman ever to speak at the National Democratic Club, where she addressed the dangers of overpopulation. MacLaine’s extensive travels have included such remote parts of the world as East Africa, where she lived among the Masai tribe, and the Himalayan kingdom of Bhutan, where she was detained by border guards during a political crisis. When traveling in India, she became sympathetic to the plight of the ‘‘gutter babies’’ and helped to establish an orphanage for them in Calcutta. Her best-selling autobiography Don’t Fall Off the Mountain (1970), which detailed her experiences in Africa, India, the Far East, and Hollywood, was translated into eight languages. In 1973 MacLaine led a delegation of 12 American women, including filmmaker Claudia Weill, on a six-week tour of the People’s Republic of China. With Weill acting as her codirector, MacLaine produced and wrote the narration for the film The Other Half of the Sky: A China Memoir, a documentary of the trip broadcast by Public Broadcasting Service (1975). Her second autobiographical book, You Can Get There from Here (1975), discussed her China trip and her involvement with George McGovern’s presidential campaign. In 1976, after a 20year hiatus as an entertainer, she returned to the theatrical stage in A Gypsy in My Soul, which attracted rave reviews. By 1983 she had appeared in some 35 movies. Her third autobiographical book, Out on a Limb (1983), described a spiritual odyssey that developed from her world travels. It is a heady exploration of New Age beliefs, including meditation, psychic healing, channeling of spirit guides, reincarnation, UFOs, extraterrestrials, and out-of-the-body travel. If at times the book appears naive, it is redeemed by its transparent honesty and sincerity and a deep desire for a spiritual framework to life. The book became the basis for a fivehour prime-time ABC-TV mini-series. Her inner search continued in her book Dancing in the Light (1985), in which she stated: ‘‘I like to think of Dancing in the Light as a celebration of all my ‘selves.’ It was a fulfilling and satisfying exploration of the promises I made to myself in Out on a Limb. In it I look with pleasure, humor and some contentment upon my experiences as a daughter, a mother, a lover, a friend, a seeker of spiritual destiny and a voice calling for peace in the world.’’ The book cites several channels from whom she received guidance, but her kindest words are reserved for J. Z. Knight, who channels an entity named ‘‘Ramtha’’ and has since attracted a large following. In the late 1980s MacLaine emerged as a New Age teacher and leader of Higher Life Seminars. Profits from the seminars have funded several New Age centers. MacLaine has continued to write New Age books. Sources: MacLaine, Shirley. Dancing in the Light. New York: Bantam Books, 1985. ———. Don’t Fall Off the Mountain. New York: W. W. Norton, 1970.

The Macrocosm ———. It’s All in the Playing. New York: Bantam Books, 1987. ———. Out on a Limb. New York: Bantam Books, 1983. ———. You Can Get There from Here. New York: W. W. Norton, 1975. Melton, J. Gordon, Jerome Clark, and Aidan Kelly. New Age Encyclopedia. Detroit: Gale Research, 1990.

MacLeod, Fiona Pseudonym of Scottish writer William Sharp (1856–1905), virtually a secondary personality who authored mystical writings on Celtic lore, which played a large part in the Scottish Celtic Revival. These works were the product of automatic writing by Sharp.

MacRobert, Russell Galbraith (1890–1967) Psychiatrist and neurologist with a special interest in parapsychology. MacRobert was born June 4, 1890, at London, Ontario, Canada, and studied at the University of Western Ontario (M.D., 1912) and the University of Toronto (M.D., 1916). He was an associate neuropsychiatrist at Lenox Hill Hospital, New York (1922–41), a captain in the USNR Medical Corps during World War II, and afterward returned to Lenox Hill (1946–55). In 1955 he entered private practice and became an instructor in clinical neurology at New York University, Bellevue Hospital Medical Center, New York. He was a member of the American Medical Association, American Academy of Neurology, American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, and Academy of Religion and Mental Health, and a fellow of the American Psychiatric Association and the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis. His interest in intuition, clairvoyance, and mediumship prompted him to join the American Society for Psychical Research. MacRobert published many articles on medical, psychiatric, and neurological subjects, as well as articles in parapsychology, including the chapter ‘‘Something Better than Reincarnation’’ in the book Reincarnation (1956) and the preface to R. DeWitt Miller’s book You Do Take It with You (1956). He died on July 10, 1967, of cancer. Sources: MacRobert, Russell G. ‘‘Current Attitudes of American Neuropsychiatrists towards Parapsychology.’’ Journal of Parapsychology (November 1948). ———. ‘‘Hallucinations of the Sane.’’ Journal of Insurance Medicine 5, no. 3 (1950). ———. ‘‘Psychiatry and Intuition.’’ Journal of Insurance Medicine 4, no. 3 (1949). ———. ‘‘Science Studies Intuition.’’ Tomorrow (May 1950). ———. ‘‘When Is Healing ‘Psychic’?’’ Tomorrow (spring 1955). ———. ‘‘Where Is Bridey Murphy?’’ Tomorrow (spring 1956). Pleasants, Helene, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Parapsychology. New York: Helix Press, 1964.

The Macrocosm The whole universe—from the Greek words macros (long) and kosmos (the world)—symbolized by a six-pointed star, formed of two triangles. This is the sacred symbol of Solomon’s seal. It represents the infinite and the absolute—that is, the most simple and complete abridgment of the science of all things. Paracelsus stated that all magical figures may be reduced to two: the macrocosm and the microcosm (world in miniature). (See also magical diagrams) 953


Macro-PK Term used to denote the effects of psychokinesis (paranormal movements) that, like table turning, are large enough to be observed by the naked eye. In contrast, Micro-PK refers to psychokinetic effects so minute that they require statistical analysis or special methods to detect.

The Macroprosopus Representing one of the four magical elements in the Kabala and probably representing one of the four simple elements—air, water, earth, or fire. Macroprosopus means ‘‘creator of the great world.’’

Macumba African-derived Brazilian religions that have spirit possession as a central feature.

Madonna Ministry The Madonna Ministry is a New Thought metaphysical ministry founded by Bishop Arnold Michael, formerly a minister with the United Church of Religious Science. As a young man, in 1947 he had written a book, Blessed Among Women, on the life of the Virgin Mary published in 1948. The writing of the book became a life-altering event and Michael left his job managing a restaurant and studied for the Religious Science ministry. He served Religious Science churches for the next 35 years. In 1980, he returned to his consideration of the Virgin Mary and began writing a series of newsletters under the title Madonna Ministry that explored Mary’s role as a consciousness of unconditioned love who represents the feminine-mothering aspect of God. In the mid-1980s he retired from the Religious Science ministry and accepted consecration as a bishop by Archbishop Warren Watters of the Independent Church of Antioch, a church that combines a Gnostic theosophical approach to Christianity with an apostolic lineage through the non- Chalcedonian churches in the Middle East. Michael founded the Church of the Talking Pines before he died in 1987. Two years later he was succeeded by Bishop Charles Sommers, who had also been consecrated by Archbishop Watters. In 1990, the Church of the Talking Pines changed its name to Madonna Ministry. The church continues a major focus on spiritual healing, as does Religious Science, but includes a wide diversity of healers who represent the broad spectrum of holistic health practices. The healing emphasis led it into a relationship with the World Federation of Healing and the Creative Health Network as cosponsors of the annual international Healing Summit. The first summit was held in 1997 in Monterey, California; subsequent summits included meetings at Glastonbury (1999) and Australia (2000). The Madonna Ministry is headquartered at 237 W. Ave. Alessandro, San Clemente, CA 92672-4334. It maintains two Internet sites, http://www.madonnaministry.org/, and http:// www.paradigm-sys.com/madionnanews/. Sources: Madonna Ministry. http://www.madonnaministry.org/. April 4, 2000.

Madre Natura An old and powerful secret society of Italy whose members worshiped and idealized nature. It seems to have been founded by members of the ancient Italian priesthood. It had a tradition that one of the popes became a member of the fraternity, and there appears to be some documentary evidence for this claim. 954

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. The society accepted the allegorical interpretation that the Neoplatonists placed upon the pagan creeds during the first ages of Christianity.

Maeterlinck, Maurice (1862–1949) Famous Belgian writer and poet and winner of the Nobel Prize in literature in 1911. He was born in Ghent, Belgium, on August 29, 1862, and educated at the Collège Sainte-Barbe and the University of Ghent. For a time he lived in Paris, where he became associated with the symbolist school of French poetry. His first publication was Serres Chaudes, a volume of poems, in 1889. His play La Princesse Maleine, which appeared the following year, was praised by novelist Octave Mirbeau. Although Maeterlinck had already qualified for the legal profession, he decided to follow a literary life. From the very beginning of his great literary career, he was attracted by the problems of the inner life. His early plays were dominated by the grim specter of death as the destroyer of life. In his later works, his interest in psychic phenomena developed, and the fearful mystery gave place to wondrous fascination. The Unknown Guest, Our Eternity and The Wrack of the Storm disclosed a familiarity with all the prevailing ideas on the paranormal, and he showed no doubt whatever as to the genuineness of phenomena. He wrote: ‘‘The question of fraud and imposture are naturally the first that suggest themselves when we begin the study of these phenomena. But the slightest acquaintance with the life, habits and proceedings of the three or four leading mediums is enough to remove even the faintest shadow of suspicion. Of all the explanations conceivable, the one which attributes everything to imposture and trickery is unquestionably the most extraordinary and the least probable. . . . From the moment that one enters upon this study, all suspicions are dispelled without leaving a trace behind them; and we are soon convinced that the key to the riddle is not to be found in imposture. . . . Less than fifty years ago most of the hypnotic phenomena which are now scientifically classified were likewise looked upon as fraudulent. It seems that man is loathe to admit that there lie within him many more things than he imagined.’’ Maeterlinck considered survival proved but was uncertain as to the possibility of communication with the dead. Between the telepathic and spirit hypotheses, he could not make a choice in favor of the latter. He admitted that: ‘‘the survival of the spirit is no more improbable than the prodigious faculties which we are obliged to attribute to the medium if we deny them to the dead; but the existence of the medium, contrary to that of the spirit, is unquestionable, and therefore it is for the spirit, or for those who make use of its name, first to prove that it exists.’’ He added that in his view there were five imaginable solutions of the great problem: the religious solution, annihilation, survival with our consciousness of today, survival without any sort of consciousness, and survival with a modified consciousness. The religious solution he ruled out definitely, because it occupied ‘‘a citadel without doors or windows into which human reason does not penetrate.’’ Annihilation he considered unthinkable and impossible: ‘‘We are the prisoners of an infinity without outlet, wherein nothing perishes, wherein everything is dispersed but nothing lost.’’ Survival without consciousness of today is inconceivable, as the change of death and the casting aside of the body must bring about an enlarged understanding and an expansion of the intellectual horizon. Survival without any consciousness amounted to the same thing as annihilation. The only solution that appealed to him was survival with a modified consciousness. He argued that since we have been able to acquire our present consciousness, why should it be impossible for us to acquire another in which our present consciousness is a mere speck, a negligible quantity: ‘‘Let us accus-

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. tom ourselves to regard death as a form of life which we do not as yet understand; let us learn to look upon it with the same eye that looks upon birth; and soon our minds will be accompanied to the steps of the tomb with the same glad expectation that greets a birth.’’ Maeterlinck died May 6, 1949. Sources: Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House, 1991. Ebon, Martin. They Knew the Unknown. New York: New American Library, 1971. Maeterlinck, Maurice. The Great Secret. New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1969. ———. The Unknown Guest. New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1975.

‘‘Mafu’’ ‘‘Mafu,’’ the entity said to speak through channel Penny Torres, emerged in the mid-1980s during the growing popularity of ‘‘Ramtha,’’ the entity said to speak through J. Z. Knight. In the process of developing as a channel, Torres had visited Knight, and as ‘‘Mafu’’ emerged, many people noted the similarity between his speech characteristics and gestures and those of ‘‘Ramtha.’’ Mafu described himself as a 32,000-year-old being who had incarnated on earth 17 different times. He began to manifest through Torres in 1986. Torres’s attention had been occupied by some poltergeist activity, in which objects spontaneously flew around the room. She was then told by another channel, Pam Davis, that a master named Mafu wished to speak through her. The very next day ‘‘Mafu’’ first spoke to Torres and instructed her how to use a crystal to heal her son, who was sick with pneumonia. Later that year, in Davis’s home, Torres began to channel, though it was not ‘‘Mafu’’ who spoke. Then a month later ‘‘Mafu’’ again spoke through Torres and began to train her as a trance channel. She gave her first public channeling sessions in Santa Barbara, California, and within a short time was regularly conducting channeling sessions in Los Angeles and Santa Barbara. As her popularity grew, she organized Mafu Seminars and began to give weekend programs around the country. In 1988 ‘‘Mafu’’ launched a more advanced study opportunity for people serious about his teachings, developing a course called ‘‘Advanced Realization Training Beyond the Human Potential.’’ The course introduced people to a macrobiotic diet, meditation, and other advanced teachings. The direction of the movement around ‘‘Mafu’’ took a new turn in 1989 when Torres visited India and had an intense religious experience. She took the vows of a renounced life (as a sanyassi) and accepted the mission as the ‘‘ordained leader of spirituality’’ for the present age. She also received her new name, Swami Paramananda Saraswati. Torres returned to the United States and established the Foundation for the Realization of Inner Divinity to supersede Mafu Seminars. The subsidiary, the Center for God Realization, now disseminates ‘‘Mafu’s’’ teaching materials (tapes and books). The foundation is headquartered at a campground near Ashland, Oregon, which serves as a retreat center. Mafu’s continued teachings, most of which are disseminated in cassette tapes, are seen as forming a distinct path to realization. The foundation may be contacted at P.O. Box 458, White City, OR 97524. Sources: ‘‘Interview: Penny Torres on Mafu.’’ Life Times 1, no. 2 (winter 1986–87): 74–79. L’Ecuyer, Michele. ‘‘Mafu.’’ Life Times 1, no. 2 (winter 1986–87): 80–82.

Magi Torres, Penny [Mafu]. And What Be God? Vacaville, Calif.: Mafu Seminars, 1989. ———. Reflections on Yeshua Ben Joseph. Vacaville, Calif.: Mafu Seminars, 1989.

Magi Priests of ancient Persia and cultivators of the wisdom of Zoroaster (or Zarathustra) (possibly 1500 B.C.E.). They were instituted by Cyrus when he founded the new Persian empire and are supposed to have been of the Median race. The German scholar K. W. F. von Schlegel stated in his Lectures on the Philosophy of History (2 vols., 1829): ‘‘They were not so much a hereditary sacerdotal caste as an order or association, divided into various and successive ranks and grades, such as existed in the mysteries—the grade of apprenticeship—that of mastership—that of perfect mastership.’’ In short, they were a theosophical college; and either its professors were indifferently ‘‘magi,’’ or magicians, and ‘‘wise men’’ or they were distinguished into two classes by those names. Their name, pronounced ‘‘Mogh’’ by later Persians, and ‘‘Magh’’ by the ancients, signified ‘‘wise,’’ which was the interpretation of it given by the Greek and Roman writers. Stobaeus expressly called the science of the magi, the ‘‘service of the gods,’’ as did Plato. According to Joseph Ennemoser in his book The History of Magic (1847), ‘‘Magiusiah, Madschusie’’ signified the office and knowledge of the priest, who was called ‘‘Mag, Magius, Magiusi,’’ and afterward magi and ‘‘Magician.’’ The philosopher J. J. Brucker maintained that the primitive meaning of the word was ‘‘fire worshiper’’ and ‘‘worship of the light,’’ an erroneous opinion. In modern Persian, the word is ‘‘Mog’’; ‘‘Mogbed’’ signifies high priest. The high priest of the Parsees at Surat was called ‘‘Mobed.’’ Others derive the word from ‘‘Megh,’’ ‘‘Meh-ab’’ signifying something that is great and noble; Zoroaster’s disciples were called ‘‘Meghestom.’’ Eusèbe Salverte, author of Des sciences occulte (1829), stated that these Mobeds were named in the Pehivi dialect ‘‘Magoi.’’ They were divided into three classes: those who abstained from all animal food; those who never ate of the flesh of any tame animals; and those who made no scruple to eat any kind of meat. A belief in the transmigration of the soul was the foundation of this abstinence. They professed the science of divination and for that purpose met together and consulted in their temples. They professed to make truth the great object of their study, for that alone, they said, can make man like God ‘‘whose body resembles light, as his soul or spirit resembles truth.’’ They condemned all images and those who said that the gods were male and female; they had neither temples nor altars, but worshiped the sky, as a representative of the deity, on the tops of mountains; they also sacrificed to the sun, moon, earth, fire, water, and winds, said Herodotus, meaning no doubt that they adored the heavenly bodies and the elements. This was probably before the time of Zoroaster, when the religion of Persia seems to have resembled that of ancient India. Their hymns in praise of the Most High exceeded (according to Dio Chrysostom) the sublimity of anything in Homer or Hesiod. They exposed their dead bodies to wild beasts. Schlegel maintained that it was an open question ‘‘whether the old Persian doctrine and wisdom or tradition of light did not undergo material alterations in the hand of its Median restorer, Zoroaster, or whether this doctrine was preserved in all its purity by the order of the magi.’’ He then remarked that on them devolved the important trust of the monarch’s education, which must necessarily have given them great weight and influence in the state. They were in high credit at the ‘‘Persian gates’’ (the Oriental name given to the capital of the empire, and the abode of the prince) and they took the most active part in all the factions that encompassed the throne, or that were formed in the vicinity of the court. 955

‘‘Magia Posthuma’’ (of C. F. de Schertz) In Greece, and even in Egypt, the sacerdotal fraternities and associations of the initiated, formed by the mysteries, had in general an indirect, although not unimportant, influence on affairs of state, but in the Persian monarchy they acquired a complete political ascendency. Religion, philosophy, and the sciences were all in their hands. They were the universal physicians who healed the sick in body and in spirit, and, in strict consistency with that character, ministered to the state, which is only the individual in a larger sense. The three grades of the magi alluded to were called the ‘‘disciples,’’ the ‘‘professed,’’ and the ‘‘masters.’’ They were originally from Bactria, where they governed a little state by laws of their own choice, and by their incorporation in the Persian empire, they greatly promoted the consolidation of the conquests of Cyrus. Their decline dates from the reign of Darius Hystaspes, about 500 B.C.E., by whom they were fiercely persecuted. This produced an emigration that extended from Cappadocia to India, but they were still of so much consideration at a later period as to provoke the jealousy of Alexander the Great.

‘‘Magia Posthuma’’ (of C. F. de Schertz) A short treatise on the vampire published at Olmutz (now in the Czech Republic) in 1706 and written by Charles Ferdinand de Schertz. Reviewing it, Dom Antoine Augustin Calmet stated in his Dissertation sur les apparitions, des anges . . . et sur les revenaus et vampires (1746; trans. The Phantom World, 2. vols., 1850) that the author related a story of a woman that died in a certain village, after having received all the sacraments, and was buried with the usual ceremonies in the churchyard. About four days after her death and for several months, the inhabitants of the village were frightened by unusual noises and many saw a specter, sometimes shaped like a dog and sometimes like a man, who tried to choke or suffocate them. Several were bruised all over and utterly weak, pale, lean, and disfigured. The specter took his fury out even on the beasts: cows were frequently found beaten to the earth, half dead, at other times with their tails tied to one another, lowing hideously. Horses were found foaming with sweat and out of breath, as if they had been running a long and tiresome race. Schertz examined the subject in the capacity of a lawyer and was clearly of the opinion that if the suspected person were really the source of these noises, disturbances, and acts of cruelty, the law would justify the burning of the body, as is practiced in the case of other specters that come again and molest the living. He related several stories of apparitions of this sort and the mischief done by them. One was of a herdsman of the village of Blow near the town of Kadam in Bohemia, who appeared for a considerable time and called upon several persons, who all died within eight days. The inhabitants of Blow dug up the herdsman’s body and fixed it in the ground with a stake driven through it. The man, even in this condition, laughed at the people that were employed about him, and told them they were very obliging to furnish him with a stick to defend himself from the dogs. The same night, he extricated himself from the stake, frightened several persons by appearing to them, and occasioned the death of many more than he had hitherto done. He was then delivered into the hands of the hangman, who put him into a cart in order to burn him outside the town. As they went along, the carcass shrieked in the most hideous manner and threw its arms and legs about as if it had been alive. Upon being again run through with a stake, it gave a loud cry, and a great quantity of fresh, florid blood issued from the wound. At last the body was burnt to ashes, and this execution put a final stop to the specter’s appearing and infesting the village. The same method was practiced in other places where these apparitions were seen, and upon taking them out of the ground, their bodies seemed fresh and florid, their limbs pliant 956

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. and flexible, without any worms or putrefaction, but not without a great stench. The author quoted several other writers, who attested to what he related concerning these specters, which, he stated, still appeared in the mountains of Silesia and Moravia. They were seen, it seems, both by day and night, and the things that formerly belonged to them were observed to stir and change their place without any person being seen to touch them. And the only remedy in these cases, he claimed, was to cut off the head and burn the body of the persons supposed to appear. Sources: Calmet, Augustine. The Phantom World. 2 vols. London: Richard Bentley, 1850.

Magic General term for ‘‘magic art,’’ believed to derive from the Greek magein, the science and religion of the priests of Zoroaster (see Magi), or, according to philologist Skeat, from Greek megas (great), thus signifying ‘‘the great science.’’ It commonly refers to the ability to cause change to occur by supernatural or mysterious powers and abilities. In the twentieth century, magic has been more stringently defined as the ability to create change by an act of the will and the use of the cosmic power believed to underpin physical existence. Contemporary magicians also distinguish between high magic and low magic. The latter refers to using magic to make changes in the mundane world, from concocting love potions to drawing money to oneself. The former refers to disciplined change of the self, and practitioners of high magic compare it to yoga.

Early History Until a few centuries ago, most people lived in what they considered a magical universe, and evidence of the practice of magic is found as far back as human prehistory. Among the earliest traces of magic practice are paintings found in the European caves of the middle Paleolithic period. These belong to the last interglacial period of the Pleistocene epoch, named the Aurignacian after the cave dwellers of Aurignac (southern France), whose skeletons, artifacts, and drawings link them with the Bushmen of South Africa. In the cave of Gargas, near Bagnères de Luchon, there are, in addition to spirited and realistic drawings of animals, numerous imprints of human hands in various stages of mutilation. Some hands were apparently first smeared with a sticky substance and then pressed onto the rock; others were held in position to be dusted around with red ocher or black pigment. Most of the imprinted hands have mutilated fingers; in some cases the first and second joints of one or more fingers are missing; in others only the stumps of all fingers remain. A close study of the hand imprints shows that they are not those of lepers. There can be little doubt that the joints were removed for a specific purpose; on this point there is general agreement among anthropologists. A clue to the mystery is provided by a similar custom among the Bushmen. G. W. Stow, in his book The Native Races of South Africa (1905), refers to this strange form of sacrifice. He once came into contact with a number of Bushmen who ‘‘had all lost the first joint of the little finger,’’ which had been removed with a ‘‘stone knife’’ for the purpose of ensuring a safe journey to the spirit world. Another writer told of an old Bushman woman whose little fingers of both hands had been mutilated, three joints in all having been removed. She explained that each joint had been sacrificed to express her sorrow as each one of three daughters died. In his Report on the Northwestern Tribes of the Dominion of Canada (1889), Franz Boas gives evidence of the custom among these peoples. When many deaths resulted from disease, the Canadian Indians sacrificed the joints of their little fingers in order to (they explained) ‘‘cut off the deaths.’’

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. Among the Indian Madigas (Telugu pariahs), the evil eye was averted by sacrificers who dipped their hands in the blood of goats or sheep and impressed them on either side of a house door. This custom was also known to the Brahmans of India. Impressions of hands were also occasionally seen on the walls of Muslim mosques in India. As among the northwest Canadian tribes, the hand ceremony was most frequently practiced in India when epidemics took a heavy toll of lives. The Bushmen also removed finger joints when stricken with sickness. In Australia, where during initiation ceremonies the young Aborigine men had teeth knocked out and bodies scarred, the women of some tribes mutilated the little fingers of daughters in order to influence their future lives. Apparently the finger-chopping customs of Paleolithic times had a magical significance. On some of the paintings in the Aurignacian caves appear symbols that suggest the slaying and butchering of animals. Other symbols are enigmatic. Of special interest are the figures of animal-headed demons, some with hands upraised in the Egyptian posture of adoration; others posed like the animal-headed dancing gods of the Bushmen. In the Marsonlas Paleolithic cave, there are humanlike faces of angry demons with staring eyes and monstrous noses. In the Spanish Cave at Cogul, several figures of women wearing halflength skirts and shoulder shawls are represented dancing around a nude male. These females so closely resemble those of Bushman paintings that they might, if not for their location, be credited to this interesting people. Religious dances among the Bushman tribes were associated with marriage, birth, and burial ceremonies; they were also performed to exorcise demons in cases of sickness. ‘‘Dances are to us what prayers are to you,’’ an elderly Bushman once informed a European. Whether the cave drawings and wood, bone, and ivory carvings of the Magdalenian or late Paleolithic period at the close of the last ice age are related to magic is a question on which there is no general agreement. It is significant, however, that several carved ornaments bearing animal figures or enigmatic symbols are perforated as if worn as charms. On a piece of horn found at Lorthet, Hautes-Pyrénées, are beautiful, incised drawings of reindeer and salmon, above which appear mystical symbols. An ape-like demon carved on bone was found at Mas d’Azil. Etched on a reindeer horn from Laugerie Basse is a prostrate man with a tail, creeping on all fours toward a grazing bison. These artifacts strengthen the theory that late Paleolithic art had its origin in magic beliefs and practices—that hunters carved on the handles of weapons and implements, or scratched on cave walls, the images of the animals they desired to capture—sometimes with the secured cooperation of demons and sometimes with the aid of magic spells. A highly developed magic system existed in ancient Egypt, as in Babylonian (see Semites) and other early cultures. From these cultures the medieval European system of magic is believed to have evolved. Greece and Rome also possessed distinct magic systems that were integrated into their religious practice and thus, like the Egyptian and Babylonian rituals, were preserves of the priesthood. Magic in early Europe was integral to the various religious systems that prevailed throughout that continent and survived into the Middle Ages as witchcraft. Christians regarded the practice of magic, at least the popular forms practiced in the Pagan culture competing with their religion, as foreign to the spirit of their faith. Thus the Thirty-Sixth Canon of the Ecumenical Council held at Laodicea in 364 C.E. forbade clerks and priests to become magicians, enchanters, mathematicians, or astrologers. It ordered, moreover, that the church should expel those who employed ligatures or phylacteries, because, it said, phylacteries were the prisons of the soul. The Fourth Canon of the Council of Oxia in 525 C.E. prohibited the consultation of sorcerers, augurs, and diviners, and condemned divinations made with wood or bread, while the Sixteenth Canon of the

Magic Council of Constantinople in 692 C.E. excommunicated for a period of six years diviners and those who had recourse to them. The prohibition was repeated by the Council of Rome in 721. The Forty-Second Canon of the Council of Tours in 613 said priests should teach people the inefficacy of magic to restore the health of men or animals, and later councils endorsed the church’s earlier views.

Medieval Magic It does not appear that what may be called ‘‘medieval magic’’ took final and definite shape until about the twelfth century. Modeled after the systems in vogue among the Byzantines and Moors of Spain, which evolved from the Alexandrian system (see Neoplatonism), what might be called ‘‘Oriental’’ magic gained footing in Europe and superseded the earlier magic based on paganistic practice and ritual. There is evidence that Eastern magic was imported into Europe by persons returning from the Crusades, and magic was disseminated from Constantinople throughout Europe, along with other sciences. Witches and wizards and professors of lesser magic clung to paganism, whereas among the disciples of Oriental magic were the magicians, necromancers (fortune-tellers), and sorcerers (practitioners of malevolent magic). The tenets of the higher branches of magic changed little from the eighth to the thirteenth century. There also appears to have been little persecution of the professors of magic. After that period, however, the opinions of the church underwent a radical change, and the life of the magus was fraught with considerable danger. Paracelsus, for instance, was not victimized in the same manner as the sorcerers and wizards, but he was consistently baited by the medical profession of his day. Agrippa was also continually persecuted, and even mystics like Jakob Boehme were imprisoned and mistreated. (Magicians were subject to persecution both for possible acts of sorcery and for allegiance to a heretical religious system.) It is difficult to estimate the enormous popularity that magic experienced, whether for good or evil, during the Middle Ages. Although severely punished if discovered—or if its professors became notorious enough to court persecution—the power it seems to have conferred upon the practitioner was coveted by scores of people. Two great names in the history of European magic are those of Paracelsus and Agrippa, who outlined the science of medieval magic. They were also the greatest practical magicians of the Middle Ages—apart from pure mystics, alchemists, and others—and their thaumaturgic and necromantic experiences were probably never surpassed.

Theories Regarding the Nature of Magic According to Sir James George Frazer, author of The Golden Bough (1890), magic and religion are one and the same thing, or at least are so closely allied as to be almost identical. Frazer’s anthropologist successors in the early twentieth century, most notably Malinowski and Marcel Mauss, regarded magic as entirely distinct from religion. Magic possessed certain well-marked attributes that could be traced to mental processes differing from those from which the religious idea springs, they said. The two had become fused by the superimposition of religious rites upon magic practice. It has also been said that religion consists of an appeal to the gods, whereas magic is the attempt to force their compliance. Henri Hubert and Marcel Mauss, in Greatness and Decline of the Celts (1934), argue that magic is essentially traditional. Holding that the primitive mind is markedly unoriginal, they explain magic as an art that did not exhibit frequent changes among primitive peoples, and was fixed by its own laws. Religion, they claim, was official and organized; magic, prohibited and secret. Frazer believed all magic was based on the law of sympathy—the assumption that things act on one another at a distance because of their being secretly linked by invisible bonds. 957


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He divided sympathetic magic into homeopathic magic and contagious magic. The first is imitative or mimetic and may be practiced by itself, but the second usually necessitates the application of the imitative principle. Well-known instances of mimetic magic are the forming of wax figures in the likeness of an enemy, which are then destroyed in the hope that he will perish. This belief persisted in European witchcraft into relatively modern times. Contagious magic can be seen in the primitive warrior’s anointing the weapon that caused a wound instead of the wound itself, believing that the blood on the weapon continues to feel part of the blood on the body. (See also Powder of Sympathy) L. Marillier divided magic into three classes: the magic of the word or act; the magic of the human being independent of rite or formula; and the magic that demands a person of special powers and the use of ritual. A. Lehmann believed magic to be a practice of superstition, founded in illusion.

The Magic Force Many peoples have spoken of the operation of a magic cosmic force—something that impinged upon the thought of man from outside. Many tribal cultures postulated the existence of a great reservoir of magic power, the exact nature of which they were not prepared to specify. Certain American Indian tribes believed in a force called orenda, or spirit force. Among the ancient Peruvians everything sacred was huaca and possessed magic power. In Melanesia a force called mana, transmissible and contagious, could be seen in the form of flames or could even be heard. The Malays used the word kramat to signify the same thing, and the Malagasy used the term hasma. Some tribes around Lake Tanganyika believed in such a force, which they called ngai, and Australian tribes had similar terms, such as churinga and boolya. In Mexico there was a strange creed named nagualism that held the same concept—everything nagual was magic or possessed an inherent spiritual force of its own.

The Dynamics of Magic Earlier practitioners of magic believed that it is governed by a few well-defined laws. Chief among these is that of sympathy, which can be subdivided into the laws of similarity, antipathy, and contiguity. The law of similarity and homeopathy is divisible into two tenets: (1) the assumption that like produces like—an illustration of which is the destruction of a doll in the form of an enemy; and (2) the idea that like cures like—for instance, that the stone called bloodstone can staunch the flow of blood. The law dealing with antipathy rests on the assumption that the application of a certain object or drug expels its contrary. The idea of contiguity assumes that whatever has once formed part of an object continues to form part of it. Thus, if a magician can obtain a portion of a person’s hair, he can work harm upon that person through the invisible bonds that are believed to extend between the individual and the hair in the magician’s possession. It was commonly believed that if the animal familiar of a witch is wounded, the wound will manifest on the witch herself (see werewolf). This is called ‘‘repercussion.’’ It was also widely assumed that if the magician procures the name of a person he can gain dominion over that person. This arose from the idea that the name of an individual is the same as the person himself. The doctrine of the ‘‘incommunicable name,’’ the hidden name of the god or magician, has many examples in Egyptian legend, usually the deity taking extraordinary care to keep his name secret so that no one might gain power over him. The spell or incantation is connected with this concept. Associated with these, to a lesser degree, is magic gesture, usually introduced for the purpose of accentuating the spoken word. Gesture is often symbolic or sympathetic; it is sometimes the reversal of a religious rite, such as marching against the sun, which is known as walking ‘‘widdershins.’’ The method of 958

pronouncing rites is also of great importance. Archaic or foreign expressions are usually found in spells both ancient and modern, and the tone in which the incantation is spoken is no less important than its exactness. Rhythm is often employed to aid memory. (See also Mantra)

The Magician In early society the magic practitioner, a term that includes the shaman, medicine man, piagé, and witch doctor, held his or her position by hereditary right; by an accident of birth, like being the seventh son of a seventh son; through revelation from the gods; or through his mastery of ritual. The shaman operated like a medium, for instead of summoning the powers of the air at his bidding, as did the magicians of medieval days, he found it necessary to throw himself into a trance and seek them in their own sphere. (The magician is also often regarded as possessed by an animal or supernatural being.) The duties of the priest and magician were often combined in tribal society. When one religion was superseded, however, the priests of the old cult were considered, in the eyes of the leaders and believers of the new, nothing but evil or misguided magicians.

Medieval Definition of Magic The definitions of magic given by the great magicians of medieval and modern times naturally differ greatly from those of anthropologists. For example, nineteenth-century magician Éliphas Lévi states in his History of Magic (1913): ‘‘Magic, therefore, combines in a single science that which is most certain in philosophy which is eternal and infallible in religion. It reconciles perfectly and incontestably those two terms so opposed on the first view—faith and reason, science and belief, authority and liberty. It furnishes the human mind with an instrument of philosophical and religious certainty were as exact as mathematics, and even accounting for the infallibility of mathematics themselves. . . . There is an incontestable truth; there is an infallible method of knowing that truth; while those who attain this knowledge and adopt it as a rule of life, can endow their life with a sovereign power which can make them masters of all inferior things, all wandering spirits, or, in other words, arbiters and kings of the world.’’ Paracelsus, writing in the sixteenth century, stated: ‘‘The magical is a great hidden wisdom, and reason is a great open folly. No armour shields against magic for it strikes at the inward spirit of life. Of this we may rest assured, that through full and powerful imagination only can we bring the spirit of any man into an image. No conjuration, no rites are needful; circle-making and the scattering of incense are mere humbug and jugglery. The human spirit is so great a thing that no man can express it; eternal and unchangeable as God Himself is the mind of man; and could we rightly comprehend the mind of man, nothing would be impossible to us upon the earth. Through faith the imagination is invigorated and completed, for it really happens that every doubt mars its perfection. Faith must strengthen imagination, for faith establishes the will. Because man did not perfectly believe and imagine, the result is that arts are uncertain when they might be wholly certain.’’ Agrippa also regarded magic as the true road to communion with God, thus linking it with mysticism.

Later Magic With the death of Agrippa in 1535, the old school of magicians ended. But the traditions of magic were handed down to others who were equally capable of preserving them, or were later revived by persons interested in the art. There was a great distinction between those practitioners of magic whose minds were illuminated by a high mystical ideal and those persons of doubtful occult position, like the Comte de Saint Germain and others.

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. At the beginning of the seventeenth century there were many great alchemists in practice who were also devoted to research on transcendental magic, which they carefully and successfully concealed under the veil of hermetic investigation. These included Michael Maier, Robert Fludd, Cosmopolite, Jean D’Espagnet, Samuel Norton (see Thomas Norton), Baron de Beausoleil, J. Van Helmont, and Eirenaeus Philalethes (see also alchemy). The eighteenth century was rich in occult personalities, for example, the alchemists Lascaris Martines de Pasqually and Louis Claude de Saint-Martin, who founded the Martinist school, which was continued by ‘‘Papus’’ (Gérard Encausse). By the end of the eighteenth century, magic practice had reached its lowest ebb as emphasis on the exploration of causative agents centered on the physical world and supernatural explanations were pushed aside. It was not until the nineteenth century that a spreading mesmerist philosophy offered philosophical underpinnings for a scientific worldview. Magic merged for the moment with mesmerism, and many of the secret magic societies that abounded in Europe about this period practiced animal magnetism experiments as well as astrology, Kabbalism, and ceremonial magic. Mesmerism powerfully influenced mystic life in the time of its chief advocates, and the mesmerists of the first era were in direct line with the Martinists and the mystical magicians of the late eighteenth century. Indeed mysticism and magnetism were one and the same thing to some of these occultists (see Secret Tradition), the most celebrated of which were Cazotte, Ganneau, Comte, Wronski, Baron Du Potet de Sennevoy, Hennequin, Comte d’Ourches, Baron de Guldenstubbé, and Éliphas Lévi.

Modern Revivals of Magic During the 1890s there was a revival of interest in ritual magic in Europe among both intellectuals and traditional occultists. This ‘‘occult underground’’ permeated much of the intellectual life and progressive movements in Europe, in contrast to the more popular preoccupation with Spiritualism and table turning. Symbolic of this magic revival was the founding of the famous Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, which numbered among its members such individuals as Annie Horniman (sponsor of the Abbey Theatre, Dublin), Florence Farr (mistress of George Bernard Shaw), S. L. MacGregor Mathers, William Butler Yeats, Arthur Machen, and Arthur Edward Waite. Another famous member was the magician Aleister Crowley, who left the order to found his own organization, A∴A∴, and then become head of the German-based Ordo Templi Orientis. Crowley’s more psychologically sophisticated presentation of magic came to dominate twentieth-century thought on magic, even among those who rejected various portions of it, such as its emphasis on sex, mind-altering drugs, and egocentricity. A more sinister aspect of magic was the current of occult thought that flowed into and undergirded Adolf Hitler and Nazism. During the 1930s there was an outbreak of public interest in the occult in Britain and Europe, and a number of significant books on magic were published. Their influence was limited only by the relatively smaller influence of mass media at that time and by the conservatism of intellectual life. Exceptional individuals like Aleister Crowley flourished in the 1920s and 1930s, but were deplored by polite society, which regarded such occultists as scandalous misfits. A second wave of popular occultism flared up in the 1950s in Britain and North America, fueled largely by reprints of key books published during the 1930s. This modern interest in magic, however, had little in common with the outlook and ideals of medieval magicians and followers of the hermetic art. It stemmed largely from the trendiness of postwar affluence and the desire for sensationalist indulgence. The occult explosion led in the 1960s to Satanism and black magic cults. Much

Magic of modern occultism has been influenced by the use of mindaltering drugs. During this modern period, one long-kept secret of occultism became generally discussed—that of the importance of sexual energy in dynamizing the processes of magic. Although this factor was well known to some occultists in Persia, China, and India, it was rediscovered in the early twentieth century and increasingly and openly discussed in the writings of Aleister Crowley and his disciples. Throughout this century practitioners of magic have made some extraordinary claims about achieving desired ends. There are still two opinions among occultists as to how such feats are achieved. One is that desired effects in the physical world are produced through the operator’s willpower, assisted by various ritual practices. The other opinion, still held by a minority, is that desired effects are achieved by means of spirit entities evoked during rituals. (Among skeptics there are various mundane explanations for the seemingly positive results of magic activity.)

Conjuring Tricks and Stage Magic Today the term magic normally denotes the performance of conjuring, legerdemain, or illusion, although the term conjuring was originally used to indicate the evocation of spirits. Conjuring tricks have been used by priests for thousands of years to create the illusion of miracles. The astonishing and skillful illusions of modern stage magicians show that special caution is necessary in evaluating many apparently paranormal feats of magic, and stage magicians have also performed a valuable service in exposing fraudulent ‘‘psychic’’ feats. Because of their history of exposing fraud and their knowledge of the many techniques for creating illusions, stage magicians tend to be skeptical of all claimed paranormal feats. Sources: Agrippa, Henry Cornelius. The Philosophy of Natural Magic. London, 1651. Reprint, New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1974. Barrett, Francis. The Magus: A Complete System of Occult Philosophy. London, 1801. Reprint, New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1967. Bonewits, Philip E. I. Real Magic. New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1971. Reprint, New York: Berkeley, 1971. Christian, Paul. The History and Practice of Magic. 2 vols. London: Forge Press, 1952. Christopher, Milbourne. The Illustrated History of Magic. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1973. Reprint, London: Robert Hale, 1975. ———. Panorama of Magic. New York: Dover, 1962. Crow, W. B. A History of Magic, Witchcraft & Occultism. London: Aquarian Press, 1968. Reprint, London: Abacus, 1972. [Crowley, Aleister] The Master Therion. Magick in Theory and Practice. Paris, 1929. Reprint, New York: Castle Books, n.d. Rev. ed. Magick. Edited by John Symonds and Kenneth Grant. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973. Reprint, New York: Samuel Weiser, 1974. Ennemoser, Joseph. The History of Magic. 2 vols. London, 1854. Reprint, New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1970. Freedland, Nat. The Occult Explosion. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1972. Reprint, London: Michael Joseph, 1972. King, Francis. Ritual Magic in England (1887 to the Present Day). London: Neville Spearman, 1970. Reprint, New York: Macmillan, 1971. ———. Sexuality, Magic & Perversion. London: Neville Spearman, 1971. Reprint, New York: Citadel Press, 1972. Lévi, Éliphas. The History of Magic. London: Rider, 1913. Reprint, New York: David McKay, 1914. ———. The Mysteries of Magic: A Digest of Éliphas Lévi. Edited by A. E. Waite. London, 1886. Reprint, New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1974. 959

Magical Blend Magazine ———. Transcendental Magic. London, 1896. Rev. ed. London: Rider, 1923. Melton, J. Gordon, and Isotta Poggi. Magic, Witchcraft, and Paganism in America: A Bibliography. New York: Garland, 1992. O’Keefe, Daniel Lawrence. Stolen Lightning: The Social Theory of Magic. New York: Continuum, 1982. Seligmann, Kurt. The History of Magic. New York: Pantheon Books, 1948. Reprinted as Magic, Supernaturalism, and Religion. 1971. Shah, Sayed Idries. Oriental Magic. London: Rider, 1956. ———. The Secret Lore of Magic: The Books of the Sorcerers. London: Frederick Muller, 1957. Summers, Montague. Witchcraft and Black Magic. London: Rider, 1946. Reprint, New York: Causeway, 1974. Thomas, Keith. Religion and the Decline of Magic. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1971. Thompson, C. J. S. The Mysteries and Secrets of Magic. London, 1927. Reprint, New York: Causeway, 1973. Waite, Arthur Edward. The Book of Ceremonial Magic. London, 1911. Reprint, New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1961. Webb, James. The Flight from Reason. London: Macdonald, 1971. Reprinted as The Occult Underground. LaSalle, Ill.: Open Court, 1974. ———. The Occult Establishment. LaSalle, Ill.: Open Court, 1975.

Magical Blend Magazine New Age style publication that embarks ‘‘on a voyage of discovery . . . that will take us out of the past and carry us into the future. . . . It charts a course of magic, and sets sail on an excursion into infinite possibilities.’’ Its contributors have included many New Age authorities. Subjects covered have included trance channeling, occult systems, visionary art, and the possibilities of extraterrestrial communication. Address: Magical Blend, P.O. Box 600, Chico, CA 95927-0600. Website: http:// www.magicalblend.com/. Sources: Magical Blend Magazine. http://www.magicalblend.com/. March 23, 2000.

Magical Diagrams These are geometrical designs representing the mysteries of deity and creation, therefore supposed to be of special virtue in rites of evocation and conjuration. Major diagrams are the Triangle; the Double Triangle, forming a six-pointed star and known as the Sign or Seal of Solomon; the Tetragram, a fourpointed star formed by the interlacement of two pillars; and the Pentagram, a five-pointed star. These signs were traced on paper or parchment or engraved on metals and glass and consecrated to their various uses by special rites. The Triangle evoked a universal trinity found in all things— deity, time, and creation. The triangle was generally traced on the ground with the magic sword or rod, as in circles of evocation where the triangle was drawn within it and, according to the position of the magician at its point or base, so the spirits were ‘‘conjured’’ (summoned up) from heaven or hell. The Double Triangle, or the Sign of Solomon, is symbolic of the macrocosm, and is formed by the interlacement of two triangles: its points thus constitute the perfect number six. Magicians wore it bound on their brows and breasts during ceremonies, and it was engraved on the silver reservoirs of magic lamps. The Tetragram, symbolic of the four elements, was used in the conjuration of the elementary spirits—sylphs of the air, undines of the water, and the fire salamanders and gnomes of the earth. In alchemy it represented the magical elements salt, 960

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. sulphur, mercury, and azoth; in mystic philosophy, the ideas Spirit, Matter, Motion, and Rest; in hieroglyphs, the man, eagle, lion, and bull. The Pentagram, the sign of the microcosm, was held to be the most powerful means of conjuration in any rite. It might represent good as well as evil, for with one point in the ascendant it was the sign of Christ, and with two points in the ascendant it was the sign of Satan. By the use of the pentagram in these positions, the powers of light or darkness were evoked. The pentagram was said to be the star that led the Magi to the manger where the infant Christ was laid. The preparation and consecration of this sign for use in magical rites was prescribed with great detail. It might be composed of seven metals, the ideal form for its expression, or traced in pure gold upon white marble never before used for any purpose. It might also be drawn with vermilion upon lambskin without a blemish prepared under the auspices of the Sun. The sign was next consecrated with the four elements, breathed on five times, dried by the smoke of five perfumes (incense, myrrh, aloes, sulfur, and camphor). The names of five genii were breathed above it, and then the sign was placed successively at the north, south, east, west, and center of the astronomical cross, while the letters of the sacred tetragram and various kabalistic names were prounced over it (See Kabala). It was believed to be of great efficacy in terrifying phantoms if engraved upon glass, and the magicians traced it on their doorsteps to prevent evil spirits from entering and good spirits from departing. This symbol was used by many secret and occult societies, by the Rosicrucians, the Illuminati, down to the Freemasons of modern times. Modern occultists translate the meaning of the pentagram as symbolic of the human soul and its relation to God. The Pentagram is placed with one point in the ascendant. That point represents the Great Spirit, God. A line drawn from there to the left-hand angle at the base is the descent of spirit into matter in its lowest form; where it ascends to the righthand angle, it typifies matter in its highest form: the brain of man. From here, a line is drawn across the figure to left angle, representing man’s development in intellect; while progress in material civilization, the point of danger from which all nations have fallen into moral corruption, is signified by the descent of the line to right angle at the base. The soul of man being derived from God cannot remain at this point but must struggle upward, as is symbolized by the line reaching again to the apex, God, from which it issued. (See also ceremonial magic; magic; magical instruments and accessories; magical vestments and appurtenances) Sources: Barrett, Francis. The Magus: A Complete System of Occult Philosophy. London, 1801. Reprint, New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1967. Thompson, C. J. S. The Mysteries and Secrets of Magic. London, 1927. Reprint, New York: Causeway Books, 1974. Waite, Arthur Edward. The Book of Ceremonial Magic. London: William Rider & Son, 1911. Reprint, New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1961. Woodroffe, Sir John. Sakti and Sakta. Madras, India: Ganesh, 1918.

Magical Numbers Certain numbers and their combinations were traditionally held to be of magical power, by virtue of their representation of divine and creative mysteries. The doctrines of Pythagoras (see Greece) furnished the basis for much of this belief. According to his theory, numbers contained the elements of all things, of the natural and spiritual worlds and of the sciences. The real numerals of the universe were the primaries one to ten, and in their combination the reason of all else might be found.

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. To the Pythagoreans, one represented unity, therefore God; two was duality, the Devil; four was sacred and holy, the number on which they swore their most solemn oaths; five was their symbol of marriage. They also attributed certain numbers to the gods, planets and elements; one represented the Sun, two the Moon; while five was fire, six the Earth, eight the air, and twelve water. (See also magic square) Cornelius Agrippa, in his work Occult Philosophy first published in Latin (1531–33), discourses upon numbers as those characters by whose proportion all things are formed. He enumerates the virtues of numerals as displayed in nature, instancing the herb cinquefoil, which by the power of the number five exorcises devils, reduces fever, and forms an antidote to poisons. He also points to the virtue of seven, as in the power of the seventh son to cure the king’s evil. One was the origin and common measure of all things. It is indivisible, not to be multiplied. In the universe there is one God; one supreme intelligence in the intellectual world, man; in the sidereal world, one Sun; one potent instrument and agency in the elementary world, the philosophers’ stone; one chief member in the human world, the heart; and one sovereign prince in the nether world, Lucifer. Two was the number of marriage, charity, and social communion. It was also regarded sometimes as an unclean number; in the Bible, beasts of the field went into Noah’s Ark by twos. Three had a mysterious value as shown in time’s trinity— past, present and future; in that of space—length, breadth, and thickness; in the three heavenly virtues—faith, hope, and charity; in the three worlds of man—brain (the intellectual), heart (the celestial), and body (elemental). Four signifies solidity and foundation. There are four seasons, four elements, four cardinal points, four evangelists. Five, as it divides ten, the sum of all numbers, is also the number of justice. There are five senses; the stigmata, the wounds of Christ, were five; the name of the Deity, the Pentagram, is composed of five letters; it also is a protection against beasts of prey. Six is the sign of creation, because the world was completed in six days. It is the perfect number, because it alone by addition of its half, its third and its sixth reforms itself. It also represents servitude by reason of the Divine injunction, ‘‘Six days shalt thou labour.’’ Seven is a miraculous number, consisting of one, unity, and six, the sign of perfection. It represents life because it contains body, consisting of four elements, spirit, flesh, bone, and humor (the ancient concept of bodily fluids affecting the mind); and soul, made up of three elements, passion, desire, and reason. The seventh day was that on which God rested from his work of creation. Eight represents justice and fullness. Divided, its halves are equal; twice divided, it is still even. In the Beatitudes, eight is the number of those mentioned—peacemakers, those who strive after righteousness, the meek, the persecuted, the pure, the merciful, the poor in spirit, and those that mourn. Nine is the number of the muses and of the moving spheres. Ten is completeness, because one cannot count beyond it except by combinations formed with other numbers. In the ancient mysteries, ten days of initiation were prescribed. In ten is found evident signs of a divine principle. Eleven is the number of the commandments, while twelve is the number of signs in the Zodiac, of the apostles, of the tribes of Israel, of the gates of Jerusalem. This theory of numbers Agrippa applied to the casting of horoscopes. Divination by numbers was one of the favorite methods employed in the Middle Ages. In magical rites, numbers played a great part. The power of the number three is found in the magic triangle, in the three prongs of the trident and fork, and in the three-fold repetition of names in conjurations. Seven was also of great influence, the seven days of the week each representing the period most suitable for certain evocations, and these corresponding to the

Magical Vestments and Appurtenances seven magical works: (1) works of light and riches; (2) works of divination and mystery; (3) works of skill, science, and eloquence; (4) works of wrath and chastisement; (5) works of love; (6) works of ambition and intrigue; and (7) works of malediction and death. (See also numerology) Sources: Agrippa, Henry Cornelius. The Philosophy of Natural Magic. London, 1651. Reprint, New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1974. Bosman, Leonard. The Meaning and Philosophy of Numbers. London: Rider, 1932. Butler, Christopher. Number Symbolism. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1970. Redgrove, H. Stanley. A Mathematical Theory of Spirit. London: Rider, 1912. Waite, Arthur Edward. The Holy Kabbalah. London: Williams & Norgate, 1929. Reprint, New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1960. Westcott, W. Wynn. Numbers: Their Occult Power and Mystic Virtues. London: Theosophical Publishing Society, 1890.

Magical Union of Cologne A society stated in a manuscript of the Rosicrucians (under the pseudonym ‘‘Omnis Moriar’’) at Cologne, Germany, to have been founded in that city in the year 1115. In the Rosenkreutzer in seiner Blosse (1786) of F. G. E. Weise, it was stated that the initiates wore a triangle, symbolizing power, wisdom, and love. The more exalted orders among them were called Mage or Wise Masters, and these held the greater mysteries of the fraternity. They were masters of secret sciences and achieved feats that seemed supernatural.

Magical Vestments and Appurtenances The practice of magic generally prescribes various items of clothing and accessories as needful adjuncts to magical rites, in part to assist the magician in imagining himself/herself to be in an otherworldly setting. Their color, name, form, and substance, which were symbolic of certain powers and elements, supposedly added greater efficacy to the evocations. Abraham the Jew, a magician of the Middle Ages, prescribed a tunic of white linen, with an upper robe of scarlet and a girdle of white silk. A crown or fillet of silk and gold was to be worn on the head, and the perfumes cast on the fire might be incense, aloes, storax, cedar, citron, or rose. According to other authorities on the subject, it was advisable to vary the robe’s color and employ certain jewels and other accessories, according to the symbolism of the end desired. Éliphas Lévi, whose writings stand at the fountainhead of the twentieth-century magical revival, offers instructions for rituals, from which the following details are taken: If the rites were those of White Magic and performed on a Sunday, then the vestment should be of purple and the tiara, bracelets, and ring of gold, the latter set with chrysolith or ruby. Laurel, heliotrope, and sunflowers are the symbolic flowers, while other details include a carpet of lionskins and fans of sparrow-hawk feathers. The appropriate perfumes were incense, saffron, cinnamon, and red sandal. If, however, the ceremonial took place on a Monday, the Day of the Moon, then the robe must be of white embroidered with silver and the tiara of yellow silk emblazoned with silver characters, while the wreaths were to be woven of moonwort and yellow ranunculi. The jewels appropriate to the occasion were pearls, crystals, and selenite; the perfumes, camphor, amber, aloes, white sandalwood, and seed of cucumber. In evocations concerning transcendent knowledge, green was the color chosen for the vestment, or it might be green shot with various colors. The chief ornament was a necklace of 961

Magic Circle pearls and hollow glass beads enclosing mercury. Agate was the symbolic jewel; narcissus, lily, herb mercury, fumitory, and marjoram the flowers; while the perfumes must be benzoin, mace, and storax. For operations connected with religious and political matters, the magician must don a robe of scarlet and bind on his brow a brass tablet inscribed with various characters. His ring must be studded with an emerald or sapphire, and he must burn for incense balm, ambergris, grain of paradise, and saffron. For garlands and wreaths, oak, poplar, fig, and pomegranate leaves should be entwined. If the ceremonial dealt with amatory affairs, the vestment must be of sky blue, the ornaments of copper, and the crown of violets. The magic ring must be set with a turquoise, while the tiara and clasps were wrought of lapis lazuli and beryl. Roses, myrtle, and olive were the symbolic flowers, and fans must be made of swan feathers. If vengeance was desired on anyone, then robes must be worn whose color was that of blood, flame, or rust, belted with steel, with bracelets and ring of the same metal. The tiara must be bound with gold and the wreaths woven of absinthe and rue. To bring misfortune and death on a person, the vestment must be black and the neck encircled with lead. The ring must be set with an onyx and the garlands twined of cypress, ash, and hellebore; the perfumes to be used were sulfur, scammony, alum, and assafoetida. For purposes of black magic, a seamless and sleeveless robe of black was donned, while on the head was worn a leaden cap inscribed with the signs of the Moon, Venus, and Saturn. The wreaths were of vervain and cypress, and the perfumes burned were aloes, camphor, and storax. (See also ceremonial magic; magic; magical diagrams; magical instruments and accessories) Sources: Knight, Gareth. The Practice of Ritual Magic. Toddington, England: Helios Book Service, 1969. Reprint, New York: Samuel Weiser, 1976. Lévi, Éliphas. Transcendental Magic. London: G. Redway, 1896. Reprint, New York: Samuel Weiser, 1970. Waite, Arthur Edward. The Book of Ceremonial Magic. London: Rider, 1911. Reprint, New York: Bell, 1969.

Magic Circle An important part of ceremonial magic was the drawing of a magic circle around the magician to protect him from the malice of evil spirits that he might invoke to perform his will. The circle was symbolic of a sphere that was believed to surround the magician. It both isolated him from the chaos outside and held in the magical power that he raised. Magic circles were used for thousands of years and often took elaborate forms, requiring the inscribing of magical symbols, such as the Seal of Solomon (a double pentacle). In ancient Hindu folk customs, the bed of a woman in childbirth was encircled by red lead or black pebbles to ward off evil influences. In medieval magic practice, the circle was usually marked or drawn around the magician with a magic sword or knife. It might be some nine feet in diameter to allow the movements of the magician in his evocations. Portable forms of magic circles were sometimes drawn on parchment and used as talismans. (See also magic square; necromancy)

The Magic Circle (Organization) British organization of professional and amateur conjuring magicians. It was founded in July 1905 at the famous Pinoli’s restaurant in Wardour Street, London (long since vanished), and was originally intended to honor a young professional ma962

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. gician, Martin Charpender, who had just died. Some members preferred an impersonal name to ‘‘The Martin Charpender Club,’’ and when it was pointed out that the initials ‘‘M. C.’’ might also stand for ‘‘Magic Circle,’’ the latter name was agreed upon. In its early period the Magic Circle convened at St. George’s Hall in Portland Place, where the famous stage magicians Maskelyne and Devant performed their feats. In 1910 the Magic Circle moved to Anderton’s Hotel, Fleet Street, where it held meetings and monthly concerts (named ‘‘séances’’). Individual magicians showed off their latest tricks. The organization still publishes the magazine, The Magic Circular ten times a year and maintains two reference libraries. Membership numbers around 1,400 and includes doctors of medicine, philosophy, and divinity, as well as those of more humble occupations. However, full membership is limited to those who have knowledge of and practice magic. Address: 12 Stephenson Way, Euston, London, NW1 2HD England. Website: http://www.themagiccircle.co.uk/Info/mcinfo.html. Sources: The Magic Circle. http://www.themagiccircle.co.uk/Info/ mcinfo.html. March 8, 2000.

Magic Darts The Laplanders, at one time said to be great magicians, were supposed to launch lead darts, about a finger-length, against their absent enemies, believing that with such magic darts they were sending grievous pains and maladies.

Magicians (Illusionists) The term magician can refer to two distinct areas of practice. The first refers to those who claim to practice the art of change by the use of unknown (either natural or supernatural) forces. Such practice is covered in this encyclopedia under the headings Ceremonial Magic and Magic. The second connotation refers to stage illusionists. These represent those who have perfected acts presenting the same phenomena as those presented by mediums and psychics. It conjures up many different images in people, some that extend into the far reaches of one’s imagination and experience. Since the days of ancient Egypt and the Pharoahs, magicians have practiced the art of magic. From the prehistoric caves of Europe and North America, to ancient Greece and Rome, to the Middle Ages, long before the days of Vaudeville, and television, archaeological evidence and historical records show that audiences were held captive by the masters of trickery and illusion. In America, from the 19th century success of the American-born illusionist Harry Kellar to the modern-day magicians, such as Doug Henning and David Copperfield, have captured the attention of the public. Since the nineteenth century, when Spiritualism took root and gained popularity among the general public, magicians have been skeptical of Spiritualist and psychic claims. Due to their expertise in the area of illusion, they have been at the forefront of exposing fraud within the Spiritualist community. The impetus to the birth of the Spiritualism movement in America was linked to two sisters, Margaret and Kate Fox, who claimed to be receiving messages ‘‘from beyond’’ in their isolated farmhouse in 1848. It was the Fox sisters, too, who encouraged the beginning of what would become a long history of debate between spiritualists and magic advocates. The first important challenge to Spiritualism by a magician occurred right as the movement was just beginning. In 1853 J. H. Anderson of New York offered a thousand dollars to any ‘‘poverty-stricken medium’’ who would come to his hall and attempt to produce raps. Spiritualists were already becoming notorious for calling up the spirits of the dead, often in seances where the deceased would manifest themselves through a

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. knocking on the table where the participants were seated. The Fox sisters accepted Anderson’s invitation immediately, and were accompanied by Judge J. W. Edmonds and a Dr. Grey. However convinced Anderson might have been, he backed out as they were about to appear. Amid the hisses of the audience, he refused them admission to the stage.

Magicians Confounded A few of the most famous magicians acknowledged having witnessed genuine phenomena. Spiritualists took such acknowledgement as their blanket approval, and seized upon it. The clairvoyant powers of Alexis Didier stupefied the famous conjurer Robert-Houdin. His signed declaration, as published by Edwin Lee in his book Animal Magnetism (1866), reads: ‘‘I cannot help stating that the facts above related are scrupulously exact and the more I reflect upon them the more impossible do I find it to class them among the tricks which are the objects of my art.’’ In a letter to M. de Mirville, who introduced him to Didier, Robert-Houdin writes: ‘‘I, therefore, came away from this séance as astonished as anyone can be, and fully convinced that it would be quite impossible for anyone to produce such surprising effects by mere skill.’’ The stage magician Leon Bosco used to laugh at those who thought the phenomena of the famous medium D. D. Home could be imitated with the resources of his art. The magician Canti similarly declared to Prince Napoleon that he could ‘‘in no way account for the phenomena he saw on the principles of his profession.’’ In the Outlines of Investigation Into Spiritualism, (1862) by T. Barkas, he also published a letter expressing the same opinion. Robert-Houdin stated: ‘‘I have come away from that séance as astounded as I could be, and persuaded that it is perfectly impossible by chance or adroitness to produce such marvelous effects.’’ The stage magician Hamilton (Pierre Etienne Chocat), successor of Robert-Houdin, in a letter to the Davenport brothers published in the Gazette des Etrangers, September 27, 1865, declared: ‘‘Yesterday I had the pleasure of being present at the séance you gave, and came away from it convinced that jealousy alone was the cause of the outcry raised against you. The phenomena produced surpassed my expectations; and your experiments were full of interest for me. I consider it my duty to add that those phenomena are inexplicable, and the more so by such persons as have thought themselves able to guess your supposed secret, and who are, in fact, far indeed from having discovered the truth.’’ This letter was accompanied by a similar statement from M. Rhys, a manufacturer of conjuring implements, who examined the cabinet and instruments of the Davenports. He declared that the insinuations about them were false and malevolent. Since the cabinet was completely isolated, all participation in the manifestations by strangers was absolutely impossible, he said. A Professor Jacobs wrote on April 10, 1881, to the editor of Licht, Mehr Licht about the phenomena that occurred through the Davenport brothers in Paris: ‘‘As a prestidigitator of repute and a sincere spiritualist, I affirm that the mediumimic facts, demonstrated by the two brothers were absolutely true, and belonged to the spiritualistic order of things in every respect. Messrs. Robin and Robert-Houdin, when attempting to imitate these said facts, never presented to the public anything beyond an infantile and almost grotesque parody of the said phenomena, and it would be only ignorant and obstinate persons who could regard the question seriously as set forth by these gentlemen.’’ Samuel Bellachini, court conjurer at Berlin, stated in an authenticated statement given to the medium Henry Slade (later exposed on several occasions as a fraud) the following: ‘‘I must, for the sake of truth, hereby certify that the phenomenal occurrences with Mr. Slade have been thoroughly ex-

Magicians (Illusionists) amined by me with the minutest observation and investigation of his surroundings, including the table, and that I have not in the smallest degree found anything produced by means of prestidigitative manifestations, or by mechanical apparatus; and that any explanation of the experiments which took place under the circumstances and conditions then obtaining by any reference to prestidigitation is absolutely impossible. It must rest with such men of science as Crookes and Wallace in London, Perty in Berne, Butleroff in St. Petersburg to search for the explanation of this phenomenal power, and to prove its reality.’’ In January 1882, the great illusionist Harry Kellar witnessed a levitation of the medium William Eglinton, in Calcutta, India. Kellar’s account of this appeared in the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research (SPR) (vol. 9, p. 359): ‘‘A circle having been formed, I was placed on Mr. Eglinton’s left and seized his left hand firmly in my right. Immediately on the extinction of the lights I felt him rise slowly in the air and as I retained firm hold of his hand, I was pulled to my feet, and subsequently compelled to jump on a chair and then on the table, in order to retain my hold of him. That his body did ascend into the air on that occasion with an apparently utter disregard to the law of gravity, there can be no doubt. What most excited my wonder was the fact, for I may speak of it as a fact without qualification, that Mr. Eglinton rose from my side, and, by the hold he had on my right hand, pulled me up after him, my own body appeared for the time being to have been rendered nonsusceptible to gravity.’’ In contrast, the case of S. J. Davey is especially noteworthy. He was a magician who attended slate-writing séances with Eglinton and was impressed. He studied the problem thoroughly. In agreement with Dr. Richard Hodgson, he presented himself as a medium and produced all the characteristic phenomena of the séance room to the complete satisfaction of his sitters. An account of his demonstration was published in the Proceedings of the SPR (vol. 4). He revealed that he did everything by trickery; but many committed believers did not believe it. Even Alfred Russel Wallace suggested that Davey was also a good physical medium and had produced phenomena supernormally since he exhibited the characteristic physiological symptoms of trance convulsions. The two most tenacious magician opponents of Spiritualism, J. N. Maskelyne and Harry Houdini, focused public attention on themselves for many years. Both led crusades against mediums. Houdini had sought solace in spiritualism following the death of his beloved mother in 1913. He quickly saw through the deception that ran through many of the claims, and was even more adamant in his denunciation, perhaps, since he felt personally battered from his own experiences. In the preface to his book, Miracle Mongers and Their Methods, Houdini said that, ‘‘Much has been written about the feats of miracle-mongers, and not a little in the way of explaining them. Chaucer was by no means the first to turn shrewd eyes upon wonder-workers and show the clay feet of these popular idols. And since his time innumerable marvels, held to be supernatural, have been exposed for the tricks they were. Yet to-day, if a mystifier lack the ingenuity to invent a new and startling stunt, he can safely fall back upon a trick that has been the favorite of press agents the world over in all ages.’’ Maskelyne, nevertheless, did not absolutely discredit the paranormal, as revealed by a letter he wrote to the Daily Telegraph in 1881: ‘‘It may surprise some of your readers to learn that I am a believer in apparitions. Several similar occurrences to those described by many of your correspondents have taken place in my own family, and in the families of near friends and relations.’’ In the Pall Mall Gazette of April 20, 1885, Maskelyne acknowledges the phenomenon of table turning as genuine. He declared that Faraday’s explanation was insufficient and some psychic or nerve force was responsible for the result. At the 963

Magicians (Illusionists) same time he asserted that he could imitate any Spiritualistic phenomenon provided his own apparatus, which weighed more than a ton, was at his disposal. Many later psychical researchers were amateur conjurers (notably Hereward Carrington, Harry Price, and W. W. Baggally) who were well acquainted with the tricks of the trade. A conjurer’s performance may in fact afford evidence that the phenomena produced by the medium are genuine. Admiral Usborne Moore (Glimpses of the Next State, 1911) saw a conjurer reproduce the phenomena of the Bangs sisters on the stage. The effect was crude at first, although very satisfactory afterward. But the point, Moore remarked, was that the conjurer’s conditions were as different from the conditions of the Bangs sisters’ séances as a locomotive boiler is different from a teapot. Moore’s efforts finally convinced him that he had witnessed genuine spirit manifestations with the Bangs sisters. After the Reverend F. W. Monck was accused of fraud in 1876, Archdeacon Thomas Colley offered a thousand pounds to J. N. Maskelyne if he could duplicate Monck’s materialization performance. Maskelyne accepted the challenge. His performance was declared unsatisfactory. He sued for the money and lost his reputation when Colley won. Sir Hiram Maxim, the great inventor, later challenged Maskelyne to produce a psychic effect he had seen in the United States under the same conditions, but Maskelyne refused. The challenge and its result were described by the inventor in a pamphlet, Maxim versus Maskelyne (1910). The descendants of J. N. Maskelyne followed in his footsteps. Capt. Clive Maskelyne issued a challenge in February 1925, when the visit of the medium ‘‘Margery’’ (Mina Crandon) to England was reported, that he could produce any of the phenomena she had produced in America. Spiritualist author H. Dennis Bradley, in an interview for the Daily Sketch, promised a hundred guineas to Maskelyne if he could duplicate the Valiantine phenomena. Maskelyne at first accepted, but withdrew when he heard what was expected from him. In 1930 psychical researcher Harry Price offered one thousand pounds to any conjurer who could repeat Rudi Schneider’s phenomena under the same conditions. Nobody came forward. A skit, under the title Olga, was produced instead, in imitation of Schneider’s phenomena at the Coliseum Theatre (‘‘Olga’’ was Schneider’s claimed spirit control). Harry Price publicly challenged Noel Maskelyne from the stage of that theater on December 10, 1929, to simulate by trickery, for £250, one single phenomenon of Rudi Schneider’s under the identical conditions imposed by the National Laboratory of Psychical Research. Maskelyne refused. Will Goldston, one of the greatest professional magicians in Europe, author of 40 works on legerdemain, founder and former president of the Magicians’ Club of London, declared in the Sunday Graphic, December 2, 1929, concerning Schneider’s phenomena: ‘‘I am convinced that what I saw at the séance was not trickery. No group of my fellow-magicians could have produced those effects under such conditions.’’ Goldston tells the story of his conversion to Spiritualism in Secrets of Famous Illusionists (London, 1933). Two of his great fellow magicians—Ottokar Fischer of Vienna, and Harry Rigoletto—were quite accepting of psychic phenomena. In the Sunday Dispatch (August 1931), Goldston testifies about Hazel Ridley and her direct voice phenomena as follows: ‘‘Miss Ridley sat at a table in our midst, and without the use of trumpets or any of the usual paraphernalia spoke in three different voices. No ventriloquist could possibly produce the effect this girl produced, and I say that after a long experience of ventriloquists. First there was a powerful, clear, man’s voice, ringing through the room in tones one would have thought no woman’s throat could have produced. The next voice, a very quiet one, like that of a child of six or seven years of age, added to my surprise. The third guide also spoke in a woman’s or a 964

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. child’s voice, but quite unlike the normal voice of the medium. The séance lasted an hour and three quarters.’’ A year later he also spoke up in favor of Helen Duncan and declared that he was not aware of any system of trickery that could achieve the astounding results he witnessed. Still, others testified that Duncan’s phenomena were fraudulent on some occasions. Goldston also believed, as did many others, that Houdini was a great psychic. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle devoted about sixty pages in The Edge of the Unknown (1930) to the claim that Houdini was really a medium masquerading as a conjurer. Whatever the true nature of Houdini’s inner belief, his demonstrations during the Scientific American investigation of the mediumship of ‘‘Margery’’ (Mina Crandon) did not greatly add to his prestige. The exposures that he publicized throughout the United States were not supported by substantial proof, and privately he backed away from some of his public absolutist admissions. For example, on January 5, 1925, he wrote to Harry Price: ‘‘Another strange thing happened: with the aid of the spirit slates I produced a photograph of Mrs. Crandon’s brother, Walter, who was killed, and of all the miracles in the world, I ran across the photograph of the boy as he was crushed between the engine and the tender of the train, and which was taken one minute before he died. . .I doubt very much if there are any duplicates about’’ (Light, August 12, 1932). Houdini was a clever magician, but considered narrowminded. According to Doyle, he died disbelieving that the phenomena of hypnotism were genuine. Houdini and Conan Doyle (1933), by Bernard M. L. Ernst and Hereward Carrington, contains many interesting letters about Houdini’s strange adventures in psychic realms.

Modern Debates With the death of Houdini in 1926 and the decline of physical phenomena in the 1930s, the warfare between Spiritualism and the world of stage conjuring faded, although it by no means died out. It entered the next era during the occult revival of the 1960s, with renewed claims of physical phenomena. As public attention to the paranormal again emerged, Milbourne Christopher, a modern illusionist skeptic and member of the Occult Committee of the Society of American Magicians, wrote several books attacking some of the more obvious problems with psychics and the occult. The continuing issues between magicians and psychics became a public controversy, however, with the advent of Uri Geller, an Israeli psychic who claimed extraordinary powers of psychokinesis (starting old watches, bending metal spoons) and telepathy. He impressed several psychical researchers, and Andrija Puharich extolled his abilities in a 1974 book. Christopher was possibly the first to publicly suggest that sleight-ofhand and mentalist tricks accounted for Geller’s success. The Geller controversy brought to the fore Canadian-born magician James Randi (stage name ‘‘The Amazing Randi’’), who had helped organize the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal and subsequently assumed the mantle of Houdini as the archenemy of psychic phenomena and psychics. Randi claimed to be able to duplicate Geller’s feats of telepathy and metal bending by trickery. He accused Geller of deception. Their battle was in the forefront of television talk and variety shows throughout the 1970s. Every well-known television host from Merv Griffin to Phil Donahue presented the issue to the American public. When Randi wrote his book, The Magic of Uri Geller (1975), both men continued through the 1980s and 1990s with legal battles resulting from the accusations the two exchanged about each other. Randi went on to challenge other psychic claims, explaining to audiences the techniques used by fake occultists. Master illusionist Doug Henning (d. 2000) was considered by many to be the one responsible for the revival of magic because of his live stage and television performances in the 1970s.

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. Henning, dressed in the uniform of his generation—blue jeans and a tie-dyed shirt—began to transform magic into a primetime spectacle. With regular network television specials, and three Broadway shows, he rekindled the public’s interest in the glamour of magic. As Randi told Time in a 1974 article the newfound interest in magic was, ‘‘a sign that our society is still healthy. When people stop being enthralled by a magician who can make a lady vanish, it will mean that the world has lost its most precious possession: its sense of wonder.’’ With other famous magicians and illusionists such as, Harry Blackstone, Jr. (d. 1997), Penn and Teller, and David Copperfield, magic moved to the grandeur of Las Vegas, and television screens across the world by the end of the twentieth century. Furor entered the public once again in the late-1990s when the Fox television network presented a series of specials which set out to reveal the secrets behind the magician’s trade. Although many famous magicians protested the airing of these specials, they proceeded nonetheless. Regardless of whether they revealed any secrets, the specials did not succeed in quieting the public’s fascination with magic. In 1999, magician David Blaine stirred up extreme media and public attention by burying himself alive for a week. The media kept close guard to make certain no tricks were used, and Blaine became a cult-hero by lasting out the week and conducting exclusive interviews with television and newspapers. As the battle rages between those who have come to accept the existence of psychic phenomena and those skeptical of all such claims, both sides have attempted to make use of the work of the magicians. Skeptics have pointed to the exposures of fraud as a good reason to dismiss all claims of paranormal occurrences. Believers, on the other hand, have pointed out that magicians have done a good job in helping them to uncover fraud and drive fakes from the arena of the genuine. The work of magicians and others within the Spiritualist and psychic community in exposing fraud helps define the boundary of real psychic occurrences. It does not speak to the body of parapsychological research or to the experiences of hundreds of thousands of believers. Sources: Christopher, Milbourne. ESP, Seers and Psychics. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1970. ———. Houdini: The Untold Story. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1969. ———. The Illustrated History of Magic. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1973. Reprint, London: Robert Hale, 1975. Dingwall, E. J. and Harry Price, eds. Revelations of a Spirit Medium. London: Kegan Paul, 1925. Doerflinger, William. The Magic Catalogue, A Guide to The Wonderful World of Magic. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1977. Doug Henning’s World of Magic 2000. http:// doughenning.com/. April 24, 2000. Duprel, Carl. Experimental psychologie und Experimental metaphysik. N.p., 1891. Dunninger, Joseph. Inside the Medium’s Cabinet. New York: David Kemp, 1924. Ernst, Bernard M. L., and Hereward Carrington. Houdini and Conan Doyle: The Story of a Strange Friendship. London: Hutchinson, 1933. Fast, Francis R. The Houdini Messages: The Facts Concerning the Messages Received Through the Mediumship of Arthur Ford. New York: The Author, 1929. Goldston, Will. Secrets of Famous Illusionists. London: Long, 1933. Houdini, Harry. A Magician Among the Spirits. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1924. ———. Miracle Mongers and Their Methods. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1981. Reprint, 1993. Kanfer, Steven; and Patricia Gordon. ‘‘The Magic Boom: New Sorcery.’’ Time, 22 July 1974.

Maginot, Adèle Mysteries of the Unknown, Spirit Summonings. Alexandria, Va.: Time-Life Books, 1996. Proskauer, Julien J. Spook Crooks. New York: A. L. Burt, 1946. Reprint, Ann Arbor, Mich.: Gryphon Books, 1971. Randi, James. Flim-Flam! Psychics, ESP, Unicorns & Other Delusions. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1982. ———. The Magic of Uri Geller. New York: Random House, 1975. Rev. ed. The Truth About Uri Geller. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1982. Sexton, George. Spirit Mediums and Conjurers. London: 1873. Truesdell, J. W. The Bottom Facts Concerning the Science of Spiritualism. New York: G. W. Carleton, 1883.

Magic Square An arithmetical curiosity formerly believed to have occult significance. A square is divided into smaller squares, each containing a number so arranged that the sum of each row, vertical, horizontal, or diagonal, is the same. In a variant form, letters are used instead of numbers, the most popular arrangement being the rows: SATOR AREPO TENET OPERA ROTAS A variant form: SALOM AREPO LEMEL OPERA MOLAS The variant form is specified in The Book of the Sacred Magic of Abra-Melin the Mage as a charm to obtain the love of a maiden. Other magic squares were composed of numbers or letters in irregular arrangements that were believed to have magical power. Such squares were inscribed on parchment or other materials and worn as talismans. Other talismans were made in circular format, in wax or in metal, and used to invoke spirits. These were sometimes termed ‘‘seals.’’ The term magic circle more properly indicates the protective circle traced upon the ground by the magician when invoking spirits. Talismans in the form of magic squares have long been used by Hindus and Moslems for magical purposes and in religious rituals.

Maginot, Adèle (ca. 1848) Noted early French medium. She was psychic from childhood and was treated by the magnetist Louis-Alphonse Cahagnet because of the disturbances in her life caused by lively psychic occurrences. He soon found her an excellent clairvoyant, especially for medical purposes. From this she progressed to serve as a channel for spirit communications. From the summer of 1848, many sittings were held in which visitors were put in touch with their departed relatives. Cahagnet made them sign a statement after the sitting indicating which of the particulars were true and which false, which he later published in the second volume of his book Magnétisme arcanes de la vie future dévoilé (1848–60). When Maginot was put into trance, she saw the spirits of the departed, described them, and gave an intimate description of their family circumstances. Baron du Potet, a well-known writer on animal magnetism and the editor of the Journal du Magnetisme, witnessed a striking séance in the company of Prince de Kourakine, who was secretary to the Russian ambassador. Nevertheless, he was inclined to attribute the result to thought-transference. Maginot’s most extraordinary phenomena, however, did not consist in communications from the dead but in communi965

Magnetic Phenomena cations from the living, combined with traveling clairvoyance. A. M. Lucas came to inquire after his brother-in-law, who had disappeared after a quarrel 12 years before. Maginot, in trance, found the man and said that he was alive in a foreign country, busy gathering seeds from small shrubs about three feet high. She asked to be awakened since she was afraid of wild beasts. A. M. Lucas returned a few days afterward with the mother of the vanished man. Maginot correctly described the man’s appearance and the history of his disappearance. She was asked to speak to the man, and a conversation ensued. ‘‘Get him to tell you the name of the country where you see him,’’ says the record. ‘‘He will not answer.’’ ‘‘Tell him that his good mother, for whom he had a great affection, is with you, and asks for news of him.’’ ‘‘Oh, at the mention of his mother he turned around and said to me ‘My mother, I shall not die without seeing her again. Comfort her, and tell her that I always think of her. I am not dead.’’’ ‘‘Why doesn’t he write to her?’’ ‘‘He has written to her, but the vessel has no doubt been wrecked—at least he supposes this to be so, since he has received no answer. He tells me that he is in Mexico. He has followed the Emperor, Don Pedro; he has been imprisoned for five years; he has suffered a great deal, and will use every effort to return to France; they will see him again.’’ ‘‘Can he name the place in which he is living?’’ ‘‘No, it is very far inland. These countries have no names.’’ A similar experience was recorded by M. Mirande, the head of the printing office in which the first volume of the Arcanes had been printed. His missing brother, whom he believed to be dead, was found by Maginot to be living and a plausible account of his long silence and whereabouts was given. Unfortunately, in neither case was corroboration forthcoming. But there was one instance (quoted in Cahagnet’s third volume) in which, a few weeks after the sitting, a mother received a confirmatory letter from her absent son. Frank Podmore challenged Adèle Maginot’s work: ‘‘If Adèle, or any other of Cahagnet’s clairvoyants really had possessed the power of conversing with the living at a distance, I cannot doubt that Cahagnet, in the course of his many years’ experiments, would have been able to present us with some evidence of such power that was not purely hypothetical. Nothing would be more easy to prove. The fact that no such evidence is forthcoming affords a strong presumption that Adèle did not possess the power, and that the conversations here detailed were purely imaginary, the authentic or plausible details which they contained being filched, it may be, telepathically from the minds of those present.’’ However, in spite of a lack of convincing evidence from Maginot, Podmore also stated of Cahagnet’s investigations: ‘‘In the whole literature of Spiritualism I know of no records of the kind which reach a higher evidential standard, nor any in which the writer’s good faith or intelligence are alike so conspicuous.’’

Magnetic Phenomena Some readily observable phenomena have suggested a connection between psychic abilities and magnetism. The medium Henry Slade could influence the movements of a magnetic needle. Johann Zöllner made convincing experiments with a glass-covered compass. Slade could also magnetize steel knitting needles, and Zöllner lifted iron filings and sewing needles with their ends. Stanislawa Tomczyk could exert a similar influence over the compass. The British psychic researcher and author Stanley de Brath also reported a case in which a young man deflected the magnetic needle. He was searched for a concealed iron or a magnet but nothing was found. More recently, the controversial psychic Uri Geller has also demonstrated deflection of a compass needle, while his skeptical critics also claim that he must have a concealed iron or magnet. 966

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Magnetometer A device invented by the Abbé Fortin (ca. 1864) consisting of a piece of paper cut to the shape of a compass needle and considered to indicate some kind of electromagnetic force. It was suspended in a glass cylinder by a silk fiber. If the cylinder was approached by a hand, the paper (over a dial of 360 degrees) would either turn toward the hand or away from it. Carried out in a more substantial form with a ‘‘metallic multiplicator,’’ a condenser, and a needle, the magnetometer was used for the study of terrestrial magnetism to solve meteorological problems. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, it has been used for dowsing. (See also Biometer of Baraduc; De Tromelin Cylinder; water witching)

Magonia (Journal) Quarterly journal concerned with anomalies, such as visions, portents, prodigies, and UFOs. The name ‘‘Magonia’’ was given in medieval France to a mysterious land beyond the sky, the origin of all kinds of signs and wonders but inextricably bound up with the destinies of human beings. Inhabitants of Magonia traveled in aerial ships and were believed to destroy crops and kidnap human beings. The emperor Charlemagne issued edicts to prohibit the Magonians from troubling the air and provoking storms. Issues of Magonia have covered such subjects as glossolalia, ouija boards, pagan occultism, coincidences, Spiricom, earth lights, psychic research, Bigfoot, and other Fortean topics. Address: John Rimmer, John Dee Cottage, 5 James Terrace, Mortlake Churchyard, London, SW14 8HB England. Website: http://www.magonia.demon.co.uk/. Sources: Magonia. 8,2000.



Magpie The chattering of a magpie was formerly considered a sure omen of evil. Another folk belief was that the croaking of a single magpie around a house signified that one of the inhabitants would soon die. In parts of Britain and Ireland it was believed that evil could be averted by being respectful to a magpie— bowing or doffing one’s hat. Irish folk would sometimes say ‘‘Good morning, your reverence’’ on seeing a magpie first thing in the morning. The magpie also figured in the folklore of the American Indians and was a clan animal among the Hopis.

Maguire, Father Joseph (ca. 1931–


Catholic priest popularly known as ‘‘The Miracle Man,’’ who specializes in spiritual healing. He was born in Lowell, Massachusetts; his mother was Irish, from Castlegregory in county Kerry. Maguire was a successful businessman, owning an electronics sales company that sold missile parts to Cape Kennedy, and also operating a chain of hotels, motels, and restaurants. Then, at the age of 38, he left his profitable businesses and became a Catholic priest. His gift of healing developed slowly over a period of years, commencing the year before his ordination. He has since figured in a large number of medically unexplained cures that followed his touching people who were terminally ill. In 1984 Father Maguire visited Ireland, where he had an enthusiastic reception. More than 2,500 people crowded into the Church of Our Lady Queen of Peace in Merrion Road, Dublin (built to accommodate 1,800 persons). Parents held out babies for Father Maguire to touch. After celebrating mass with eight concelebrants, Father Maguire blessed the congregation

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. and went to pray with the sick. Subsequently a 46-year-old mother, paralyzed for several months with a cancerous tumor, claimed that she regained the use of her left arm and was able to walk again after being virtually immobile. (See also healing by touch)

Magus A master magician or adept. The Magi, or magicians (plural form of Magus), were the ‘‘wise men’’ of the ancient Persian priesthood. It is noted in the Christian New Testament that three magi brought gifts to the infant Jesus. In the later tradition they were given names—Kaspar, Melchior, and Balthasar—and their bones are said to rest in Cologne Cathedral, Germany. The term Magus is also used in magical societies like the Golden Dawn to indicate one of its highest grades, between the master of the temple and the ipsissimus. Sources: King, Francis. The Rites of Modern Occult Magic. New York: Macmillan, 1970.

‘‘Magus’’ A spirit control of William Stainton Moses, supposed to be a member of the Mystic Band that delivered occult teaching in Moses’s scripts. ‘‘Magus’’ did not disclose his name on Earth, but he said that he lived 4,000 years ago and belonged to an ancient African wonder-working brotherhood. In the nineteenth book of the Moses scripts, a topaz is mentioned as the material counterpart of a spiritual jewel worn by ‘‘Magus,’’ which was to be given to Stainton Moses to help him to see visions. The stone, set in a ring, was reportedly dropped from the air in Stainton Moses’s bedroom. Sources: Moses, Stainton. Spirit Identity. London: London Spiritualist Alliance, Ltd., 1908. ———. Spirit Teachings. 1883. Reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1976.

Maharaj Ji, Guru (1957–


Teacher in the Sant Mat tradition and head of Elan Vital (formerly known as the Divine Light Mission). Guru Maharaj Ji, a title rather than a name, was born Prem Pal Singh on December 10, 1957. He moved to the United States as a spiritual teacher in 1971, at the age of 14. He was the son of Sri Hans Maharaj Ji, a spiritual teacher in the Sant Mat Radha Soami tradition and the founder of the Divine Light Mission in India. When Sri Hans died in 1966, his youngest son, only eight but recognized as something of a spiritual prodigy, assumed control of the movement as Guru Maharaj Ji. On a visit to the United States he was met by a public skeptical of one so young assuming any role in religious leadership, but was welcomed by many young adults as a contemporary spiritual leader. Ten of thousands of ‘‘premies,’’ as his followers were called, were initiated, and within a few years hundreds of centers were established in the West. Through the mid-1970s the rapidly developing movement ran into trouble, beginning with its inability to fill the Houston Astrodome in a highly publicized event, Millennium 73. Then in 1974, Maharaj married his 24-year-old secretary, whom he described as an incarnation of the Hindu goddess Durga. The marriage further disrupted his relationship with his mother and older brothers. A lawsuit in India gave control of the Indian branch of the Divine Light Mission to Maharaj’s mother and led to a complete break with her son, who maintained the complete support of the Western disciples.

Maharishi Mahesh Yogi In the late 1970s the Divine Light Mission had also become the target of the anticult movement, and members were subjected to deprogramming in an attempt to break their allegiance to Maharaj and the group. In the early 1980s Maharaj responded to the problem by disbanding the mission, closing all of the ashrams, and reorganizing his following as merely informal students of his teachings. He has assumed a low profile and largely dropped out of public sight. He spends most of his time traveling the world speaking to his followers. Sources: Cameron, Charles. Who Is Guru Maharaj Ji? New York: Bantam Books, 1973. Mahararj Ji, Guru. The Living Master. Denver, Colo.: Divine Light Mission, 1978.

Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (ca. 1911–


A modern Hindu guru who began a worldwide Spiritual Regeneration Movement in the late 1950s. The movement, now led by the World Plan Executive Council, is best known for promoting the technique of Transcendental Meditation (TM). Maharishi was born Mahesh Brasad Warma, around the year 1911. Originally a physics graduate of Allahabad University, India, he worked for a time in a factory, then studied spiritual science for some years under Swami Brahmananda Saraswati Shankaracharya of Jyotir Math, a teacher of traditional Hindu transcendentalism. After the death of his teacher in 1953, the Maharishi spent some time trying to develop his own simplified version of traditional Hindu meditation. In 1958 he designed the Science of Creative Intelligence for ‘‘the regeneration of the whole world through meditation,’’ known widely as Transcendental Meditation. In a simple initiation ceremony, the guru bestowed a mantra (or word of power), which the pupil repeated during a meditation period each day. In this easy technique, the pupil could, it has been claimed, bypass normal intellectual activity and tap a limitless reservoir of energy and creative intelligence. The system spread around the world through the 1960s but was given a boost in 1967, when the rock music group the Beatles showed interest in the movement. Publicity concerning their relation to the Maharishi made TM seem a viable alternative to psychedelic drugs. The Beatles defected some months later, but by then other celebrities were traveling to the Maharishi’s ashram at Rishikesh, in the foothills of the Himalayas. The Students’ International Meditation Society, which was founded in Los Angeles, California, in 1966, received many of the young adults attracted to TM by its celebrity followers. Since the 1970s, the movement has been boosted by the wellpublicized scientific findings that TM produces beneficial results. Various studies, most flawed by the lack of investigation of similar mediative techniques, suggest that TM aids individuals in various manners. The sociological studies, suggesting that a representative number of TM meditators in an area can change its social climate (lower the crime rate, promote peace, etc.), are less conclusive. The movement adopted a ‘‘world plan’’ to develop the full potential of the individual, to improve governmental achievements, to realize the highest ideal of education, to solve the problems of crime and all behavior that brings unhappiness to the human family, to maximize the intelligent use of the environment, to bring fulfillment to the economic aspirations of individuals and society, and to achieve the spiritual goals of the human race in this generation. The World Plan Executive Council has founded in many countries its own political party, the Natural Law Party, and it runs candidates for public office in order to achieve the goals of the world plan. In the 1970s, as the number of new people coming into TM dropped, the movement unveiled a ‘‘Siddhi’’ program (siddhis are special paranormal powers) based on the claims of the ancient yoga treatise The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. The program 967

Mahatma Letters claimed that students of this special course have successfully achieved the paranormal feat of levitation. Photographs of students show them hovering a few feet in the air, but critics (and former students) have stated that the ‘‘levitators’’ merely bounce in the air cross-legged and do not float. To date, no irrefutable evidence of levitation by the Maharishi’s students has yet been produced, and several ex-students of the Siddhi program have successfully sued the organization. In 1968, the council moved its headquarters to Seelisberg, Switzerland, and in 1979 established Maharishi International University in Fairfield, Iowa, where they mix courses in TM and academic curriculum. They plan to open an eastern campus in Antrim, New Hampshire. The Maharish was worth $3.5 billion in 1998 and oversaw nearly 1,000 TM centers around the world. Sources: Bainbridge, William Sims, and Daniel H. Jackson. ‘‘The Rise and Fall of Transcendental Meditation.’’ In The Future of Religion. Edited by Rodney Stark and William Sims Bainbridge. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985. Jefferson, William. The Story of Maharishi. New York: Pocket Books, 1976. Mahesh Yogi, Maharishi. The Science of Being and Art of Living. London: International SRM Publications, 1966. Mason, Paul. The Maharishi: The Biography of the Man Who Gave Transendental Meditation to the West. Shaftesbury, Dorset, UK: Element Books, 1994. Orme-Johnson, David W., and John T. Farrows, eds. Scientific Research on the Transcendental Meditation Program: Collected Papers, I. Seelisberg, Switzerland: Maharishi European Research University Press, 1977. White, John. Everything You Want to Know about TM, Including How to Do It. New York: Pocket Books, 1976.

Mahatma Letters Communications allegedly from the Mahatmas (Masters or Adepts) of the Theosophical Society to Helena Petrovna Blavatsky and other leading theosophists during the nineteenth century. These Mahatmas were said to be eastern teachers belonging to the Great White Brotherhood, a group providing overall guidance to human destiny. The brotherhood was said to be living in the Himalayas of Tibet. It included Koot Humi Lal Singh (K. H.) and Morya (M.), the primary masters with whom Blavatsky claimed contact. Notes signed with the initials of these Masters would be mysteriously precipitated out of the air or discovered in unexpected places. Recipients of such letters included Henry S. Olcott, the society’s president, and A. P. Sinnett, editor of the AngloIndian newspaper the Pioneer. Sinnett was favorably impressed by such letters as well as other occult phenomena demonstrated by Blavatsky, and played a prominent part in the affairs of the Theosophical Society. The material received by Blavatsky from the Mahatmas, both in the letters and in other communications, formed the basis of the particular teachings of the society and constituted a new form of Gnosticism. The reception of communications from the Masters in some unusual and unlikely circumstances became one claim of the society to special revelatory knowledge. Those claims, which had initially impressed some of the leaders of the Society for Psychical Research, led it to delegate Richard Hodgson to investigate the phenomena in Adyar, the Madras headquarters. He found extensive evidence of fraud on Blavatsky’s part in producing and delivering the letters and in the arrival of various artifacts, reportedly gifts of the Masters. His discoveries included a shrine with a false back in which letters would mysteriously appear overnight to be found the next morning. He was assisted by Emma Coulomb, a former employee of the society, who claimed to have been a cohort of Blavatsky, but who had subsequently turned on her. 968

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. The publication of the Hodgson report created a public controversy and a crisis of major import within the society. While many members left, others preferred to believe that the confession by Coulomb was part of a plot to discredit Blavatsky. After Blavatsky’s death, Theosophist co-founder William Q. Judge produced furthur Mahatma letters supporting his effort to take charge of the Esoteric Section of the Theosophical Society (in opposition to the leadership of Annie Besant). Olcott eventually declared these letters to be fraudulent. Theosophists have had to live for a century with the Hodgson report and the charge that the society is built upon a fraud. During this time various members have attempted to refute Hodgson’s (and additional supporting) claims. For example, all now agree that the original Mahatma letters to Blavatsky were strongly influenced by her personality, since the handwriting and language were typical of her. While skeptics would claim that such influence is an additional sign of conscious fraud, Theosophists would claim that this resulted from the Masters using her as a medium of communication, in much the same way that a psychic delivers automatic writing. More recently (1980), Charles Marshall attempted to prove by computer analysis that there is a strong dissimilarity between Blavatsky’s language and that of the Masters. However, the computer program, although extensive, was somewhat arbitrary, being confined to certain prepositions and conjunctions. Moreover the comparison between the Mahatma letters and Blavatsky’s writings in such works as The Secret Doctrine ignored the extensive editorial work by others on behalf of Blavatsky’s writings, and her own extensive and unacknowledged plagiarism from other writers, thus making her claimed style unrepresentative. Other recent defenses of Blavatsky have been made by Vernon Harrison and Walter A. Carrithers. Some of the original Mahatma letters may be viewed in the Manuscripts Department of the British Library, London. Sources: Barker, A. T. The Mahatma Letters to A. P. Sinnett from the Mahatmas M. and K. H. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1924. Gomes, Michael. Theosophy in the Nineteenth Century: An Annotated Bibliography. New York: Garland Publishing, 1994. Hare, William L., and H. E. Hare. Who Wrote the Mahatma Letters? London: William & Norgate, 1936. Harrison, Vernon. ‘‘‘J’Accuse’: An Examination of the Hodgson Report of 1885.’’ Journal of the Society for Psychical Research (April 1986). Jinarajadasa, C., ed. The K. H. Letters to C. W. Leadbeater. Adyar, Madras, India: Theosophical Publishing House, 1941. ———. Letters from the Masters of Wisdom. 2 vols. Adyar, Madras India: Theosophical Publishing House, 1919. ———. The Story of the Mahatma Letters. Adyar, Madras, India: Theosophical Publishing House, 1946. Marshall, Charles. ‘‘The Mahatma Letters: A Syntactic Investigation into the Possibility of ‘Forgery’ by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, a 19th Century Russian Occultist.’’ Viewpoint Aquarius 96 (October 1980). Waterman, Adlai E. [Walter A. Carrithers]. Obituary: The ‘‘Hodgson Report’’ on Madame Blavatsky. Adyar, Madras, India: Theosophical Publishing House, 1963.

Mahavira (540

B.C.E.–468 B.C.E.)

Mahavira, Indian guru of the Jain tradition, was born into the kshatriya or warrior caste and originally named Vardhamana. His birthdate is traditionally given as 599 B.C.E., but modern dating has suggested a more likely date of 540. He married at a young age, but at the age of 30 left his home on a spiritual quest. After 12 years of wonders and accomplishments in the spiritual life he was given the name Mahavira or Great Hero. He eventually reached a state thought of as complete isolation from harmful karma, called kevela. He was acknowledged as the 24th Great Teacher of his tradition, and his

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. new title, Jaina or Victor, gave the name to the Jaina community. Mahavira concluded early in his spiritual quest that the key to spiritual advancement was the avoidance of injury to any life form, a difficult process as life was everywhere. After attaining kevala, Mahavira took a student, Makkhali Gosala, who had attained some magical powers. Mahavira questioned the equation of his powers with spiritual enlightenment, and the two went their separate ways. Before their parting, Makkhali Gosala tried to use his powers on Mahavira. Though he lost his first disciple, Mahavira soon gained others, including 11 brahman priests. According to tradition, he had half a million followers by the time of his death. As with his birth, there is a discrepancy between the traditionally accepted date (527 B.C.E.) and the estimates of contemporary scholars (468 B.C.E.). Since Mahavira’s time Jains have followed a path of liberation that has 14 stages. The basics of the life include the successive taking of vows of nonviolence (ahimsa), truthfulness, nonstealing, sexual abstinence, and nonpossessiveness. Each vow leads to a releasing of karma. In Jainism, karma is pictured as a sticky substance that adheres to one’s life force and prevents liberation. This substance is attracted by violence and the most violent are said to be covered in black karma. Jainism forms an important element of the Eastern teachings that came into the West, especially England, beginning late in the nineteenth century. These teachings influenced the development of various nonviolent perspectives, some of which became identified with Spiritualism and the metaphysical community including the antivivisection movement and vegetarianism. Sources: Chalpple, Christopher Key. Nonviolence to Animals, Earth and Self in Asian Traditions. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993. Jaini, Padmanabh S. The Jaina Path of Purification. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979. Tatia, Nathmal. Studies in Jaina Philosophy. Benares, India: Jaina Cultural Research Society, 1951.

Maier, Michael (ca. 1568–1622) German alchemist, born at Rensburg in Holstein. He was one of the principal figures in the seventeenth-century Rosicrucian controversy in Germany and the greatest adept of his time. He diligently pursued the study of medicine in his youth, then practiced at Rostock with such success that Emperor Rudolph II appointed him as his physician. Some adepts eventually succeeded in luring him from the practical work he followed into the complex and tortuous paths of alchemy. In order to confer with those who he believed possessed the transcendent mysteries, he traveled all over Germany. The Biographie Universelle states that in pursuit of these ‘‘ruinous absurdities’’ he sacrificed his health, fortune, and time. On a visit to England he became acquainted with Robert Fludd, the Kentish mystic. In the controversy that convulsed Germany on the appearance of his Rosicrucian manifestos in the early 1600s, he took a vigorous and enthusiastic share and wrote several works in defense of the mysterious society. He is alleged to have traveled in order to seek members of the ‘‘College of Teutonic Philosophers R.C.,’’ and, failing to find them, formed a brotherhood of his own, based on the form of the Fama Fraternibus. There is no adequate authority to support the opinion held by some that toward the end of his life he was initiated into the genuine order (there being serious doubt that any such genuine order ever existed). A posthumous pamphlet of Maier’s called Ulysses was published by one of his personal friends in 1624. There was added to the same volume the substance of two pamphlets already published in German but which, in view of their importance,

Maithuna were translated into Latin for the benefit of the European literati. The first pamphlet was entitled Colloquium Rhodostauroticum trium personarium per Famem et Confessionem quodamodo revelatam de Fraternitate Rosoe Crucis. The second was an Echo Colloquii by Hilarion on behalf of the Rosicrucian Fraternity. From these pamphlets it appears that Maier considered himself a member of the mystical order. He became the most profuse writer on alchemy of his time. Most of his works, many of which are adorned with curious plates, are obscure with the exception of his Rosicrucian Apologies.

Maimonides, Rabbi Moses (1135–1204) A great Spanish-Hebrew philosopher, theologian, and author of the Guide for the Perplexed. His theories were Aristotelian and rational, but there remained in his viewpoint a touch of mysticism. He was born April 6, 1135, in Cordova, southern Spain, and was educated by Arabic teachers. After the Moorish conquest of Cordova in 1148, Jews left the province, and Maimonides settled in Fez, Morroco. After five years he moved to Cairo, Egypt, where he became physician to Saladin and married the sister of Ibn Mali, a royal secretary. In his famous treatise, the Guide for the Perplexed, he sought to harmonize rabbinical and philosophical teachings but maintained that reason must be supplemented by revelation. His treatise profoundly influenced his Arabic, Jewish, and Christian successors. It has been suggested that Maimonides was sympathetic to the teachings of Kabala in his late period. He died December 13, 1204.

Maison des Spirites Spiritist center founded by Jean Meyer, who also assisted the foundation of the Institut Métapsychique International (concerned with psychical research). The Maison des Spirites was located at 8 Rue Copernic, Paris, and was intended to propagate knowledge of Spiritism. It became the secretariat of the Fédération Spirite Internationale (International Spiritualists’ Federation) and hosted the Second International Spiritualist Congress in Paris in 1925. (See also France)

Maithuna Sanskrit term for sexual intercourse, one practice espoused in tantric yoga. Tantra differs from more ascetic forms of Hinduism in eschewing the way of denial. Instead of refraining from such things as alcohol and sex in order to attain spiritual realization, tantra suggests using items commonly denied as a tool to enlightenment. Sexuality is by far the most controversial of such tools. Within tantric systems, the practice of maithuna may be either symbolic (the right-hand path) or actual (the left hand path). Tantra seeks union with the goddess Shakti and speaks of the male’s union with the goddess. In left-hand rites, the woman is seen as the goddess present in flesh. Tantra also developed the understanding of occult anatomy in Hinduism focused in the seven chakras, or psychic centers, located horizontally in the body from the base of the spine to the top of the head, and kundalini, the mystical energy that is usually pictured as lying latent, like a coiled serpent, at the base of the spine. In tantric practice, kundalini is released to travel up the spine, opening the chakras, and eventually bringing enlightenment. In right-hand tantra, this awakening is done with meditation and concentration. In the left-hand path, the kundalini is awakened in part by sexual intercourse ending in coitus interruptus, with a cooperating female. There has also existed in the West since the late nineteenth century an occult system that includes sexual practices, its 969

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major exponent having been Aleister Crowley. This system is often seen as a derivative of tantra, but in fact has quite different origins. Since the 1970s, Western sex magick and tantra have been the subject of many books and articles, and sycretistic forms of sexually oriented practices have begun to emerge.

Maitland, Edward (1824–1897) Co-founder with Anna Bonus Kingsford of Esoteric Christianity and the Hermetic Society. Born October 27, 1824, at Ipswich, England, Maitland graduated from Caius College, Cambridge, 1847. He intended to become a clergyman, but had many reservations about the church, and instead spent some years traveling in California and Australia, studying life firsthand. Upon returning to England, he devoted himself ‘‘to developing the intuitional faculty as to find the solution of all problems having their basis in man’s spiritual nature.’’ Through his close friendship with Anna Kingsford, he became an ardent vegetarian and the interpreter of her highly individual mystical Christianity. He collaborated with her on the writing of The Perfect Way; or, The Finding of Christ (London, 1882) and related books. After Kingsford’s death in 1888, Maitland published her biography, Anna Kingsford: Her Life, Letters, Diary (1896). He died in the following year on October 2, 1897. Sources: Kingsford, Anna. Clothed with the Sun. London: John M. Watkins, 1889. Kingsford, Anna, and Edward Maitland. The Perfect Way; or, The Finding of Christ. London, 1882. Rev. ed. London, 1887. Reprint, Mokelumne Hill, Calif.: Health Research, 1972. Reprint, Boston: Esoteric Book, 1988. ———. The Virgin of the World. 1885. Reprint, Minneapolis: Wizard’s Bookshelf, 1977. Maitland, Edward. Anna Kingsford: Her Life, Letters, Diary. London, 1896. ———. The Story of Anna Kingsford and Edward Maitland and of the New Gospel of Interpretation. Birmingham, England: Ruskin Press, 1905.

Mak, A(rie) (1914–


Dutch school director and experimenter in the field of parapsychology. He was born November 23, 1914, at Alkmaar, Netherlands. He was an instructor and director at Sneek Technical School, Sneek, Netherlands (1939–56), and later director (1959–60). Mak was a member of the Amsterdam Parapsychologische Kring and served as research officer of the Studievereniging voor Psychical Research (Dutch Society for Psychical Research). Contributor of articles to astronomy journals, he won the Van de Bilt gold medal for the best amateur astronomical observations in 1950. He studied telepathy, clairvoyance, and psychokinesis and took part in experiments (with Jan Kappers, A. H. de Jong, and F. v. d. Berg) to test clairvoyance quantitatively. He also studied the question of evidence for reincarnation. Sources: Pleasants, Helene, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Parapsychology. New York: Helix Press, 1964.

Malachite A precious stone (a variety of topaz) of basic copper carbonate. Folklore held that it preserved the cradle of an infant from spells. 970

Malachy Prophecies St. Malachy O’More was a medieval bishop who is said to have foretold the succession of 112 popes, from Celestinus II (1143) until the final pope in the future yet to come. These predictions were in the form of a long series of Latin character mottos instead of actual names, and there is still scholarly doubt as to whether the prophecies really emanated from St. Malachy. However, other prophecies attributed to him are claimed to have been fulfilled. He was born Maelmhaedhoc Ua Morgair in Armagh, Ireland, in 1095. His biography was written by a famous contemporary, St. Bernard of Clairvaux. Malachy was the son of a wellknown scholar; his mother came from a wealthy family in Bangor, county Down. His father died when Malachy was eight years old, and he was subsequently educated by a monk who later became abbot of Armagh. Malachy was ordained by St. Celsus, an Irish Benedictine of Glastonbury, then archbishop of Armagh. He became vicargeneral to Celsus, then abbot of Bangor, and later bishop of Connor, succeeding to the archbishopric in 1132. He had a reputation as a firm disciplinarian. After six years, he resigned in order to make a pilgrimage to Rome. But during the course of his journey, he met St. Bernard at the French abbey of Clairvaux and was so impressed by him that he requested to be allowed to remain at Clairvaux as an ordinary monk. However, Pope Innocent II refused permission, since he had plans for Malachy to be primate of the combined see of Armagh and Tuam, although in the end this did not come to pass. Malachy traveled through England, Scotland, and Ireland, even making a second pilgrimage to Rome. On the return journey to Ireland, he died at Clairvaux, which had made such an impression on him. Malachy had a great reputation as a prophet during his own lifetime. When the son of King David of Scotland was critically ill, Malachy sprinkled him with holy water and predicted that the boy would survive. He did. When one individual tried to prevent the building of an oratory, Malachy correctly foretold his early death. According to St. Bernard, Malachy even predicted the date, place, and circumstances of his own death. The papal prophecies seem to be extraordinarily apt, beginning with Celestine II (1143) and continuing through to modern times. The first pope was indicated by the motto ‘‘Ex Castro Tiberis’’ (from a castle on the Tiber); Celestine II came from Tuscany, where the Tiber rises, and his family name was Catello. The next pope was indicated by the motto ‘‘Inimicus Expulsus’’ (the enemy driven out); it transpired that his family name was Caccianemici, which combines ‘‘cacciare’’ (to drive out) and ‘‘nemici’’ (enemies). The next pope had the motto ‘‘Ex Magnitudine Montis’’ (from the great mountain); he was born in Montemagno (the great mountain). Some scholars believe the prophecies to be sixteenthcentury forgeries. Nevertheless, some of the mottos predicted for later popes have still been surprisingly apt, e.g., ‘‘Flos Florum’’ (flower of flowers) for Pope Paul VI (1963) seems validated by the fact that the pope had three fleur-de-lys on his armorial bearings. According to the Malachy prophecies, the line of popes will end after the successor to Pope John Paul II. The last pope will be ‘‘Petrus Romanus’’ (Peter the Roman), and after that Rome will be destroyed and the world will be purified by fire. Some believe that these will be the final days of the Last Judgment, others that there will be a cleansing of the world and the commencement of a new cycle of life. Sources: Bander, Peter. The Prophecies of St. Malachy. Gerrards Cross, England: Colin Smythe, 1969. Dorato, M. Gli ultimi papi e la fine del mondo nelle grandi profezie. Rome: n.p., 1950.

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MALAYSIA Malaysia now includes the mainland of West Malaysia, sharing a land border with Thailand in the north, and East Malaysia, consisting of the states of Sarawak and Sabah (formerly North Borneo). The ethnic grouping of Malaysia includes Chinese and Indian races, but the largest population is of Malays, predominantly Muslim in faith and speaking their own Malay language. Much of the folklore and magical tradition of the Malays concerns ‘‘sympathetic magic’’ (see magic). The traveler Hugh Clifford, writing in the nineteenth century, stated: ‘‘The accredited intermediary between men and spirits is the Pawang; the Pawang is a functionary of great and traditional importance in a Malay village, though in places near towns the office is falling into abeyance. In the inland districts, however, the Pawang is still a power, and is regarded as part of the constituted order of Society, without whom no village community would be complete. It must be clearly understood that he had nothing whatever to do with the official Muhammadan religion of the mosque; the village has its regular staff of elders—the Imam, Khatio, and Bilal—for the mosque service. But the Pawang is quite outside this system and belongs to a different and much older order of ideas; he may be regarded as the legitimate representative of the primitive ‘medicine-man,’ or ‘village-sorcerer,’ and his very existence in these days is an anomaly, though it does not strike Malays as such. . . . ‘‘The Pawang is a person of very real significance. In all agricultural operations, such as sowing, reaping, irrigation works, and the clearing of jungle for planting, in fishing at sea, in prospecting for minerals, and in cases of sickness, his assistance is invoked. He is entitled by custom to certain small fees; thus, after a good harvest he is allowed in some villages five gantangs of padi, one gantang of rice (beras), and two chupaks of emping (a preparation of rice and cocoa-nut made into a sort of sweetmeat) from each householder.’’ The Pawang used to regulate taboos, and employ a familiar spirit known as hantu pusaka—a hereditary demon. He also acted as a medium and divined through trance. To become a magician, ‘‘You must meet the ghost of a murdered man. Take the midrib of a leaf of the ‘ivory’ cocoa-nut palm (pelepah niyor gading), which is to be laid on the grave, and two midribs, which are intended to represent canoe-paddles, and carry them with the help of a companion to the grave of the murdered man at the time of the full moon (the 15th day of the lunar month) when it falls upon a Tuesday. Then take a cent’s worth of incense, with glowing embers in a censer, and carry them to the head-post of the grave of the deceased. Fumigate the grave, going three times round it, and call upon the murdered man by name: ‘Hearken, So-and-so, and assist me; I am taking (this boat) to the saints of God, and I desire to ask for a little magic.’ ‘‘Here take the first midrib, fumigate it, and lay it upon the head of the grave, repeating ‘Kur Allah’ (‘Cluck, Cluck, God!’) seven times. You and your companion must now take up a sitting posture, one at the head and the other at the foot of the grave, facing the grave post, and use the canoe-paddles which you have brought. In a little while the surrounding scenery will change and take upon itself the appearance of the sea, and finally an aged man will appear, to whom you must address the same request as before.’’ Malay magic may be subdivided into preparatory rites, sacrifice, lustration, divination, and possession. Sacrifice took the form of a simple gift, or act of homage to the spirit or deity. Lustration was magico-religious and purificatory, principally taking place after childbirth. It might be performed by fire or water. Divination consisted for the most part of the reading of dreams, and was, as elsewhere, drawn from the acts of men or nature. Omens were strongly believed in. ‘‘When a star is seen in apparent proximity to the moon, old people say there will be a wedding shortly. . . .

MALAYSIA ‘‘The entrance into a house of an animal which does not generally seek to share the abode of man is regarded by the Malays as ominous of misfortune. If a wild bird flies into a house it must be carefully caught and smeared with oil, and must then be released in the open air, a formula being recited in which it is bidden to fly away with all the ill-luck and misfortunes (sial jambalang) of the occupier. An iguana, a tortoise, and a snake, are perhaps the most dreaded of these unnatural visitors. They are sprinkled with ashes, if possible to counteract their evil influence. ‘‘A swarm of bees settling near a house is an unlucky omen, and prognosticates misfortune.’’ So, too, omens were taken either from the flight or cries of certain birds, such as the night-owl, the crow, some kinds of wild doves, and the bird called the ‘‘Rice’s Husband’’ (laki padi).

Astrology Divination by astrology was, however, the most common method of forecasting the future. The native practitioners possessed long tables of lucky and unlucky periods and reasons. These were mostly translations from Indian and Arabic sources. The oldest known of these systems of propitious and unpropitious seasons was known as Katika Lima, or the Five Times. Under it the day was divided into five parts, and five days formed a cycle. To each division was given a name as follows: Maswara, Kala, S’ri, Brahma, Bisnu (Vishnu), names of Hindu deities, the last name in the series for the first day being the first in that of the second day, and so on until the five days are exhausted. Each of these had a color, and according to the color first seen or noticed on such and such a day would it be fortunate to ask a boon of a certain god. A variation of this system, known as the ‘‘Five Moments,’’ was similar in origin, but possessed a Muslim nomenclature. Still another scheme, Katika Tujoh, was based on the seven heavenly bodies, dividing each day into seven parts, each of which was distinguished by the Arabic name for the sun, moon, and principal planets. The astrology proper of the Malays is purely Arabic in origin, but a system of Hindu invocation was in vogue by which the lunar month was divided into parts called Rejang, which resembles the Nacshatras or lunar houses of the Hindus. Each division had its symbol, usually an animal. Each day was propitious for something, and the whole system was committed to verse for mnemonic purposes.

Demonology The demonic form common to Malaysia was that of the jinn, 190 in number. These were sometimes subdivided into ‘‘faithful’’ and ‘‘infidel,’’ and further into the jinns of the royal musical instruments, of the state, and of the royal weapons. The afrit was also known. Angels also abounded and were purely of Arabic origin. Besides these, the principal supernatural beings were as follows: the polong, or familiar; the hantu pemburu, or specter huntsman; the jadi-jadian, or wer-tiger; the hantu, or ghost of the murdered; and the jemalang, or earth-spirit. The pontianak, the Malaysian vampire, has become the most famous of the supernatural beings of folklore and the subject of many popular movies.

Minor Sorcery The rites of minor sorcery and witchcraft, as well as those of the shaman, were widely practiced among the Malays and were practically identical in character with those in use among other peoples with similar cultures. Sources: Clifford, Hugh. In Court and Kampong. London: Grant Richards, 1897. ———. Studies in Brown Humanity. London: Grant Richards, 1898. 971

Mallebranche Skeat, W. W. Malay Magic: Being an Introduction to the Folklore and Popular Religion of the Malay Peninsula. London: Macmillan, 1900. Swettenham, Sir Frank A. Malay Sketches. London: John Lane, 1895. Winstedt, R. The Malays: A Cultural History. London: Routledge, 1950.

Mallebranche (ca. 1618) Seventeenth-century Frenchman haunted by his dead wife. Mallebranche was a marker of the game of tennis, living in the Rue Sainte-Geneviève, Paris, who in 1618 was visited by an apparition of his wife, who had died five years before. She came to advise him to repent and live a better life and to pray for her also. Both Mallebranche and his wife (for he had married a second time) heard the voice, but the apparition did not become visible. Sources: Histoire nouvelle et remarquable de l’esprit d’une femme qui c’est apparue au Faubourg Saint-Marcel après qu’elle a demeué cinq ans entiers ensevelie; elle a parlé a son mari, lui a commandé de faire prier pour elle, ayant commencé de parler le mardi II Decembre, 1618. Paris, 1618.

Malleus Maleficarum The most authoritative and influential sourcebook for inquisitors, judges, and magistrates in the great witchcraft persecutions from the fifteenth through the eighteenth centuries. It was written by Heinrich Kramer, leading inquisitors of the Dominican Order; Jacob Sprenger merely attached his name to the sourcebook. The book brought folklore and speculation about witchcraft and magic together with the new view identifying witchcraft with devil-worship. That identification turned witchcraft into heresy (rather than a pagan faith) and thus the proper concern of the Inquisition. That change of perspective led to the fierce and relentless persecution that resulted in the deaths of hundreds of individuals accused of practicing the religion of witchcraft, as opposed to merely practicing malevolent magic (i.e., sorcery), which had long been illegal. This work is in three parts. Part I fulminates against the evil of witchcraft, which is characterized as renunciation of the Catholic faith, homage to the Devil, and carnal intercourse with demons. Even disbelief in the existence of witches and witchcraft was declared a grave heresy. Part II details the specific practices of witches. Part III sets forth rules for legal action and conviction of witches. The antiquary Thomas Wright, in his book Narratives of Sorcery and Magic (2 vols., 1851), stated: ‘‘In this celebrated work, the doctrine of witchcraft was first reduced to a regular system, and it was the model and groundwork of all that was written on the subject long after the date which saw its first appearance. Its writers enter largely into the much-disputed question of the nature of demons; set forth the causes which lead them to seduce men in this manner; and show why women are most prone to listen to their proposals, by reasons which prove that the inquisitors had but a mean estimate of the softer sex. ‘‘The inquisitors show the most extraordinary skill in explaining all the difficulties which seemed to beset the subject; they even prove to their entire satisfaction that persons who have become witches may easily change themselves into beasts, particularly into wolves and cats; and after the exhibition of such a mass of learning, few would venture any longer to entertain a doubt. They investigate not only the methods employed to effect various kinds of mischief, but also the counter-charms and exorcisms that may be used against them. They likewise 972

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. tell, from their own experience, the dangers to which the inquisitors were exposed, and exult in the fact that they were a class of men against whom sorcery had no power. ‘‘These writers actually tell us, that the demon had tried to frighten them by day and by night in the forms of apes, dogs, goats, etc.; and that they frequently found large pins stuck in their night-caps, which they doubted not came there by witchcraft. When we hear these inquisitors asserting that the crime of which the witches were accused, deserved a more extreme punishment than all the vilest actions of which humanity is capable, we can understand in some degree the complacency with which they relate how, by their means, forty persons had been burnt in one place, and fifty in another, and a still greater number in a third. From the time of the publication of the Malleus Maleficarum, the continental press during two or three generations teemed with publications on the all-absorbing subject of sorcery. ‘‘One of the points on which opinion had differed most was, whether the sorcerers were carried bodily through the air to the place of meeting, or whether it was an imaginary journey, suggested to their minds by the agency of the evil one. The authors of the Malleus decide at once in favour of the bodily transmission. One of them was personally acquainted with a priest of the diocese of Frisingen, who declared that he had in his younger days been carried through the air by a demon to a place at a very great distance from the spot whence he had been taken. Another priest, his friend, declared that he had seen him carried away, and that he appeared to him to be borne up on a kind of cloud. ‘‘At Baldshut, on the Rhine, in the diocese of Constance, a witch confessed, that offended at not having been invited to the wedding of an acquaintance, she had caused herself to be carried through the air in open daylight to the top of a neighbouring mountain, and there, having made a hole with her hands and filled it with water, she had, by stirring the water with certain incantations caused a heavy storm to burst forth on the heads of the wedding-party; and there were witnesses at the trial who swore they had seen her carried through the air. ‘‘The inquisitors, however, confess that the witches were sometimes carried away, as they term it, in the spirit; and they give the instance of one woman who was watched by her husband; she appeared as if asleep, and was insensible, but he perceived a kind of cloudy vapour arise out of her mouth, and vanish from the room in which she lay—this after a time returned, and she then awoke, and gave an account of her adventures, as though she had been carried bodily to the assembly. . . . ‘‘The witches of the Malleus Maleficarum appear to have been more injurious to horses and cattle than to mankind. A witch at Ravenspurg confessed that she had killed twenty-three horses by sorcery. We are led to wonder most at the ease with which people are brought to bear witness to things utterly beyond the limits of belief. A man of the name of Stauff in the territory of Berne, declared that when pursued by the agents of justice, he escaped by taking the form of a mouse; and persons were found to testify that they had seen him perform this transmutation. ‘‘The latter part of the work of the two inquisitors gives minute directions for the mode in which the prisoners are to be treated, the means to be used to force them to a confession, the degree of evidence required for conviction of those who would not confess, and the whole process of the trials. These show sufficiently that the unfortunate wretch who was once brought before the inquisitors of the holy see on the suspicion of sorcery, however slight might be the grounds of the charge, had very small chance of escaping out of their claws. ‘‘The Malleus contains no distinct allusion to the proceedings at the Sabbath. The witches of this period differ little from those who had fallen into the hands of the earlier inquisitors at the Council of Constance. We see plainly how, in most countries, the mysteriously indefinite crime of sorcery had first been seized on to ruin the cause of great political offenders, until the

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. fictitious importance thus given to it brought forward into a prominent position, which they would, perhaps, never otherwise have held, the miserable class who were supposed to be more especially engaged in it. ‘‘It was the judicial prosecutions and the sanguinary executions which followed, that stamped the character of reality on charges of which it required two or three centuries to convince mankind of the emptiness and vanity. ‘‘One of the chief instruments in fixing the belief in sorcery, and in giving it that terrible hold on society which it exhibited in the following century, was the compilation of Jacob Sprenger and his fellow inquisitor. In this book sorcery was reduced to a system but it was not yet perfect; and we must look forward, some half a century before we find it clothed with all the horrors which cast so much terror into every class of society.’’ The work went into some 30 editions between 1486 and 1669 and was accepted as authoritative by both Protestant and Catholic witch-hunters. Its narrow-minded superstition and dogmatic legalism undoubtedly resulted in hundreds of cases of cruel tortures and judicial murders. An English translation was published in London (1928; 1948; 1974) by the controversial British scholar Montague Summers, who embodied in his writings a truly medieval attitude toward witchcraft. He declared (in his learned introduction to the work) that the Malleus Maleficarum ‘‘is among the most important, wisest, and weightiest books of the world.’’ Sources: Robbins, Rossell Hope. The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft and Demonology. New York: Crown Publishers, 1959. Sprenger, Jakob, and Heinrich Kramer. Malleus Maleficarum. Edited by Montague Summers. London, 1928.

Malphas According to demonologist Johan Weyer, Malphas was grand president of the infernal regions, where he appeared in the shape of a crow. When he appeared in human form, he had a very raucous voice. He built impregnable citadels and towers, overthrew the ramparts of his enemies, found good workmen, gave familiar spirits, received sacrifices, and deceived the sacrificers. Forty infernal legions were under his command. Sources: Weyer, Johannes. Witches, Devils, and Doctors in the Renaissance: Johann Weyer, De Praestigiis. Edited by George Mora. Binghamton, N.Y.: Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 1991.

Mamaloi An Obeah priestess. (See West Indian Islands)

Mana A term indicating vital or magical force used widely throughout Polynesia. From his work in the South Pacific, R. H. Codrington observed: ‘‘The word is common, I believe, to the whole Pacific. . . . It is a power or influence, not physical, and in a way supernatural, but it shows itself in physical force, or in any kind of power or excellence which a man possesses. This Mana is not fixed in anything, and can be conveyed in almost anything; but spirits, whether disembodied souls or supernatural beings, have it and can impart it. . . . All Melanesian religion consists in getting this Mana for oneself, or getting it used for one’s benefit.’’ The techniques of arousing and acquiring mana were extensively explored by Max Freedom Long (1890–1971) in his study of the kahuna magic in Hawaii and described in his books, notably The Secret Science Behind Miracles (1948). Long estab-

Mandragoras lished the Huna Research Organization to conduct research and spread knowledge of mana and its basis in kahuna magic. The concept of mana has been expressed in many cultures under different names. Among the Iroquois and Huron Indians, it is known as orenda. In his book Primitive Man (vol. 1 of A History of Experimental Spiritualism, 2 vols., 1931), Caesar de Vesme wrote: ‘‘We are in a fair way to recognize that we find (approximately) Mana in the Brahman and Akasha of the Hindus, the Living Fire of Zoroaster, the Generative Fire of Heraclitus, the Ruach of the Jews, the Telesma of Hermest Trismegistus, the Ignis subtilissimus of Hippocrates, the Pneuma of Gallien, the Soul of the World of Plato and Giordano Bruno, the Mens agitat molem which Vergil drew from the Pythagorean philosophy, the Astral light of the Kabbalists, the Azoth of the alchemists, the Magnale of Paracelsus, the Alcahest of Van Helmont, the pantheistic Substance of Apinoza, the Subtle Matter of Descartes, the Animal magnetism of Mesmer, the Will of Schopenhauer, the Od of Reichenbach and Du Prel, the Unconscious of Hartmann, the Entelechy of Driesch, the Plastic Mediator of Éliphas Lévi, the Psychode and Ectenic Force of Thury, the Force X and the Cryptesthesia of Richet, the Metether of F. W. H. Myers, the Spiritus of Robert Fludd, the Spiritus subtilissimus of Newton, the Spiritus Vitae of St. Thomas Aquinas, and many more Spiritus besides, if it were permissible to touch upon the different theologies.’’ Sources: Codrington, R. H. The Melanesians: Studies in Their Anthropology and Folk-lore. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1891. Long, Max Freedom. The Secret Science Behind Miracles. Vista, Calif.: Huna Research Publications, 1954.

Mananan Son of the Irish sea-god Lir, magician with strange possessions. His magical boat Ocean-sweeper, steered by the wishes of its occupant; his horse Aonban, able to travel on sea or land; and his sword Fragarach, a match for any mail, all were brought by Lugh from ‘‘The Land of the Living’’ (i.e., fairyland). As lord of the sea he was the Irish Charon, and his colorchanging cloak would flap as he marched around the camp of hostile force invading Ireland. He is comparable with the Cymric Manawiddan and resembles the Hellenic Proteus.

Mandala A mystical diagram used in India and Tibet to attract spiritual power or for meditation purposes. The term derives from the Sanskrit word for ‘‘circle,’’ although a mandala may embody various geometrical shapes. The Swiss psychologist Carl G. Jung, who regarded the mandala as an archetypal image from the deep unconscious mind, investigated mandalas created spontaneously by psychological patients. (See also yantra) Sources: Tucci, Giuseppe. The Theory and Practice of the Mandala. London: n.p., 1961. Wilhelm, Richard, and C. G. Jung. The Secret of the Golden Flower: A Chinese Book of Life. Rev. ed. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1962. Reprint, New York: Causeway Books, 1975.

Mandragoras Familiar demons who appear in the figures of little men without beards. The name is also applied to the plant popularly known as mandrake, whose roots resemble human forms and were believed to be inhabited by demons. The sixteenth-century witchcraft scholar Martin Del Rio stated that one day a mandragora, entering a court at the re973


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quest of a sorcerer who was being tried for wizardry, was caught by a judge (who did not believe in the existence of the spirit), and thrown into the fire, from which it escaped unharmed. Mandragoras were thought to be little dolls or figures given to sorcerers by the devil for the purpose of consultation and it would seem as if this conception sprung directly from that of the fetish, which is really a dwelling-place made by a shaman, or medicine man, to receive any wandering spirit who chooses it. The anonymous author of the popular magic manual Secrets merveilleux de la magie et cabalistique de Petit Albert (1772) stated that once, while traveling in Flanders and passing through the town of Lille, he was invited by one of his friends to accompany him to the house of an old woman who posed as being a great prophetess. This aged person conducted the two friends into a dark cabinet lit only by a single lamp, where they could see upon a table covered with a cloth a kind of little statue, or mandragoras, seated upon a tripod, its left hand extended and holding a hank of silk very delicately fashioned, from which was suspended a small piece of highly polished iron. Placing under this a crystal glass, so that the piece of iron was suspended inside the goblet, the old woman commanded the figure to strike the iron against the glass: ‘‘I command you, Mandragoras, in the name of those to whom you are bound to give obedience, to know if the gentleman present will be happy in the journey which he is about to make. If so, strike three times with the iron upon the goblet.’’ The iron struck three times as demanded without the old woman having touched any of the apparatus, much to the surprise of the two spectators. The sorceress put several other questions to the mandragora, who struck the glass once or thrice as seemed good to him. But the author claimed that this procedure was an artifice, for the piece of iron suspended in the goblet was extremely light and when the old woman wished it to strike against the glass, she held in one of her hands a ring set with a large piece of magnetic stone, which drew the iron toward the glass. This sounds very much like the folklore practice of putting a ring on a thread and holding it so that it dangles inside a glass and responds to questions put to it (see pendulums). The ancients attributed great virtues to the plant mandragoras, or mandrake, the root of which was often uncannily like a human form, and when plucked from the earth was believed to emit a species of human cry. It was also worn to ward off various diseases. Because of the supposed danger from the resident demon when plucking the plant, an elaborate procedure was prescribed. The mandrake-gatherer was supposed to starve a dog of food for several days, then tie him with a strong cord to the lower part of the plant. The dog was then thrown pieces of meat, and when he leapt forward to seize them, he pulled up the mandrake. Other folklore beliefs included the need for an elaborate prayer ritual before pulling the plant, which should only be gathered at dead of night. (See also alrunes; exorcism; ginseng)

Mangan, Gordon Lavelle (1924–

Sources: Thompson, C. J. S. The Mystic Mandrake. 1934. Reprint, New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1968.

British psychic, whose phenomena include poltergeist, apports, automatic writing, telepathy, precognition, and psychic art. Manning was born August 17, 1955; and at the age of 11, he was the center of a poltergeist disturbance at the family home in Shelford, Cambridge, England, which involved repeated knocking and the movement of scores of small articles. After several weeks, the phenomena subsided but returned about a year later, accompanied by childish scribblings on walls and even high ceilings. Chairs and tables were disturbed and dozens of objects moved around. According to the account in Manning’s several books, the phenomena followed him to boarding school, where heavy beds were moved, and knives, nails, electric light bulbs, and other objects were sent flying through the air. Showers of pebbles and pools of water manifested, and strange lights ap-

Mandrake Plant whose roots often bear an uncanny resemblance to a human form. (See mandragoras)

Manen The priest of the Katean Secret Society of the Moluccas. 974


University lecturer in psychology who made a special study of parapsychology. He was born on December 5, 1924, in Wellington, New Zealand. He studied at the University of New Zealand (M.A., 1945), the University of Melbourne, Australia (Ed.B., 1950), and the University of London, England (Ph.D., 1954). After working as a high school teacher, he became a fellow of the Parapsychology Foundation and a research associate at Duke University (1954–56). After short periods teaching in the department of psychology at Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada (1956–58) and Victoria University (1958–61) in Canada, he returned to Australia as a senior lecturer in the psychology department at the University of Queensland in 1961. Mangan published a number of articles on parapsychology and one important monograph, A Review of the Published Research on the Relationship of Some Personality Variables to ESP Scoring Level (1958). Sources: Mangan, Gordon Lavelle. ‘‘An ESP Experiment with DualAspect Targets Involving One Trial Day.’’ Journal of Parapsychology (December 1957). ———. ‘‘Evidence of Displacement in a Precognitive Test.’’ Journal of Parapsychology (March 1955). ———. ‘‘How Legitimate Are the Claims for ESP?’’ Australian Journal of Psychology (September 1959). ———. ‘‘Parapsychology: A Science for Psychical Research?’’ Queen’s Quarterly (spring 1958). ———. ‘‘A PK Experiment with Thirty Dice Released for High and Low Face Targets.’’ Journal of Parapsychology (December 1954). ———. A Review of Published Research on the Relationship of Some Personality Variables to ESP Scoring Level. New York: Parapsychology Foundation, 1958. Mangan, Gordon Lavelle, and L. C. Wilbur. ‘‘The Relation of PK Object and Throwing Surface in Placement Tests.’’ Journal of Parapsychology 20 (1956); 21, (1957).

Mankind Research Foundation A New Age organization that aims: ‘‘to combine the efforts of leading researchers and experimenters in the multidisciplinary and interacting fields of human development and humanistic psychology which include research involving the body, mind and those forces and phenomena acting upon the health, education and welfare of mankind. Areas of study include biocommunication, biocybernetics, biophysics, psychophysiology, educational development, cancer research and mind-body developments.’’ It is located at 1315 Apple Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20910.

Manning, Matthew (1955–


Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. peared on walls. One day, while writing an essay in his study, Manning found himself involved in automatic writing, at which time the poltergeist phenomena ceased. Since then he has regularly received hundreds of communications apparently from deceased individuals, some in languages unknown to him, including Italian, German, Greek, Latin, Russian, and Arabic. Following upon the automatic writing, he produced psychic art in the manner of Thomas Bewick, Thomas Rowlandson, Aubrey Beardsley, Paul Keel, Henri Matisse, Picasso, and other great names with remarkable fidelity to the artists’ styles. He also discovered an ability to bend spoons in a manner similar to that manifested by Uri Geller and to record startling demonstrations of some unknown force in himself by means of kirlian aura photography. Matthew duplicated the Geller effect of starting inactive clocks and watches, as well as radios, tape recorders, music boxes, and even electric lights. He had a premonition of the June 1975 plane crash near Kennedy Airport that killed 121 people, as well as the 1975 subway train disaster at Moorgate Station, England, in which 43 people died. While touring Japan, he appeared on television, and 1,200 callers jammed the studio switchboard with reports of bottles, glasses, and other objects exploding in their homes. Faucets turned on automatically, burglar alarms went off, and auto engines switched themselves on. Lost articles reappeared, small objects materialized in homes, other objects disappeared, and watches and clocks went haywire. Manning has also predicted that his own death will occur at an early date. On August 7, 1977, he took part in an ESP test organized by the British newspaper Sunday Mirror. Manning was stationed in London’s Post Office Tower (580 ft. high). Between 6 and 6:15 P.M. he mentally transmitted three images: the color green, the number 123, and the shape of a house. Readers of the Sunday Mirror were asked to ‘‘tune in’’ to these images and send their results on a postcard. Of the 2,500 readers who responded, 575 scored the right color, 1 in 44 got the threefigure number right, and about 1 in 30 identified a house-like shape. There were some 30 interesting ‘‘near-misses’’ in which readers reported the color green, the figure 123, and a shape of a triangle on top of a square, or the color green, the number 132, and a house. Michael Haslam, deputy honorary secretary of the Institute of Statisticians in London, confirmed that the results were significantly higher than chance expectation. Manning was also the subject of a Canadian documentary movie, A Study of a Psychic, made by the Bruce A. Raymond Company between 1974 and 1977. President Bruce A. Raymond was formerly controller of programs at the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and one of its chief executives. An objective record of Manning’s career, the movie includes interviews with members of his family, his headmaster, and school friends. Extracts were shown on British television on the Brian Inglis Nationwide program produced by Granada TV. In December 1977 Manning announced that henceforth he preferred to be described as a ‘‘mentalist’’ instead of a ‘‘psychic.’’ This statement came after three years of worldwide publicity as the Western world’s most gifted psychic, on the same day that Manning appeared on the Russell Harty Independent Television talk show in London. The show included filmed accounts from three first-hand witnesses of the poltergeist phenomena that surrounded Manning as a schoolboy. During the program he demonstrated automatic drawing and attempted telepathy tests. He also stated: ‘‘I believe also that a lot of people who are doing debunking in the name of science are merely forming a religion of their own, which I call humanism. . . . They believe there is no more to life than everything they can perceive physically, there is nothing beyond the five senses and that when one dies that is the end. They turn that into a religion. Obviously, what I am doing is to them threatening. That is why they will attack me.’’ During his 1977 American tour, Manning was vigorously criticized by magician James Randi, a well-known and hostile opponent of paranormal phenomena. Randi is a member of

Mansfield, J. V. the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal and the author of The Magic of Uri Geller (1975), in which he accused Geller of ‘‘massive fraud.’’ In September 1977 Randi attacked the British Sunday Mirror ESP test in the Post Office Tower, suggesting that Manning could have sent in ‘‘an important fraction of the postcards’’ himself. Manning countered, ‘‘The man who talks of ‘falsehoods’ makes statements himself which can be seen to be totally false by anyone who reads my book.’’ A report on this controversy was carried in the British newspaper Psychic News (September 10, 1977). Manning’s preference for the label ‘‘mentalist’’ over ‘‘psychic’’ may be a response to aggressive campaigns such as Randi’s. Manning delivered a statement to Peter Bander, his former publisher and agent, which became a front-page story in Britain’s Cambridge Evening News (December 3, 1977) and was also reported in Psychic News (December 10, 1977). Manning wrote: ‘‘Dear Peter,—Without any disrespect to anything which may have been said or done in the past, I would prefer from now on to be known as a mentalist and not as a psychic, a description I have always resented and never liked. ‘‘As I have no intention of giving interviews during my short stay in England, I would like you to be the first person to know. Perhaps you might also be so good as to pass this on to any pressman or future inquirers. ‘‘Certain events in America, for example, have made me reconsider my position. I feel this is probably the best description to explain them. ‘‘I reiterate that I do not wish to withdraw anything I have said or done in the past, and that I wish to be judged by what I’m doing now rather than by what I have been doing in the last four years. ‘‘I have no intention of explaining this any further at present.’’ In his first book, The Link (1974), which went into 19 editions and was translated into many languages, Manning accepts the description ‘‘teenage psychic’’ and describes the first occasion that he ‘‘entered into direct communication with spirit entities.’’ It may be that like other sensitive individuals in the history of psychic science and parapsychology, he felt that a hostile debunking attitude was going beyond criticism and speculation into the realms of psychic persecution. In recent years Manning has specialized in forms of psychic healing, healing by touch, and sympathetic contact between individuals by guided imagery and mental disciplines. He also founded the Matthew Manning Centre at 34 Abbeygate Street, Bury St. Edmonds, Suffolk IP33 ILW, England. He has lectured widely on healing and has issued audiotapes on the subject. Sources: Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House, 1991. Gregory, Anita. ‘‘London Experiments with Matthew Manning.’’ Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research 58 (1982). Manning, Matthew. In the Mind of Millions. London: W. H. Allen, 1977. ———. The Link. London: Colin Smythe; New York: Holt Rinehart, 1974. ———. The Strangers. London: W. H. Allen, 1978.

Mansfield, J. V. (ca. 1870) Nineteenth-century American medium who advertised as the ‘‘spirit postmaster’’ in the Banner of Light. He obtained thousands of letters in sealed envelopes addressed to spiritfriends, read them clairvoyantly, and wrote out replies automatically in various languages. German, Spanish, Greek, Arabic, Sanskrit, and even Chinese answers were sometimes given. 975

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Many witnesses testified to his powers. His scripts were preserved in evidence. His mediumship is described in N. B. Wolfe’s Startling Facts in Modern Spiritualism (1875). However, in the report of the Seybert Commission, Dr. H. H. Furness, the acting chairman, discredited Mansfield’s powers on the basis of a clairvoyant sitting and a sealed letter test. For a detailed account of Mansfield’s handling of an ingeniously sealed letter, see the Spiritual Magazine (1868, p. 425). Sources: Wolfe, N. B. Startling Facts in Modern Spiritualism. Chicago: Religio-Philosophical Publishing House, 1875.

Manson, Charles M. (1934–


Habitual criminal who was born on November 12, 1934, and achieved notoriety as charismatic leader of the infamous ‘‘Family’’ that indulged in sex orgies and brutal murders. Manson demonstrated that drugs, sex, occultism, and crime can be an incredibly dangerous mixture. As a young man, he was frequently arrested on such charges as car theft, parole violation, and stealing checks and credit cards. He spent most of the 1960s in jail, where he learned to play the guitar and studied hypnotism and various occult and metaphysical teachings. He was an avid reader on contemporary culture, including the Vietnam War, peace rallies, rock and roll, and the music of the Beatles. He was greatly impressed by Robert Heinlein’s science-fiction story Stranger in a Strange Land, which related how an alien intelligence formed a power base of sex and religion on the Earth. In 1967 Manson was released from jail and wandered around Berkeley, California, as a guitar-toting minstrel, picking up girls and spending time in the Haight-Ashbury section, experiencing the drug scene, occult boom, and communal living. Eventually he collected a kind of tribal family, mostly young adults, and established a hippie-style commune at various locales in the California desert, ranging over Death Valley in stolen dune buggies in an atmosphere of drugs and sex. In time, Manson developed paranoid fantasies of a forthcoming doomsday situation, supposedly revealed to him by songs on a Beatles album, particularly ‘‘Helter-Skelter’’ and ‘‘Piggies.’’ Manson and his followers shared a delusion that ‘‘Helter-Skelter’’ symbolized an uprising of blacks that could be exploited by the Family. In 1969, under Manson’s influence, some members of his Family accepted him as a savior figure and followed his orders to commit a number of sadistic murders. Manson, Patricia Krenwinkle, Susan Atkins, and Leslie Van Houten were found guilty of murdering actress Sharon Tate and four other people at her Bel-Air home in Los Angeles—Voyteck Frykowski, Abigail Folger, Jay Sebring, and Steven Parent, as well as Leno La Bianca and his wife Rosemary, also in Los Angeles. Nine weeks after the verdict, the jury voted death sentences for all the accused. The trial, which opened July 21, 1970, took 32 weeks. During 1976, a movie reconstructing the trial, titled HelterSkelter, was shown on television in the United States. On February 18, 1972, the California State Supreme Court abolished the death penalty in California, converting the sentences of condemned persons to life imprisonment. Manson and his accomplices now regularly appear at parole hearings, but the state has shown no hint of favor toward his requests for parole. Manson has become an antihero who still commands attention in the media and in countercultural elements in North American society. Books continue to retell his story, especially amid the wave of true crime books that became popular in the late 1980s. The violence associated with Manson did not cease with his imprisonment. In September 1984 in Vacaville prison, California, Manson was drenched with paint thinner and set on fire by another convicted killer, who claimed that Manson had 976

threatened him for being a member of a Hare Krishna sect. His head scorched and most of his hair and beard were burned, but Manson survived. A group of Manson’s songs, performed by him and recorded prior to the Tate–La Bianca murders, has been issued by Awareness Records (LP disc 0893-0156). The mediocre quality of these songs only enhances their sinister provenance. Sources: Atkins, Susan, with Bob Slosser. Child of Satan, Child of God. Plainfield, N.J.: Logos International, 1977. Reprint, London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1978. Bugliosi, Vincent, with Curt Gentry. Helter Skelter. New York: W. W. Norton, 1972. Reprint, New York: Bantam, 1975. Emmons, Nuel. Manson in His Own Words. New York: Grove Press, 1986. George, Edward. Charles Manson’s Life Behind Bars. Griffin Trade Paperback, 1999. Livsey, Clara. The Manson Women: A Family Portrait. New York: Richard Merek Publishers, 1980. Sanders, Ed. The Family. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1971. Reprint, New York: Avon, 1972.

Mantra (or Mantram) In Hindu mysticism, a mantra is a form of psychoactive speech having a direct effect on the physical body and a claimed effect on the emotions, the mind, and even on physical processes in nature. The term is derived from the root man (to think), and tra from trai, (to protect or to free from bondage). Thus, a mantra is an instrument of thought. According to Hindu tradition, the material universe is said to be formed from divine vibration, a concept echoed in the Judeo-Christian concepts of divine utterance preceding creation—‘‘And God said, let there be light’’ (Gen. 1:3) and ‘‘In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God’’ (John 1:1). The use of mantras can also be found in Buddhist tantrism, known as Vairayana. The verses of the Hindu sacred scriptures, the Vedas (veda means knowledge), are regarded as mantras, because they have been transmitted from a divine source, rather like the Christian concept of the Bible as having power as the Word of God. Hindus, however, also believe that words and phrases have special powers as expressions of the hidden forces of nature. The vibrations of molecules which create the particular sounds of the mantras are thought to resonate with Shabda or Vach (primal essence of creation.) Divine creation becomes manifest in form throughout nature, and the latent reality behind form may be affected by correctly uttering the sounds that represent the ideal reality. These mantras were discovered by ancient sages skilled in the knowledge of the Mantra Shastra scripture and taught to initiates. The universe is called Jagat (that which moves), because everything exists by a combination of forces and movement, and every movement generates vibration and has its own sound. These subtle sounds have correspondences in the baser sounds of speech and music, and so everything in the universe has an exact relationship. Everything has its natural name, the sound produced by the action of the moving forces from which it is constructed. Thus, anyone who is able to utter the natural name of anything with creative force can bring into being the thing which has that name. The most well-known mantra is the trisyllable A-U-M, which precedes and concludes reading from the Vedas and is chanted as an individual mantra or magical prayer. Hindu tradition says it is the origin of all sound, and initially came to those sages who reached the highest state of spiritual development. The three syllables are associated with the processes of creation, preservation, and dissolution and with the three states of consciousness (dreaming, deep sleep, and waking).

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. The scripture Mandukya Upanishad describes how AUM, or ‘‘OM,’’ is the basis of all the other letters in the Sanskrit language and is associated with the universe and the human microcosm (analgous concepts exist in such kabalistic works as the Sepher Yesirah). A mantra may also be associated with a yantra, or mystical diagram. Mantras are frequently uttered in rhythmic repetition known as japa, often with the aid of a mala, a set of beads resembling the Catholic rosary. In japa yoga, the power of a mantra is enhanced by the accumulation of repetitions. Although mantras have an automatic action, that action is enhanced by proper concentration and attitude of mind. The spoken mantra is also an aid to the mental mantra, which contains the inner meaning and power. Special mantras called bija (seed) mantras are linked with the basic states of matter in connection with the chakras, or subtle energy centers, of the human body. These seeds are said to hold the potential to release the powers of the chakras. Most yogic traditions use some form of mantra initiation, which transmits a particular mantra from guru to student. Spiritual mantras common in India include variants of the ‘‘Hari Rama, Hari Krishna’’ formula, made popular in the West by members of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness, and the Gayatri Mantra, normally recited by Brahmins during meditation on the sun. Transcendental meditators also reportedly use mantras in their practices. ‘‘Hari Om’’ is a common healing mantra performed regularly by the Sivananda Ashram in Rishikesh, India, which invokes Vishnu (Hindu God) to take away illnesses and offenses. Shiva Hara Shankara, as chanted by Indira Devi’s Ashram in Poona, India, asks the Lord Shiva to free us from the bondage of life. The Shiva Mantra implores ‘‘Homage, homage, all homage and glory to you, O Lord Shiva.’’ Similarly, the Lakshmi Mantra calls upon the Goddess Lakshmi, ‘‘We pray to you in benign solemnity to bestow your blessings and shower your wealth upon us.’’ The development of compact discs and digital recordings has made mantra recordings more available in music stores and New Age shops. As this technology has fueled western acceptance of yoga, mantras will gain popularity and perhaps take on a new meaning as more and more westerners practice them. Sources: Das, Krishna. Pilgrim Heart. New York: Triloka Records, 1998 Easwaran, Eknath. The Mantram Handbook. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1978. Godwin, Joscelyn. Music and the Occult. Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press, 1995. Gopalacharlu, S. E. An Introduction to the Mantra Sastra. Adyar, Madras, India: Theosophical Publishing House, 1934. Kalisch, Isidor, trans. Sepher Yezirah: A Book on Creation. New York, 1877. Lakshmi Montra. ‘‘Mantra on Net.’’ http// :www.mantraonnet.com/. February 26, 2000. Narayana, Har, trans. The Vedic Philosophy; or, An Exposition of the Sacred and Mysterious Monosyllable AUM; The Mandukya Upanishad. Bombay, 1895. Radha, Swami Sivananda. Mantras: Words of Power. Spokane, Wash.: Timeless Books, 1994. Shiva Montra from Mantra on Net. http// :www.mantraonnet.com. February 26, 2000. Woodroffe, Sir John. The Garland of Letters (Varnamala): Studies in the Mantra-Shastra. Madras, India: Ganesh, 1951.

Manu According to Theosophy, a grade in the theosophical hierarchy below the Planetary Logoi, or Rulers of the Seven Chains. The charge given to Manus is that of forming the different races of humanity and guiding humanity’s evolution. Each race has

Maple, Eric (William) its own Manu, who represents the racial type. This theosophical concept derives from Hindu mythology of Manu (man; thinker), a series of fourteen progenitors of the human race, each creation being destroyed in a Mahayuga (vast cycle of time) involving a deluge. The Manu of the present creation is Manu Vaivasvata, who built an ark during a cosmic deluge and afterward renewed the human race. He is the reputed author of the Manava Dharma Shastra, or Laws of Manu, an ancient Hindu treatise that prescribes human religious and social duties. Sources: Das, Ghagavan. The Science of Social Organisation; or, The Laws of Manu in the Light of Atma-Vidya. 2 vols. Rev. ed. Adyar, Madras, India: Theosophical Publishing House, 1932.

Mapes, James Jay (1806–1866) Professor of agricultural chemistry, member of various learned societies, and one of the early American converts to Spiritualism. Mapes was born on May 29, 1806, in New York City. After leaving school he worked as a chemist’s clerk before entering business for himself. He invented a system of sugar refining in 1831, a machine for manufacturing sugar from cane, and a process for making sugar from West Indian molasses. He also invented a method of tanning hides, as well as improvements in distilling, dyeing, color making, and other industrial innovations. For his contributions, he received an honorary A.M. degree from Williams University in 1840. He was also a colonel in the New York state militia. His conversion to Spiritualism was the result of an investigation he initiated in order to save his friends from ‘‘running to imbecility.’’ Cora L. V. Richmond produced for him phenomena he could not explain. Then his wife, a woman of advanced age with no talent for art, developed an automatic drawing and painting mediumship. She executed in a marvelously rapid manner several thousand watercolor drawings, which met with praise. His daughter became a writing medium. One of the early messages that came through his daughter purported to emanate from Mapes’s father. It asked Mapes to look up an encyclopedia, stored in a packing case 27 years before, and there on page 120 he would find his father’s name written. This was found true. With increasing interest Mapes investigated Katie Fox (of the Fox sisters) and the Davenport brothers, with whom he heard the first direct voice phenomena, and the manifestations of ‘‘John King.’’ He followed every new psychic discovery with keen interest. He died January, 10, 1866.

Maple, Eric (William) (1915–


British author on witchcraft, demonology, the supernatural, and folklore. In addition to his books on such subjects, he also lectured widely and in the late 1960s was a consultant on the publication Man, Myth, and Magic (1967–70). He gave special attention to the role of the so-called ‘‘white witch’’ in the history of witchcraft persecutions and also showed the interrelationship of witchcraft with ghost lore, Spiritism, and the cult of the dead. Maple wrote ‘‘Magic is a common bond uniting all races and creeds and therefore, possibly, the most democratic principle in the world.’’ Sources: Maple, Eric. The Dark World of Witches. London: R. Hale, 1962. ———. Deadly Magic. Wellingborough, England: Thursons, 1976. ———. The Domain of Devils. London: R. Hale, 1966. ———. Incantations and Words of Power. Wellingborough, England: Aquarian Press, 1974. 977

Marabini, Enrico

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed.

———. Magic, Medicine, and Quakery. London: R. Hale, 1968. ———. The Realm of Ghosts. New York: A.S. Barnes, 1964. ———. Superstition and the Superstitious. London and New York: W.H. Allen, 1971. ———. Witchcraft: The Story of Man’s Quest for Psychic Power. London: Octopus Books, 1973.

Marcellus Empiricus (ca. 395

Marabini, Enrico (1923–

March, Marion (1923–


Italian gynecologist and obstetrician who was also active in the field of parapsychology. Marabini was born on November 12, 1923, at Casinalbo, Italy, and studied at Bologna University (M.D., cum laude, 1949). He was a member of the Bologna Center of Parapsychological Studies, and in 1948 he became one of the founders of the Centro Studi Parapsicologici (Center for Parapsychological Studies). Marabini took special interest in clairvoyance, telepathy, psychokinesis, and mediumship. He worked with mental and physical mediums for several years in controlled experiments concerned with psychosomatic aspects of paranormal behavior. However, he was unable to validate the authenticity of physical mediumship. He afterward studied quantitative testing methods.


A Gallic-Roman writer born at Bordeaux in the fourth century. He was magister officiorum under Theodosius (379–395 C.E.). He wrote a work called De medicamentis conspiricis physicis ac rationalibus, a collection of medical recipes, for the most part having more in common with popular superstition than with medical science.


Marion March, an outstanding American astrology teacher, was born on February 10, 1923, in Nürnberg, Germany, though she was raised in Switzerland, the daughter of a banker. She moved to the United States during World War II (1939–45) to pursue an acting career, but after six years joined the American Foreign Service. Stationed in her homeland, she met her husband, a graduate student and future executive with Merrill Lynch. They settled in Los Angeles, California, and she became the mother of two children. March did not begin the study of astrology until 1965 and did not become a professional until 1970. However, she was quickly recognized as an accomplished astrologer and a talented instructor. She developed a large clientele, and as she could speak five languages, she was called upon to lecture across North America and Europe. She was asked to join the faculty of the American Federation of Astrologers, the International Society for Astrological Research, and the Southwest Astrology Council. She has been active in both the European International Congress and United Astrology Congress. She was one of the founders of the Association for Astrological Networking. In 1975, March joined forces with Joan McEvers to found Aquarius Workshops, the vehicle for their teaching activity. Their magazine, Aspects, soon became one of the most popular in the field, and their multivolume textbook series, The Only Way to. . .Learn Astrology, one of the most used textbooks for teaching astrology to newcomers to the field. In addition, she has written numerous articles for the many journals serving astrologers. March has received a variety of honors for her contributions to the field, including the highly prized Regulus Award in 1972 for service to the astrological community. She received the award again in 1989 (along with McEvers) for her educational activities.

Sources: Marabini, Enrico. ‘‘Il Comportamento paranormale in rapporto a stati neuro-endocrini’’ (Paranormal Behavior in Connection with Neuro-Endocrinological Conditions). Parapsicologia di Minerva Medica (November 1957). ———. ‘‘Esperienze di Telepatia collectiva eseguite nella Citta’ di Bologna’’ (Experiments in Mass Telepathy in Bologna). Metapsichica 1 (1954). ———. ‘‘Esperienze trienneli di lettura della mano con una sensitiva Bolognese: Maria Guardini’’ (Three Years of Experiments in Hand-reading with the Sensitive Maria Guardini of Bologna). Parapsicologia di Minerva Medica (June 1957). ———. ‘‘Il Metodo scientifico in parapsicologia’’ (Scientific Method in Parapsychology). Bulletin of the Italian Society for Parapsychology (July–December 1957). ———. ‘‘Problemi parapsicologici e psicosomatica’’ (Parapsychological Problems and Psychosomatics). Medicina psicosomatics 1, no. 2 (1957). ———. ‘‘Proposta di una modifica al test di Stuart per la Chiaroveggenza’’ (Proposal of a Modification of the Stuart Test for Clairvoyance). Metapsichica 3 (1954). ———. ‘‘La Psi e’ stata dimonstrata sperimentalmente?’’ (Has Psi Been Experimentally Demonstrated?). Bulletin of the Italian Society for Parapsychology (July–December 1959). ———. ‘‘Sogno paragnosico’’ (Paragnostic Dreams). Parapsicologia di Minerva Medica (June 1957). ———. ‘‘La Telapatia’’ (Telepathy). Metapsichica 1–4 (1953). ———. ‘‘Una Nuova ESP?’’ Bulletin of the Italian Society for Parapsychology (January–June 1959).

Sources: March, Marion, and Joan McEvers. The Only Way to. . . Learn about Horary and Electional Astrology. San Diego: Astro Computing Services, 1995. ———. The Only Way to. . . Learn about Relationships. San Diego: Astro Computing Services, 1992. ———. The Only Way to. . . Learn about Tomorrow. San Diego: Astro Computing Services, 1988. ———. The Only Way to. . . Learn Astrology. 3 vols. San Diego: Astro Computing Services, 1976–82.


Marciniak, Barbara (fl. ca. 1988)

A term that generally referred to the ‘‘secret’’ Jews of Portugal and Spain in the fifteenth century, who converted to Christianity when their religion was outlawed, but who continued to practice their religion in the privacy of their families. The existence of such Jews was amply demonstrated by Jews who migrated and soon afterward reemerged to practice publicly the Jewish faith. The term was also applied to a Jewish secret fraternity that arose in Spain in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Its members met in the greatest secrecy at inns, and used grips, signs, and passwords (see Freemasons’ Magazine 3 [1860]: 416). The term ‘‘marranos’’ (hogs) was used contemptuously at the time to denote Moors and Jews.

Barbara Marciniak is a contemporary trance channel best known for her reception of material from entities said to originate in the Pleiades star cluster. She was raised in a PolishAmerican family and in the 1970s became a student of the Seth Material channeled by Jane Roberts. Marciniak emerged out of obscurity on May 18, 1988, when what is described as a collective from the Pleiades began to speak through her. She was on a trip with a New Age group at the time, visiting ancient sites in Egypt and Greece. She felt she was led to reexperience these sites as part of her present life and was in Greece when the channeling emerged. The Pleiades had been suggested as a source for extraterrestrial contact in the 1980s by Eduard Albert ‘‘Billy’’ Meier, a


Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. Swiss flying saucer contactee. Two picture books, several volumes recounting his contact claims, and some videos purporting to show saucers from the Pleiades freely circulated through the North American New Age community beginning in 1979. Marciniak’s contact with the Pleiadians was among the first contacts independent of references directly to Meier’s work. The first significant publication of post-Meier Pleiadian channeled material had been produced by Barbara Hand Clow, and it was to the publishing concern at which Clow was employed that Marciniak turned to publish her first book, Bringers of the Dawn: Teachings from the Pleiadians. Released in 1992, it became one of the most important volumes of the post-New Age era. Two subsequent books with the same publisher have followed. Through Marciniak, the Pleiadians suggested that they had come to the Pleiades from another universe that had ‘‘attained completion.’’ Earthlings are working on reaching completion, and the Pleiadians are here to assist that process. Their presence heralds the transition from the third dimension to higher dimensions. Also, according to the Pleiadians, humanity was planned as an experiment of the Prime Creator, who sent out extensions of itself into the unknown with the command to create. These extensions, creator gods, began to create new hierarchies, further extensions. Eventually a plan evolved to create Earth. Geneticists took DNA from many species to produce the human race. From these primal observations, the Pleiadians have offered an alternative view of the meaning and purpose of human life. An organization, Bold Connections (P.O. Box 6521, Raleigh, NC 27628), has been created to distribute Marciniak’s tapes and books and to coordinate her teaching activity. She does not have a webpage, but information about the continuing messages from the Pleiadians can be found at http:// www.spiritweb.org/Spirit/pleiadians-book.html. Sources: Marciniak, Barbara. Bringers of the Dawn: Teachings from the Pleiadians. Santa Fe, N.Mex.: Bear & Co., 1992. ———. Earth: Pleiadian Keys to the Living Library. Santa Fe, N.Mex.: Bear & Co., 1994. ———. Family of Light: Pleiadian Tales and Lessons in Living. Santa Fe, N.Mex.: Bear & Co., 1998.

Margaritomancy Divination by means of pearls. A pearl was covered with a vase and placed near a fire, and the names of suspected persons were pronounced. When the name of the guilty one was uttered, the pearl was supposed to bound up and pierce the bottom of the vase.

‘‘Margery’’ Pseudonym of famous medium Mina Stinson Crandon (1888–1941).

Margiotta, Domenico (ca. 1896) Presumed author of Souvenirs d’un trente-troisième: Adriano Lemmi, chef suprème des francs-maçons (1896) and Le Palladisme: Culte de Satan-Lucifer dans les triangles maçonniques (1895), which violently impeached the masonic Grand Master Lemmi of the crimes of devil worship and sorcery. These statements were amply proved to be without foundation. It transpired that these books were part of the Diana Vaughan conspiracy of Gabriel Jogand-Pagés (‘‘Leo Taxil’’), designed to embarrass the Roman Catholic Church and Freemasonry. Sources: Stein, Gordon. Encyclopedia of Hoaxes. Detroit: Gale Research, 1993.

Marion, Frederick

Mariapovch Povch was a village in northeastern Hungary and the place of origin of one of the more notable weeping icons of the Virgin Mary revered among Eastern Rite Roman Catholic Christians. The icon was prepared by Stefan Papp, the brother of the pastor of the local parish church. Originally, the icon was intended for display in the local parish church. The picture of the Virgin was shown holding the infant Jesus, who in turn held a threepetaled lotus in His hand. The icon was seen to weep for the first time on November 14, 1696. It again was seen to weep on December 8, and on this second occasion the tears continued to flow for eleven days. The event had such impact that the town became known as Mariapovch. Word of the weeping icon reached the royal court of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in Vienna. The emperor ordered the icon to be brought to Vienna. By the time that the emperor’s representatives arrived to pick up the icon for transport back to Vienna, it had become famous and large crowds gathered at every village on the way back to the capital, and they arrived only after many days’ delay. On December 1, 1698, the icon was finally placed in St. Steven’s Basilica. The emperor was so impressed by the devotion shown the icon that he hired another artist to make a duplicate of the original icon, which was then given to the village of Mariapovch. It was carried there in a formal procession. On August 1–3, 1715, this second icon also began to weep, and as a result the parish church became a place of pilgrimage. It again shed tears two centuries later, in December 1905. The original icon remained in the basilica until World War II (1939–45). As the fighting started, it was hidden away until after the war, when it was returned to a new prominent place in the basilica near its entrance. Carpatho-Rusyn immigrants to the United States have continued the veneration that had developed around the icon, and several churches have constructed shrines to house copies of it. Eastern Roman Catholics are similar to Eastern Orthodox churches and have icons instead of statues. Weeping icons serve the same function in those churches that weeping statues serve in Western or Latin Rite churches. Sources: Weeping Icon of Mariapovch. rusyn.org/. April 14, 2000.


Marie of Agreda (or Maria de Jesus) (1602–1665) A Spanish nun, Maria Fernandez Coronel, who founded and was abbess of the Franciscan Recollects at Agreda. She published a work entitled La mystica ciudad de Dios (The Mystic City of God, a Miracle of the All-powerful, the Abyss of Grace: Divine History of the Life of the Most Holy Virgin Mary, Mother of God, our Queen and Mistress, manifested in these last times by the Holy Virgin to the Sister Marie of Jesus, Abbess of the Convent of the Immaculate Conception of the town of Agreda, and written by that same Sister by order of her Superiors and Confessors). This work, which was condemned by the Sorbonne, described many strange and miraculous happenings said to have befallen the Virgin Mary from her birth on, including a visit to Heaven in her early years, when she was given a guard of 900 angels. These revelations appear to have come out of her own spiritual raptures, but were full of inaccuracies. She was said to have lived a pious life in spite of the condemnation of her writings.

Marion, Frederick (1892–


Stage name of Josef Kraus, famous European performer of stage telepathy and clairvoyance during the 1930s, who also 979

Mark Probert Memorial Foundation claimed paranormal powers. Born in Prague, Czechoslovakia, October 15, 1892, he was the son of a businessman and grew up in a practical atmosphere. When he manifested psychometric and clairvoyant talents, his family was annoyed rather than impressed, and prescribed castor oil for an oversensitivity. At school, however, the boy became adept at games of locating hidden objects and sometimes enlarged this talent by giving detailed descriptions and information relating to the owners of the objects. Towards the end of his school days, he found it expedient to present his psychic abilities in the form of so-called ‘‘tricks’’ at school concerts and other entertainments. He passed his final examination in mathematics, not because he understood the principles involved, but because he had the unusual talent of being able to memorize the test volume of problems and formulae from beginning to end. After enrolling for university studies, he saw a newspaper report about a Viennese performer named Rubini who claimed special powers of finding concealed objects. Stimulated by his student friends, Marion issued a challenge that he could rival Rubini’s feats. The story was taken up by a local newspaper, and a committee was appointed from among the Prague police and personalities of the city. Marion undertook to find, in a stipulated time, several objects hidden by the committee in different parts of Prague and described in a sealed envelope deposited at police headquarters. Marion later stated that his spectacular success was due to the fact that he established telepathic communication with the chairman of the committee, and indeed, there seems no other way in which he could have obtained access to the sealed information. He became an overnight celebrity, and at the age of 19 was invited to perform at music halls throughout Europe. He was billed as ‘‘The Telepathic Phenomenon’’ or ‘‘The Man with Six Senses.’’ In 1913 he appeared in Moscow on the same bill as Fred Karno’s ‘‘Mumming Birds,’’ a show that included Stan Laurel and a little clown who later became world famous as Charlie Chaplin. In England Marion was sometimes billed as ‘‘The Human Bloodhound,’’ since he helped the police in various European countries to unravel crimes through his telepathic powers. During World War I, Marion served in the Austrian Army, and while stationed in Albania, he tried his hand at water dowsing. He rapidly became so well known for his successes that the military authorities commissioned him as an officer and sent him to different areas to find water for the troops. He found traveling around the country somewhat arduous and experimented with what has since become known as ‘‘teleradiesthesia,’’ holding his divining twig over a large-scale map instead of visiting the area (see radiesthesia). He was remarkably successful, and this gave him more time to spare, which he spent in giving shows to entertain the troops. After a bullet wound and a bout of malaria, he was sent back to base at Innsbruck in the Tyrol. After the war, he returned to his music hall demonstrations, and in 1920 met the remarkable stage clairvoyant Erik Jan Hanussen, who combined extraordinary talents with blatant trickery. Marion warned Hanussen that his growing preoccupation with black magic would have disastrous consequences, but the warning was not heeded. According to Marion, it was Hanussen who instructed the inner circle of the young Nazi Party in the power of signs and words and first proposed the swastika as the party symbol. Hanussen was murdered by Nazi thugs in 1933, for disclosures that were embarrassing to the party. In his later years Marion appeared less frequently at music halls and confined his talents chiefly to lecture demonstrations and private consultations. In 1934 he visited England and gave impressive demonstrations of his psychic talents. During a lecture at the Aeolian Hall, New Bond Street, London, he was challenged by Lady Oxford, who stated that his reconstructions of past incidents in the lives of members of his audience were too precise to be genuine and must have involved confederates. 980

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. Thereupon Marion correctly reconstructed an incident in the life of Lady Oxford’s husband, Lord Asquith, in August 1914, which no other person could have possibly known. Lady Oxford was tremendously impressed and made a public apology, acknowledging that Marion’s talent was genuine. In 1934 Marion submitted to a long series of scientific experiments directed by S. G. Soal at the National Laboratory of Psychical Research, London. Soal was skeptical of Marion’s ESP but concluded that Marion had unusual hyperaesthesia, or unusual acuity of the senses. Soal stated: ‘‘My laboratory experiments show that Marion performs his amazing feats by the aid of remarkable powers which are probably possessed by not one man in a million. There can be no question of either collusion or trickery in his public performances, judging from what I have seen him do single-handed in the laboratory. . . .’’ However, this hardly did justice to Marion’s amazing feats outside the laboratory, including precognition, clairvoyance, and telepathy. Marion was also tested by noted psychic researcher Harry Price, chiefly in locating hidden objects. Price, like Soal, concluded that Marion somehow gathered imperceptible indications from the other individuals present who had seen the objects hidden. But he could not say how minute indications were possible, since Marion had no physical contact with the audience (as in the famous ‘‘muscle reading’’ technique by which some stage performers make contact with a spectator and can interpret imperceptible movements of their muscles towards or away from objects). Price even attempted to limit Marion’s view to only one member of the audience, the others being screened by curtains. Then the single agent’s body was further screened off progressively by a box with adjustable panels, so that at times only a fifth of his body was visible to Marion, and eventually only his feet. Even under such extraordinary conditions, Marion had a high rate of success. After two years of laboratory experiments, R. H. Thouless and Dr. B. P. Wiesner stated: ‘‘We can say definitely that we are satisfied that Marion shows paranormal capacities of an unusually high order under strictly controlled experimental conditions.’’ During World War II, Marion joined ENSA (the British troop entertainment service) and traveled around army camps, demonstrating his ESP talents at troop concerts. On May 23, 1946, he took part in a BBC radio program investigating his psychic abilities, one of the first British radio presentations of a subject that was not deemed respectable. Sources: Marion, Frederick. In My Mind’s Eye. London: Rider, 1949. Preliminary Studies of a Vaudeville Telepathist. Bulletin III. London: London Council for Psychical Investigation, 1937. Price, Harry. Confessions of a Ghost Hunter. 1936. Reprint, Causeway Books, 1974.

Mark Probert Memorial Foundation Former foundation that preserved tape recordings of sessions with Mark Probert, a trance medium of the 1950s.

Marriott, William S. (ca. 1910) British professional magician and illusionist who investigated and exposed fake mediumship. His stage name was ‘‘Dr. Wilmar.’’ One of his noted illusions was the production of apparently paranormal paintings, duplicating the claimed psychic phenomena of the Chicago mediums, the Bangs sisters. The illusion was presented as ‘‘Dr. Wilmar’s Spirit Painting’’ and so impressed fellow magician P. T. Selbit that he agreed to pay Marriott a weekly royalty for the use of the illusion. However, Marriott himself was not entirely straightforward in claiming rights on the illusion, since he had obtained the secret

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. from David P. Abbott, an amateur magician. When Selbit presented the illusion at the Orpheum Theatre in Omaha in 1911, Abbott saw the show and visited Selbit backstage, when he learned that Selbit had already paid Marriott some $10,000 in royalties. Marriott performed a valuable role in locating and publicizing a rare catalog of fake medium equipment titled Gambols with the Ghosts: Mind Reading, Spiritualistic Effects, Mental and Psychical Phenomena, and Horoscopy, issued in 1901 by Ralph E. Sylvestre of Chicago. This catalog was designed for private circulation among fake mediums, on the understanding that it would be returned to Sylvestre when tricks had been selected from it. The catalog had an introductory note that stated: ‘‘Our experience during the past thirty years in supplying mediums and others with the peculiar effects in this line enable us to place before you only those which are practical and of use, nothing that you have to experiment with. . . . We wish you to thoroughly appreciate that, while we do not, for obvious reasons, mention the names of our clients and their work (they being kept in strict confidence, the same as a physician treats his patients), we can furnish you with the explanation and, where necessary, the material for the production of any known public ‘tests’ or ‘phenomena’ not mentioned in this, our latest list. You are aware that our effects are being used by nearly all prominent mediums . . . of the entire world.’’ This infamous catalog included equipment for fake slatewriting, self-playing guitars, self-rapping tables, materializations, and a ‘‘Complete Spiritualistic Séance.’’ Marriott obtained a number of these illusions and had himself photographed posing with them. Marriott also successfully exposed fake ‘‘spirit photographs,’’ obliging that champion of Spiritualism, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, to state ruefully: ‘‘Mr. Marriott has clearly proved one point, which is that a trained conjurer can, under the close inspection of three pairs of critical eyes, put a false image upon a plate. We must unreservedly admit it.’’ A copy of Gambols with the Ghosts was obtained by psychic researcher Harry Price and is now in the Harry Price Library of Magical Literature at the University of London, England. Sources: Sylvestre, Ralph E. Gambols with the Ghosts: Mind Reading, Spiritualistic Effects, Mental and Psychical Phenomena, and Horoscopy. Chicago: privately printed, 1901.

Marryat, Florence (1837–1899) British author, daughter of novelist Frederick Marryat, born July 9, 1837. She later became Mrs. Ross-Church, then Mrs. Francis Lean. Marryat published some 90 novels, about 100 short stories, and numerous essays, poems, and recitations; she lectured, wrote plays, toured as an actress with her own company, and edited a popular magazine. Many of her novels were translated into German, French, Swedish, Flemish, and Russian and were also popular in America. Marryat is best remembered today, however, as a dedicated Spiritualist who was acquainted with most of the celebrated mediums of the 1870s and 1880s both in England and America. She was, for example, a witness to the famous farewell of ‘‘Katie King’’ to Florence Cook at the séance held by Sir William Crookes. Florence Marryat recorded her experiences in two books: There Is No Death (1891) and The Spirit World (1894), and both, especially the first, were frequently reprinted, being immensely popular. The two books are credited with securing hundreds of converts to Spiritualism. Later she also claimed mediumistic gifts herself, among them the strange power of summoning the spirits of the living. She died in London on October 27, 1899. In the 1930s, Sir Oliver Lodge cast doubts upon the accuracy of the phenomena reported by Marryat.

Mars, Face on Sources: Lodge, Sir Oliver. Letters from Sir Oliver Lodge. Edited by J. A. Hill. London: Cassell, 1932. Marryat, Florence. The Spirit World. New York: C.B. Reed, 1894. ———. There Is No Death. 1891. Reprint, New York: Causeway Books, 1973.

Mars, Face on In 1977, electrical engineer Vincent DiPietro discovered a photograph released the previous year by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of what appeared to be a stone structure in the shape of a human face on the surface of Mars. The picture had been taken by the Viking spacecraft. Working with a colleague, Gregory Molenaar, DiPietro had the picture computer-enhanced and in 1982 they published a book, Unusual Martian Surface Features, displaying their results. Other nearby structures included a pyramid and a grid-like pattern that some saw as the remnants of a city. The DiPietro/Molenaar book attracted the attention of former museum curator and journalist Richard Hoagland. A selfeducated scientist, the widely read Hoagland had placed himself in the midst of several space-related controversies. In the early 1980s he added his voice to several speculative scientists in suggesting the possibility of life on Jupiter’s frozen moon Europa. In the mid-1980s he emerged as an enthusiastic supporter of the idea of artificial structures on Mars. In 1987 he published a book, The Monuments of Mars: A City on the Edge of Forever, which remains the most cogent statement of the argument. Hoagland’s claims found significant support in 1997 in The Martian Enigmas: A Closer Look, by Mark Carlotto. Carlotto, a processing engineer, worked with the images and demonstrated their three-dimensional nature. His work provided evidence that, whether natural or artificial, the structures were not a simple simulacra, natural objects that looked like something recognizably human (e.g., a pane of glass which appears to have a face in it). Most simulacra disappear when the object is viewed from a different angle or the lighting direction is changed. The existence of such structures on Mars, should they prove to be artificial, would have far-reaching implications concerning the place of humans in the solar system and the order of things. There is no place for the construction of such objects in human history as it is currently constructed. Those who accept the possibility that the face, the pyramid, and related structures are artificial, have been integrated into the alternative histories theories that advocate humanity’s ancient contacts with extraterrestials. Such alternative histories have been constructed by researchers like Zecharia Sitchin and Alan F. Alford. Through the 1990s, scientists at NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory have held to the position adopted when the pictures were initially examined in 1976. They are natural objects that just happen to resemble what some have suggested they are. They have noted that similar objects, such as naturally formed pyramids, may be found on Earth. In the meantime, Hoagland has pressed the case for the Face on Mars and has appeared a number of times on the popular late-night radio talkshow hosted by Art Bell. The controversy continues, primarily on the fringe of the UFO community, and its ultimate resolution would be possible only with the landing of scientists on Mars and an immediate examination of the artifacts. Hoagland organized a team to study the huge files of photos released by NASA for other possible intelligently constructed artifacts and on several occasions has presented the findings to NASA and to Congressional committees. Those interested in the artifacts, all located in a region of Mars known as Cydonia, forced NASA to include it in their 1999 fly-by of Mars, but the new pictures were no more conclusive than were the earlier ones. 981

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Through the 1990s, Hoagland has developed a conspiracytheory approach to NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and has suggested that they are withholding vital data that would support and further explain his belief concerning the possible ruins on Mars. His ideas may be found at his expansive Internet site, http://www.enterprisemission.com. The Enterprise Mission, Hoagland’s research project, may be contacted at P.O. Box 1130, Placitas, NM 87043. Sources: Carlotto, Mark J. The Martian Enigmas: A Closer Look. Berkeley, Calif.: North Atlantic Books, 1997. Gardner, Martin. ‘‘The Great Stone Face.’’ In The New Age: Notes of a Fringe Watcher. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1988, 72–78. Hoagland, Richard. The Monuments of Mars: A City on the Edge of Forever. 1987. 4th ed. Frog Ltd., 1996. Molenaar, Gregory, and Vincent DiPietro. Unusual Martian Surface Features. Glen Dale, Md.: Mars Research, 1982.

Mars, Louis (1906–


Professor of psychiatry and former Haitian ambassador to the United States who was also interested in parapsychology. He was born on September 5, 1906, at Grande-Rivière du Nord, Haiti. He studied at the University of Haiti Medical School, Port-au-Prince (M.D., 1927), and took postgraduate training in psychiatry at the Faculté de Médecine in Paris (1935) and at Columbia University in New York City (1939–41). He became a professor of psychiatry at the Medical School, University of Haiti (1937) and at the Institute of Ethnology, University of Haiti (1946–49). He subsequently served as dean of the Medical School (1947–51) and rector of University of Haiti (1957). Mars joined the Haitian government in 1958 as the minister of foreign affairs. He was subsequently named ambassador to France in 1960 and ambassador to the United States in 1962. After his government service, he became director of Psychiatric Institute of Port-au-Prince (1962). As a psychiatrist, Mars became interested in the phenomena associated with voudou about which he wrote one book and several articles. He contributed to an article, ‘‘Phenomena of Possession,’’ published in Tomorrow (autumn 1954). Sources: Mars, Louis. The Crisis of Possession in Voudou. Port-auPrince, Haiti: State Printing, 1946. Rev. ed. Reed, Cannon and Johnson, 1977. Mars, Louis, and G. Devereux. ‘‘Haitian Voudou and the Revitalization of the Nightmare.’’ Psychoanlytic Review 38, no. 4 (1951).

Marsh, Maurice Clement (1922–


South African university lecturer in psychology who took special interest in parapsychology. He was born March 13, 1922, at Bloemfontein, South Africa. He studied at the University of South Africa (B.A., 1942; B.A., hons. psychology, 1946; U.E.D., 1948) and Rhodes University, Grahamstown (Ph.D., 1959). He served as a lecturer in psychology at Rhodes University (1950–61) and in 1962 joined the faculty in psychology at the University of New England, New South Wales, Australia. Marsh’s Ph.D. dissertation dealt with experimental work in ESP, and he continued his interest in laboratory investigation of psychic phenomena. He joined the Society for Psychical Research, London. He was a guest researcher at the Parapsychology Laboratory of Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (1951–52). He has investigated the relationship between subjects and agents in ESP testing and the psychological aspects of conditions favorable to poltergeists, using psychological testing techniques. 982

Sources: Pleasants, Helene, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Parapsychology. New York: Helix Press, 1964.

Marshall, Mary (1842–1884) The first British professional medium, through whom both Sir William Crookes and Alfred Russel Wallace obtained their introduction to the phenomena of Spiritualism. Her manifestations consisted of raps, movements, and levitations of the table, knotting handkerchiefs under the table-leaf, and writing on glass. This latter appears to have been a rudimentary form of slate-writing, with which she later confronted her sitters. The first account of this demonstration was published by Thomas Barkas in Outlines of Ten Years’ Investigations into the Phenomena of Modern Spiritualism (1862). On a small scale, Marshall exhibited most of the phenomena of later mediums. From 1867 she held sittings for direct voice in which ‘‘John King’’ manifested. In her first séances she was assisted by her niece and occasionally by her young son. Her husband developed drawing mediumship. A writer in the journal All the Year Round (July 28, 1860) characterized her performance as a ‘‘dull and barefaced imposition,’’ but Robert Bell, the celebrated dramatist, writing in the Cornhill magazine, was satisfied that the phenomena were genuine spirit manifestations. Sources: Barkas, Thomas P. Outlines of Ten Years’ Investigations into the Phenomena of Modern Spiritualism. London, 1862.

The Marsi According to Pliny, these people of ancient Italy were from the earliest times skilled in magical practices and sorceries. They were able to charm poisonous serpents by means of songs. St. Augustine also wrote: ‘‘One would think that these animals understood the language of the Marsi, so obedient are they to their orders; we see them come out of their caverns as soon as the Marsian has spoken.’’ (See also Psylli)

Martel, Linda (1956–1961) Remarkable child spiritual healer. She was born handicapped, and although she only lived for five years, she became a legend through her ability to heal a wide variety of illnesses through touch or contact with material she had touched. One of the most extraordinary aspects of her healing was that it persisted long after her death. Born August 21, 1956, at St. Peter Port, Guernsey, Channel Islands, she suffered from hydrocephalus and spina bifida, and her legs were paralyzed. When 11 days old, she was taken to St. Peter Port Hospital, Guernsey, to await death. Over the next few weeks her head grew disproportionately large. During this period, her father experienced a strange phenomenon in which his room was filled with a glowing light and he heard a sound like wind blowing. Linda did not die, and soon afterward the fluid was drained away from her head by means of a new American treatment for hydrocephalus. The operation was successful and the size of the head reduced. At the age of three, Linda frequently spoke about ‘‘my Lady’’ and about Jesus. The Lady had a blue dress and gold chain and lived in heaven with Jesus and also looked after her. At the age of five, Linda foretold her own death, saying, ‘‘My Jesus Christ is not coming to see me many more times, but I shall soon be going to see Him.’’ She died October 20, 1961. During her brief life, Linda manifested healing gifts as early as the age of three. Sometimes she would simply put her finger on a painful point and a cure would take place. At other times she healed through handkerchiefs she had handled. After her

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. death, a sufferer from asthma asked Linda’s father whether he could have a piece of her clothing. Her father gave him a piece of a dress, and the sufferer was healed after contact with the material. After that, there were constant demands for pieces of Linda’s clothing, and claimed cures through contact with them included warts, eczema, spinal injury, bone disease, and throat cancer. Because so many pieces of material associated with Linda were used up, her father presented one of her dresses to the Guernsey Museum, in the hope that it might be effective in healing through people simply looking at it, since the material itself was only the intermediary of some unknown force. Sources: Martel, Roy. The Mysterious Power of Linda Martel. Guernsey, Channel Islands: Toucan Press, 1973.

Martello, Leo Louis (1931–2000) Contemporary Wiccan priest. Martello was born on September 26, 1931, in Dudley, Massachusetts. He attended Assumption College and Hunter College and went on to become a Spiritualist minister. In the early 1960s he founded the Temple of Spiritual Guidance and the Spiritual Independents Movement. Through the 1960s he concentrated on his skills as a psychic reader and wrote a series of short booklets: Your Pen Personality (1961), Its in the Cards (1964), and How to Prevent Psychic Blackmail (1966). By the end of the 1960s, however, he had begun to identify with the slowly emerging neopagan witchcraft movement. In 1970 he founded the Witches Liberation Movement and the Witches Anti-Defamation League as instruments to demand religious rights and reparation payments for the Wiccan community. That same year he organized a Halloween ‘‘witch-in’’ in New York City’s Central Park. Martello was quickly recognized as a leader in the Wiccan community and soon turned out a string of books that were widely read in the community, which had at the time produced only a few texts of its own. His 1973 book Witchcraft: The Old Religions was standard reading for young Wiccans through the rest of the decade and was frequently cited as an authoritative presentation of the beliefs and practices of modern witches. He also began to publish a periodical that flourished through the early 1970s, the WICA Newsletter, and the Witchcraft Digest. Martello identifies himself as a traditionalist Wiccan with Sicilian roots. His coven operates under the name Witches International Craft Associates. He also founded and heads Hero Press, a small publishing operation. Martello died in June 2000. Sources: Martello, Leo Louis. Curses in Verses. New York: Hero Press, 1971. ———. Weird Ways of Witchcraft. New York: HC Publishers, 1969. Melton, J. Gordon. Religious Leaders of America. 2nd edition. Detroit: Gale Research, 1999.

Martial Arts A group of Asian skills combining mental, physical, and spiritual energies for self-defense in weaponless fighting, or the achievement of apparently paranormal feats of strength and control. The martial arts derive from the samurai or warrior caste fighting systems of ancient Japan, which were conditioned by Zen Buddhism; hence they have a spiritual basis. They are closely related to similar systems in ancient China. Japanese and Chinese martial arts are widely diffused throughout Asia. These arts have become more widely known and taught in the West since World War II, when many servicemen encoun-

Martian Language tered them in Asian campaigns, and there are now many schools for specific training of the different martial art forms. Symbolic of the growing interest in martial arts has been the popularity of the late Chinese film star Bruce Lee, who popularized the art of kung-fu in such films as Fist of Fury and Enter the Dragon. That particular martial art was further popularized in the television movie series Kung Fu starring David Carradine, first shown in the 1970s and revived in the 1990s. The main martial arts are: aikido (a kind of judo of graceful movement in which an opponent’s force is used against him), bando (Burmese boxing and wrestling), judo (wrestling with special emphasis on balance and leverage), jiu-jitsu (a more comprehensive and aggressive forerunner of judo), karate (kicking, striking, and blocking with arms or legs), kung-fu (a group of various styles of fighting and defense), shaolin (Chinese shadow boxing), tae kwon do (Korean system of kick-punching), and t’ai chi chuan (originally a self-defense art, now a system of physical exercises to harmonize body and mind). The various forms of martial arts have, as their basis, the attainment of spiritual enlightenment and peace, from which point remarkable feats of skill and strength in self-defense or attack can be generated. In the process of training, practitioners claim to become aware of a subtle vital energy named ch’i or ki. Ch’i is accumulated, amplified, and directed by willpower to specific parts of the body, which develop strength and resilience. This process is sometimes preceded by a sudden exhalation of breath, often accompanied by a shout or yell. The intake of breath that follows appears to result in hyperventilation of the system, generating vitality that can be directed to hands, feet, or other parts of the body. This process has been widely demonstrated by practitioners of karate in apparently paranormal feats such as breaking bricks, tiles, and planks of wood with a bare hand. It has been suggested that these feats are related to such psychic phenomena as psychokinesis, the ability to move objects at a distance by mental action. Sources: Barclay, Glen. Mind over Matter: Beyond the Bounds of Nature. London: Arthur Barker, 1973. Reprint, London: Pan, 1975. Ching-nan, Lee, and R. Figueroa. Techniques of Self-Defense. New York: A. S. Barnes, 1963. Feldenkrais, Moshe. Higher Judo. New York: Warner, 1952. Freudenberg, Karl. Natural Weapons: A Manual of Karate, Judo, and Jujitsu Techniques. New York: A. S. Barnes, 1962. Huard, Pierre, and Ming Wong. Oriental Methods of Mental and Physical Fitness: The Complete Book of Meditation, Kinesitherapy, and Martial Arts in China, India, and Japan. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1971. Masters, Robert V. Complete Book of Karate and Self-Defense. New York: Sterling, 1974. Medeiros, Earl C. The Complete History and Philosophy of Kung Fu. Rutland, Vt.: Charles Tuttle, 1975. Nakayama, M. Dynamic Karate. Cedar Knolls, N.J.: Wehman, 1966. Tohei, Koichi. This is Aikido. Tokyo: Japan Publications, 1975. Westbrook, A. and O. Ratti. Aikido and the Dynamic Sphere. Rutland, Vt.: Charles Tuttle, 1970.

Martian Language A language purporting to be that of the inhabitants of the planet Mars, written and spoken by the medium known as Hélène Smith (pseudonym of Catherine Elise Muller). Smith was studied by the celebrated investigator Theodore Flournoy, professor of psychology at Geneva. In 1892 Smith joined a Spiritualist circle, where she developed marvelous mediumistic powers. In 1896, after Flournoy had begun his investigations, Smith claimed to have been spirited during a trance to the planet 983

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Mars, and thereafter described to the circle the manners, customs, and appearance of the Martians. She learned their language, which she wrote and spoke with ease and consistency. Unlike most of the ‘‘unknown tongues’’ automatically produced, the Martian language was intelligible, its words were used consistently, and on the whole it had every appearance of a genuine language. That it was in any way connected with Mars was, of course, out of the question. The descriptions of that planet and its inhabitants were quite impossible. And the language itself bore remarkable resemblance to French, the native tongue of the medium. The grammar and construction of both languages were the same, and even the vowel sounds were identical, so that the source of the Martian language was clearly an extraordinary construction from the medium’s unconscious. As such it greatly resembled the form of religious speech known as glossolalia, or speaking in tongues, which is a new language that is a cutdown version of the language the speaker uses normally everyday. Sources: Flournoy, Theodore. From India to the Planet Mars. Reprint, New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1963.

Martin, Dorothy R(andolph) (1912–


Associate professor of psychology with special interest in parapsychology. She was born on April 19, 1912, in Denver, Colorado. She studied at the University of Colorado, Boulder, from which she received three degrees (B.A., 1934; M.A., 1936; Ph.D., 1947). She joined the faculty in psychology at the university even prior to completing her doctorate and stayed there through her career. She was a charter associate of the Parapsychological Association and the author of a variety of articles on parapsychology. Sources: Martin, Dorothy R. ‘‘An Analysis of a Second Series of 25,000 Trials.’’ Journal of Parapsychology 2 (1938). ———. ‘‘Chance and Extra-Chance Results in Card Matching.’’ Journal of Parapsychology 1 (1937). ———. ‘‘A Review of All University of Colorado Experiments.’’ Journal of Parapsychology 4 (1940). Martin, Dorothy R., and F. P. Stribic. ‘‘Studies in Extrasensory Perception: An Analysis of 25,000 Trials.’’ Journal of Parapsychology 2 (1938).

Martin, Stuart (d. 1947) British Spiritualist and journalist, formerly employed on the Daily Mirror newspaper. He was editor of the newspaper Psychic News from March 16, 1946, until his death on January 17, 1947.

Martin (of Tours), Saint (ca. 316–400) One of the most venerated Christian saints in Europe during the Middle Ages. Most of the Christian luminaries were credited with working miracles, and indeed the great majority of them maintained that if the people were to be won for Christ, the one sure way was to show them extraordinary marvels. Even Columba, most engaging of saints, was not averse to practicing deception with a view to making converts, and it has often been suggested, not without considerable reason, that some of these early thaumaturgists brought science to their aid. Perhaps St. Martin was among those who tried this practice, and certainly the list of miracles attributed to him is formidable, for he is traditionally credited with more than 200. Martin was born about the year 316 at Sabaria, in Pannonia. His parents were heathen, yet he very soon came into contact 984

with Christians, and their teaching impressed him greatly. As a young man he entered the army, and it was soon after this step that, while stationed with his regiment at Amiens, he performed his famous act of charity, dividing his cloak with a beggar who was shivering with cold. The night after this act he had a vision of Christ appearing to him and giving him his blessing. Thereupon Martin espoused the Christian faith formally, was baptized, and renounced soldiering. Going to Poitiers, he then made the acquaintance of Hilary, who wished to make him a deacon, but at his own request ordained him to the humbler office of an exorcist. A little later, during a visit to his home, Martin experienced the joy of winning his mother to the new faith. However, his open zeal in opposing the Arians (heterodox Christians) raised persecution against him, and for some time he found it advisable to live at the island of Gallinaria, near Genoa, where he engaged in scientific research and theological studies. By the year 365 he was back with Hilary at Poitiers, when he founded the Monasterium Locociagense. In 371 the people of Tours chose him as their bishop, and for some time he was active trying to extirpate idolatry in his diocese and extending the monastic system. Nevertheless, he was no fierce proseletyzer. At Trèves in 385, he entreated that the lives of the Priscillianist heretics should be spared, and afterward he refused to have anything to do with those bishops who had sanctioned their execution. Meanwhile, being anxious for a period of quiet study, Martin established the monastery of Marmontier les Tours on the banks of the Loire, and here much of his remaining life was spent, although it was at Candes that his death occurred about the year 400. Martin left no writings behind him, the Confessio with which he is sometimes credited being undoubtedly spurious. His life was written by his ardent disciple, Sulpicius Severus, and it is more a hagiography than a biography, filled with accounts of the miracles and marvels worked by the quondam bishop. Martin was canonized a saint by the church. He is commemorated on November 11, but the feast of Martinmas, which occurs on that date, and which of course derives its name from him, is, nevertheless, a survival of an old pagan festival. It inherited certain pagan usages, which accounts for the fact that Martin is regarded as the patron saint of drinking, joviality, and reformed drunkards. Certain miracles and other incidents in his life were depicted by noted painters. Perhaps the finest picture of him is one by the Flemish master Hugo van der Goes, which is now in the Municipal Museum at Glasgow. It should be said that the term ‘‘martinet,’’ signifying a severe and punctilious person, is not derived from the saint’s name, but from one Jean Martinet, a French soldier who, during the reign of Louis XIV, won fame by his ardor in promoting discipline in his regiment.

Martinez, Louis Prominent Mexican physical medium, supposed to have demonstrated levitation and materialization phenomena. In 1964 he was investigated by parapsychologist W. G. Roll, who found evidence of fraud on the part of one of the sitters.

Martinus Institute of Spiritual Science The Martinus Institute of Spiritual Science is a New Age organization founded in Copenhagen, Denmark, in the 1930s by a teacher known publicly as Martinus (1890–1981). Reportedly, Martinus had undergone an intense experience, after which he could divine spiritual principles and laws of the universe through colored diagrams and symbols. He subsequently claimed to have analyzed the universe, which he understood in a set of logical chains of thought readily accessible to the intelli-

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. gence. Among the principles he discovered, for example, was that life is eternal and manifests in alternate periods of physical and spiritual existence (that is, reincarnation). Martinus’s teachings are summarized in his two books, Livets Bog (The Book of Life) and The Eternal World Picture. In 1935 he opened what has become the organization’s primary center at the seaside resort town of Klint. The work was slowed somewhat by World War II, but by the 1960s affiliated centers had opened in Germany, Holland, Sweden, and Great Britain. KOSMOS, the institute’s magazine, appears in Danish, German, French, English, Swedish, Esperanto, Spanish, and Dutch editions. The institute may be contacted c/o Mariendalsvej 94–96, 2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark. Website: http:// www.martinus.dk/. Sources: Martinus. The Immortality of Living Beings. Copenhagen, Denmark: Martinus Institute, 1970. ———. The Principle of Reincarnation. Copenhagen, Denmark: Martinus Institute, 1938. ———. The Road to Initiation. Copenhagen, Denmark: Martinus Institute, 1957.

Martiny, M(arcel) (1897–

Maskelyne, John Nevil Since then, the mystery of the Mary Celeste (sometimes inaccurately called ‘‘Marie Celeste’’) has been widely discussed and many theories advanced. There have also been various literary hoaxes, notably ‘‘The Marie Celeste: The True Story of the Mystery’’ (Strand Magazine, November 1913) and the book The Great Mary Celeste Hoax by Laurence J. Keating (London, 1929). Several years before the creation of Sherlock Holmes, author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle published ‘‘J. Habakuk Jephson’s Statement’’ in Cornhill magazine (January 1884), a romantic fictional yarn with an air of verisimilitude. The story was republished in Doyle’s volume of short stories The Captain of the Polestar (London, 1890). Sources: Fay, Charles Eden. Mary Celeste: The Odyssey of an Abandoned Ship. Salem, Mass.: Peabody Museum, 1942. Gould, Rupert T. The Stargazer Talks. London, 1944. Reprinted as More Oddities and Enigmas. New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1973. Keating, Laurence J. The Great Mary Celeste Hoax: A Famous Sea Mystery Exposed. London: Heath-Cranton, 1929. Stein, Gordon. Encyclopedia of Hoaxes. Detroit: Gale Research, 1993.


Physician with special interests in parapsychology. He was born on November 11, 1897, in Nice, France, and studied at the Faculté de Médecine, Université de Paris (M.D. with honors, 1925). He worked for the Rockefeller Institute Mission during World War I and was employed at Beaujon Hospital (1925–32), Léopold Bellan Hospital, Paris (1933–45), and Hospital Foch in the years after the war. From 1949 on he was director of the Anthropotechnical Laboratory, Prophylactic Institute, Paris. Other appointments include secretary-general, MedicoSurgical Society of the Free Hospitals of France (1932); president of National Union of Physicians, Surgeons, and Specialists of the Free Hospitals of France (1948); president of Physiopsychology Society (1958); and member of Paris Medical Society. Martiny wrote various medical works and co-authored, with Alexis Carrel, Médecine officielle et médecine hérétique (Orthodox and Unorthodox Medicine). He also spent many years investigating human bio-types in relation to parapsychological phenomena; parapsychology in relation to psychoanalysis; hypnosis and Pavlov’s nervous typology in relation to parapsychology; relationships between neurology, cerebral function, and parapsychology; and space-time concepts in parapsychology. His articles on such subjects have been published in Revue Métapsychique. He also contributed papers to international conferences on parapsychology (Utrecht, 1953; St. Paul de Vence, 1954). He was selected president of Institute Métapsychique in 1962. Sources: Pleasants, Helene, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Parapsychology. New York: Helix Press, 1964.

Mary Celeste The name of a ship found abandoned at sea December 5, 1872, and one of the most famous unsolved sea mysteries. Her sails were set, she was sound and seaworthy, with plenty of food and water, but not a soul on board. Some garments were hanging out to dry on a line. In the cabin was a slate with notes for the ship’s log, with November 25 as the last date. The crew had left pipes, clothing, and even oilskin boots. For some unknown reason the ship had been hurriedly abandoned. The Mary Celeste was brought to Gibraltar by the crew of the British brig Dei Gratia who claimed salvage. On March 25, 1873, the chief justice awarded £1,700 (about one-fifth of the total value) to the master and crew of the Dei Gratia.

Maryland Center for Investigation of Unconventional Phenomena Former Fortean (anomalous) center founded by Willard F. McIntyre and Arthur F. Rosen for the purpose of gathering and disseminating information about such phenomena as UFOs, Bigfoot, and monsters. The center issued a publication Believe It.

Marylebone Spiritualist Association, Ltd. See Spiritualist Association of Great Britain Maskelyne, John Nevil (1839–1917) Famous British stage magician who was a strong opponent of fraudulent Spiritualism. Born at Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, December 22, 1839, he was the son of a saddlemaker. As a boy he was fascinated by an entertainer who demonstrated spinning plates and practiced this feat himself. He was apprenticed to a clockmaker and at the age of 19 made his first piece of conjuring apparatus, a box with a secret panel. By 1865 he was giving demonstrations of amateur conjuring. After seeing the performance of the famous Davenport brothers, he believed that he had observed trickery, and to prove his case he went into partnership with George Alfred Cooke to build a cabinet similar to that of the Davenports and rival their phenomena. Maskelyne and Cooke were launched on a career of stage magic and leased the Egyptian Hall in London for their entertainments. By 1905 Maskelyne was in partnership with fellow illusionist David Devant (born David Wighton) at St. George’s Hall, Langham Place, in West London, where they based many of their presentations of the claimed phenomena of Spiritualism. In 1906 he was involved in a controversy with Spiritualist sympathizer Archdeacon Thomas Colley, who had challenged him to reproduce the phenomena of medium F. W. Monck (incidentally exposed in fraud). Maskelyne staged a remarkable illusion, but Colley claimed it fell short of the requirements of his challenge. After a court case, Colley’s claim was upheld, perhaps surprisingly in view of opposition to Spiritualism at that time. He died on May 18, 1917, in London. 985


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Sources: Maskelyne, John N. The Fraud of Modern ‘‘Theosophy’’ Exposed. London: G. Routledge, 1913. ———. Modern Spiritualism: A Short Account of Its Rise and Progress, with Some Exposures of So-Called Spirit Media. London: F. Warne, 1876.

Masleh The angel who the Jews believed ruled the zodiac. According to a rabbinical legend, Masleh was the medium through which the power and influence of the Messiah was transmitted to the sphere of the zodiac.

Masse, François (1891–


Commissaire général of the French Navy, with interests in parapsychology. He was born on May 10, 1891, at Vendome, France. He entered the French Navy and served in World Wars I and II, finally retiring as commissaire général in 1946. During his retirement years he became a member of the Institut Métapsychique International and for a period served as general secretary and secretary-treasurer. He collaborated with Rene Warcollier in telepathy experiments and contributed articles on parapsychological topics to Revue Métapsychique. Sources: Pleasants, Helene, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Parapsychology. New York: Helix Press, 1964.

Massey, Gerald (1828–1907) British poet born May 29, 1828, in Hertfordshire, England. He grew up in poverty, earned a living by working in a factory from the age of eight, and learned to read at a penny school. Massey became a socialist and edited a radical journal, and he also wrote poems, which were favorably noticed by established poets such as Browning and Tennyson. His first wife, Rosina Knowles, was a Spiritualist medium. Massey based one volume of his poetry, A Tale of Eternity (1870), on personal experience of a haunted house. He soon lost some of his early popularity, however, when he was said to have gone over to the Spiritualists. In response he confessed: ‘‘For the truth’s sake I ought to explain that the spiritualism to be found in my poetry is no delusive idealism, derived from hereditary belief in a resurrection of the dead. My faith in the future life is founded upon facts in nature and realities of my own personal experience. These facts have been more or less known to me personally during forty years of familiar face-toface acquaintanceship, therefore my certitude is not premature; they have given me proof palpable that our very own human identity and intelligence do persist after the blind of darkness has been drawn down in death.’’ In 1872 Massey presided at the meeting in London marking the departure of Emma Hardinge Britten to Australia. His address with some additions was later printed under the title Concerning Spiritualism. In his later years he published four large volumes in which he tried to trace the origin of language, symbols, myths, and religions. The work was reminiscent of Godfrey Higgins (1772–1833). His final product was not well received during his lifetime, the idea of Africa as the birthplace of mankind being quite unacceptable in Victorian England. Thus A Book of the Beginnings (1881) and his other texts were largely ignored or ridiculed until later archaeological discoveries provided more solid evidence in support of Massey’s themes. He died on October 12, 1907. Sources: Massey, Gerald. Ancient Egypt. 2 vols. London, 1907. Reprint, New York: Samuel Weiser, 1970. 986

———. A Book of the Beginnings. 2 vols. London, 1881. Reprint, New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1974. ———. The Natural Genesis. 2 vols. London: n.p., 1883.

Mass of St. Secaire A form of black mass originating in the Basque countryside, possibly in medieval times. It was a travesty of a Christian mass and was celebrated in a ruined church. The intention was not to worship the devil but to direct currents of malevolent spite against a victim. It may have had its origin in ancient folklore practices. Sources: Rhodes, H. T. F. The Satanic Mass. London, 1954. Reprint, London: Arrow, 1964.

Masters Occult adepts who are supposed to have reached a superhuman stage but have elected to remain on Earth and guide seekers after wisdom. The founding and guidance of the Theosophical Society was supposed to be due to the activity of hidden Masters or Mahatmas living in remote Tibet. Since the idea of the Masters and their Great White Brotherhood has been popularized, numerous groups such as the several Alice Bailey groups, the I Am Movement, and the Church Universal and Triumphant, now advocate a relationship to the Masters. Much of Western occultism derives from romantic concepts of adepts with magical powers, but in Hinduism, mystical awareness of God-realization is considered superior to paranormal feats, and to the Hindu pupil, the Master is his guru, or spiritual teacher. The term Mahatma is used to indicate a special guru or ‘‘great soul,’’ and Maharishi or Maharshi denotes a great sage of transcendental wisdom. Another Sanskrit term Paramahansa (literally ‘‘greatest swan’’) is given to a very exalted mystic. The primary Masters claimed by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, one of the founders of Theosophy, were: Koot Hoomi Lal Singh (usually signing letters ‘‘K.H.’’), the Master Morya (known as ‘‘Master M.’’), Master Ilarion or Hilarion (a Greek), Djual Khul (or ‘‘D.K.’’), and the Maha Chohan. Sources: Jinarajadasa, C. The Early Teachings of the Masters. Chicago: Theosophical Press, 1925. Johnson, Paul. In Search of the Masters: Behind the Occult Myth. South Boston, Va.: The Author, 1990. Leadbeater, Charles W. The Masters and the Path. Adyar, India: Theosophical Publishing House, 1925.

Masters, Robert E. L. (1927–


Co-founder with wife, Jean Houston, of the Foundation for Mind Research, Manhattan, New York, conducting experiments in the borderline between mental and physical experience. Masters has a background of poetry and sexology and was formerly director of the Visual Imagery Research Project and the Library of Sex Research. Both Houston and Masters have experimented with psychedelic drugs and hypnosis, and in their foundation they have investigated induction of mystical experience and altered states of consciousness. Sources: Houston, Jean, and Robert E. L. Masters. Listening to the Body. New York: Delacorte Press, 1978. ———. Mind Games: The Guide to Inner Space. New York: Viking, 1972. ———. The Varieties of Psychedelic Experience. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966.

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. Masters, Robert E. L. Eros and Evil: The Sexual Psychopathology of Witchcraft. New York: Julian Press, 1962. ———. Forbidden Sexual Behavior and Morality. New York: Julian Press, 1962. ———. The Homosexual Revolution: A Challenging Exposé of the Social and Political Directions of a Minority Group. New York: Julian Press, 1962.

Mastiphal The name given to the prince of demons in an apocryphal book entitled Little Genesis, which was quoted by the Greek monk and historian Cedrenus (eleventh century).

Material for Thought Journal concerned with Eastern and Western teachings regarding the inner search for self. Address: Far West Editions, P.O. Box 27901-113, San Francisco, CA 94127. Online orders are available at http://www.material4thought.com/. Sources: Material For Thought. http://www.material4thought.com/. March 8, 2000.

Materialization The claimed manifestation of temporary, more or less organized, apparitions in varying degrees of form, often possessing human physical characteristics and said to be shaped for a temporary existence from a substance called ‘‘ectoplasm.’’ Materializations were attributed by Spiritualists and some psychical researchers to spirit agency, although a few postulated that they might arise from some unknown natural force independent of departed spirits, but emanating from gifted psychics. Most modern parapsychologists believe that materializations were simply performances staged by mediums and their accomplices to deceive the people sitting with them, who had hoped to come into contact with the supernatural. For a century psychical researchers investigated claims of materialization and from time to time researchers came forward to declare their belief in the genuineness of the phenomena they had witnessed. Materialization was also closely associated with other physical phenomena such as apports and spirit photography. As researchers became more sophisticated in detecting fraud, the number of people willing to risk announcing themselves as materialization mediums steadily declined. Materialization was pushed to the edge of the Spiritualist movement. As recently as 1960, there was a major expose of a group of materialization mediums at Camp Chesterfield, an independent Spiritualist camp near Anderson, Indiana. The mediums, including the camp’s leading medium Mabel Riffle, were caught on infrared film impersonating spirits and moving in and out of a trap door. Then in the mid-1970s, Lamar Keene, a medium from Florida, resigned from his church and confessed to playing tricks on his congregation and on other clients who came to him for readings. The manner in which materialization phenomena is finally evaluated will radically affect any account of the era of materialization mediums. It is a unanimous conclusion, however, that fraud occurred and that trade catalogs selling products to help accomplish materializations circulated through the Spiritualist community. It is also true that all of the notable materialization mediums, with the exception of D. D. Home, were at one time or another caught in fraud, and that no clear case of even a partial materialization exists. The belief in materialization rests upon evidence of the most questionable kind.

Materialization The Origin of Materialization Phenomena In its early stages, materialization was confined to the appearance of heads and hands, or vague luminous streaks of light. Figures were materialized later. Like much of the physical phenomena of Spiritualism, it had its origin in the United States, where it was reported at a comparatively early period in the history of the movement. As early as 1860, séances were held with the Fox sisters by Robert Dale Owen and others, at which veiled and luminous figures were seen. One sitter, a Mr. Livermore, claimed to recognize the spirit of his dead wife during séances with Kate Fox extending over some six years. However, there were no other sitters and the séances were held in the dark. In England the mediums Frank Herne and Charles Williams succeeded a few months later in ‘‘materializing’’ shadowy forms and faces in a dark séance room. However, it was Florence Cook, whose phenomena was championed by physicist William Crookes, who produced the most sensational materializations. At the begining of her Spiritualistic career, she was a pretty young girl of 16 or 17. She was at that time a private medium, though at the outset she held some materialization séances with Herne. From her childhood, it was said, Cook was attended by a spirit girl who said her name on Earth had been Annie Morgan, but that her name in the spirit world was ‘‘Katie King.’’ Under the latter name, Cook’s control was destined to become famous in Spiritualist circles. During a séance the medium was usually put into a sort of cupboard or cabinet, tied to her chair, and the cords sealed. After a short interval a form clad in flowing white draperies would emerge from the cabinet. On one occasion, a séance was held at the Cooks’ house, at which several distinguished Spiritualists were present. Among the invited guests was William Volckman, who decided to test for the good faith of the medium and ‘‘Katie’s’’ genuineness. After some 40 minutes of close observance of the materialized spirit, Volckman concluded that Cook and Katie were the same, and just as the white-robed figure (probably not Cook, but an accomplice) was about to return to the cabinet he rushed forward and seized her. His indignant fellow sitters released the ‘‘spirit,’’ the light was extinguished, and in the confusion that followed the spirit disappeared. Cook was found a few minutes later bound as when she was placed in the cabinet, the cords unbroken, the seal intact. She wore a black dress, and there was no trace of white drapery in the cabinet. Crookes, whose investigation into the phenomena of this medium extended over a period of years, had better opportunity to examine ‘‘Katie’s’’ claims than Volckman. He wrote that the spirit form was taller than the medium, had a larger face and longer fingers, and whereas Cook had black hair and a dark complexion, Katie’s complexion was fair, and her hair a light auburn (all observations consistent with the theory that a friend of Cook’s portrayed the materialized spirit). Moreover, Crookes, enjoying ‘‘Katie’s’’ complete confidence, often had the privilege of seeing her and Cook at the same time. Strong doubts have been expressed about the genuineness of the spirit form ‘‘Katie King.’’ Crucial to the argument is the integrity of William Crookes. In his detailed study of the situation in 1962, Trevor Hall concluded that Cook and Crookes were having an affair. Two years later the Society for Psychical Research released a report of an interview with a person who claimed to have known Cook and to whom she confessed her fraud. But Cook was not the only medium who was controlled by ‘‘Katie King.’’ With her father, ‘‘John King,’’ she became a popular spirit with materialization mediums. From that time on, materialization was extensively practiced both by private and professional mediums. Among them were Mary Showers and her daughter, Lottie Fowler; William Eglinton; and D. D. Home; in later years materializations were noted to have occurred in the presence of Eusapia Palladino. 987

Materialization Many sitters claimed to see in such draped figures and veiled faces the form and features of deceased relatives and friends, although frequently there was little reason for such a claim—parents recognized their daughter by her hair, a man recognized his mother by the sort of cap she wore, and so on. There is no doubt that fraud entered into materialization séances. Lay figures, muslin draperies, false hair, and similar properties have been found in the possession of mediums; accomplices have been smuggled into the séance room; lights are frequently turned low or extinguished altogether. Add to this the fact that the ‘‘spirits’’ upon being grasped frequently turned into the medium and it will be clear that skepticism was justified.

Psychical Researchers and Materialization Toward the end of the nineteenth century psychical researchers began to turn their attention toward materialization phenomena and were impressed with what they observed. French researcher Camille Flammarion attributed the materializations he had witnessed in the presence of Eusapia Palladino to fluidic emanations from the medium’s body, while judging the recognition given them the result of illusion. Other researchers said the physical organization formed by the spirit was composed of fine particles of matter drawn from the material world. Gustav Geley, in his book Clairvoyance and Materialisation (1927), says, ‘‘this is no longer the marvelous and quasimiraculous affair described and commented on in early spiritualistic works.’’ Charles Richet, in Thirty Years of Psychical Research (1923), was possibly the strongest witness of all. He writes: ‘‘I shall not waste time in stating the absurdities, almost the impossibilities, from a psychophysiological point of view, of this phenomenon. A living being, or living matter, formed under our eyes, which has its proper warmth, apparently a circulation of blood, and a physiological respiration which has also a kind of psychic personality having a will distinct from the will of the medium, in a word, a new human being! This is surely the climax of marvels! Nevertheless, it is a fact.’’ He adds: ‘‘Materialisation is a mechanical projection; we already know the projection of light, of heat and of electricity; it is not a very long step to think that a projection of mechanical energy may be possible. The remarkable demonstrations of Einstein show how close mechanical or luminous energy are to one another. ‘‘I have also, like Geley, Schrenck Notzing, and Mme. Bisson, been able to see the first lineaments of materialisations as they were formed. A kind of liquid or pasty jelly emerges from the mouth or the breast of Marthe which organises itself by degrees, acquiring the shape of a face or a limb. Under very good conditions of visibility, I have seen this paste spread on my knees, and slowly take form so as to show the rudiment of the radius, the cuvitus, or metacarpal bone whose increasing pressure I could feel on my knee.’’ Richet’s Marthe was the medium Marthe Béraud, also known as ‘‘Eva C.’’ Geley relates his experiences with her in his 1920 book From the Unconscious to the Conscious: ‘‘I have very frequently seen complete representations of an organ, such as a face, a hand, or a finger. In the more complete cases the materialised organ has all the appearance and biologic functions of a living organ. I have seen admirably modelled fingers, with their nails; I have seen compete hands with bones and joints; I have seen a living head, whose bones I could feel under a thick mass of hair. I have seen well-formed living and human faces! On many occasions these representations have been formed from beginning to end under my own eyes. . . . The forms have, it will be observed, a certain independence, and this independence is both physiological and anatomical. The materialised organs are not inert, but biologically alive. A well-formed hand, for instance, has the functional capacities of a normal hand. I have several times been intentionally touched 988

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. by a hand or grasped by its fingers. . . . Well-constituted organic forms having all the appearance of life, are often replaced by incomplete formations. The relief is often wanting and the forms are flat. There are some that are partly flat and partly in relief, I have seen in certain cases, a hand or a face appear flat, and then, under my eyes assume the three dimensions, entirely or partially. The incomplete forms are sometimes smaller than natural size, being occasionally miniatures.’’

From Thoughtforms to Full-Grown Phantoms Many of the photographs taken of Eva C.’s materializations suggest the evolution of thoughtforms. A Professor Daumer contended that ectoplasmic forms were neither bodies nor souls. He offered the term eidolon (shape). A number of Eva C.’s phantom forms resembled pictures she had seen, caricatures of presidents Wilson and Pioncaré, and they often had folds as if a paper had been uncreased to be photographed. Richet remarked that the supposition of fraud would presume extreme stupidity on Eva’s part because she knew that photographs would be taken; moreover, there was no reason to suppose that a materialization had to be analogous to a human body and three dimensional. ‘‘The materialisation of a plaster bust is not easier to understand than that of a lithographic drawing; and the formation of an image is not less extraordinary than that of a living human head,’’ he said. Daumer’s speculation is strangely contrasted by Glen Hamilton’s report (in Psychic Science) on the building and photographing of a three-dimensional ectoplasmic ship in the Winnipeg circle. The entities ‘‘John King’’ and ‘‘Walter’’ claimed responsibility for the experiment. Coming through the mediums Mary M. and X, they carried on a dialogue feigning that they were aboard ‘‘King’s’’ pirate ship among a crew of ruffians. It was hinted that this playacting had a psychological purpose: the recovery of past memories and the creation of the thought image of a sailing ship. Eventually the ship was built, but because of some indecision in giving the signal to take a flash photograph, it ‘‘came into port badly damaged.’’ Hamilton remarks: ‘‘No matter how great we may conceive the unknown powers of the human organism to be, we cannot conceive of it giving rise to an objective mass showing purposive mechanistic construction such as that disclosed in the ship teleplasm of June 4th [1903]. We are forced to conclude that the supernormal personalities in this case (by some means as yet unknown to us) so manipulated or otherwise influenced the primary materialising substance after it had left the body of the medium, or was otherwise brought into its objective state, as to cause it to represent the idea which they, the unseen directors, had in view, namely the idea of a sailing ship’’ (Psychic Science, vol. 11, no. 4, Jan. 1933). The appearance of images instead of forms was said to have something to do with the available power. Geley often observed strange, incomplete forms, imitations or simulacra of organs. His theory was as follows: ‘‘The formations materialised in mediumistic séances arise from the same biological process as normal birth. They are neither more nor less miraculous or supernormal; they are equally so. The same ideoplastic miracle makes the hands, the face, the viscera, the tissues, and the entire organism of the foetus at the expense of the maternal body, or the hands, the face, or the entire organs of a materialisation. This singular analogy between normal and so-called supernormal physiology extends even to details; the ectoplasm is linked to the medium by a channel of nourishment, a true umbilical cord, comparable to that which joins the embryo to the maternal body. In certain cases the materialised forms appear in an ovoid of the substance. . . . I have also seen on several occasions, a hand presented wrapped in a membrane closely resembling the placental membrane. The impression produced, both as to sight and touch, was precisely that of a hand presentation in childbirth, when the amnion is unbroken. Another analogy with childbirth is that of pain.

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. The moans and movements of the entranced medium remind one strangely of a woman in travail.’’ To the legitimate objection that one biological process was natural and the other anomalous, Geley answered: ‘‘Normal physiology is the product of organic activity such as evolution has made it. The creative and directive idea normally works in a given sense, that of the evolution of the species, and conforms to the manner of that evolution. Supernormal physiology, on the other hand, is the product of ideoplastic activity directed in a divergent manner by an abnormal effort of the directive idea.’’ It was also soon noted that the ‘‘ectoplasmic’’ shapes tended to conform to the bodily pattern of the medium. After observing the Davenport brothers, Rev. J. B. Ferguson said: ‘‘I have seen, with my natural vision the arms, bust and, on two occasions, the entire person of Ira E. Davenport duplicated at a distance of from two to five feet where he was seated fast bound to his seat. I have seen, also, a full-formed figure of a person, which was not that of any of the company present. In certain conditions, not yet clearly understood, the hands, arms and clothing of the Brothers Davenport and Mr. Fay are duplicated alike to the sight and the touch. In other cases, hands which are visible and tangible, and which have all the characteristics of living human hands, as well as arms, and entire bodies, are presented, which are not theirs or those of anyone present.’’ Crookes was satisfied that ‘‘Katie King’’ was independent from the medium Florence Cook. Yet on certain occasions he noted a striking resemblance between phantom and medium. There is an unusual account in the history of the medium Elizabeth d’Esperance that seems to suggest that a total exchange is within the bounds of possibility. During a series of sittings with d’Esperance in Sweden a crucial test was requested and the medium bravely stated to ‘‘Walter,’’ her spirit control, that she would take the responsibility. D’Esperance writes: ‘‘A very uncomfortable feeling pervaded the circle but it afterwards gave place to one of curiosity. My senses became keenly alert, the cobwebby sensation, before described, grew horribly intense, and a peculiar feeling of emptiness, which I had previously had, became so strong that my heart seemed as though swinging loosely in an empty space, and resounding like a bell with each stroke. The air seemed to be full of singing, buzzing sounds that pressed on my ears, but through it I could hear the breathing of the sitters outside the curtains. The movements made in the air seemed to sway me backwards and forwards. A fly alighting on my hand caused a pain like that of a toothache to shoot up my arm. I felt faint, almost dying. ‘‘At last the arranged-for signal was given, that all was ready. The curtains were thrown open, and a materialised form stood fully revealed beside me. The lens of the camera was uncovered, the plate exposed, the magnesium light flashed. Then the curtains fell together. I remember the feeling of relief and thinking: Now I can give way. It is possible that I did faint. I do not know. But I was aroused by the sound of a voice saying in my ear: She is not here, she is gone. It was one of the family who spoke and the terror in the boy’s voice roused me effectually. I wanted to reassure him, and asked for water, and wondered at the same time whose voice was it that made the request. It was like my own but seemed to come from the air or from another person. The water was brought and drunk, but though I felt refreshed the act seemed to be performed by that other person who had spoken. Then I was left alone . . . ‘‘Now comes the strangest part of this strange experiment. The photographic plate was carefully developed and a print made, which revealed a most astonishing fact. The materialised form, well in focus, was clad in white, flowing garments. The hair was hanging loosely over the shoulder, which, like the arms, were without covering. The figure might have been that of a stranger, but the features were unmistakably mine. Never has a photograph shown a better likeness. On a chair beside it and a little behind, was a figure clad in my dress, the black

Materialization bands on the wrist, and the tape round the waist showing themselves clearly and intact, but the face was that of a stranger, who seemed to be regarding the proceedings with great complacency and satisfaction. Needless to say, we looked at this extraordinary photograph with something like petrifaction. We were utterly at a loss to understand its meaning, and no explanation was forthcoming, except a rueful remark from Walter, who when questioned replied that ‘Things did get considerably mixed up.’ ’’ In Light (December 19, 1903), L. Gilbertson remarks: ‘‘My own theory of the strange head is that the manifesting spirit was driven out of the materialised form by Madame’s subself, which had gained an abnormal excess of power through the weak condition of her normal organism. Finding itself ousted, the visitor took refuge with Madame’s other part, and proceeded to operate on it in the way generally known as transfiguration. Succeeding in this operation, it is not difficult to believe, as Madame says, that it seemed to be regarding the proceedings with great complacency and satisfaction.’’ To account for the variant phenomena from one séance to the next, Spiritualists hypothesized that if the health of the medium was weak or the power, for any other reason, low, materialization usually did not progress beyond the stage of resemblance to the medium. In line with this hypothesis Enrico Morselli proposed a psychodynamic theory (Psycologia e Spiritismo, 1907) according to which the ectoplasmic substance resulted from a kind of human radioactivity and the directive idea had its origin in the medium’s subconscious mind. But Morselli also added that the medium’s subconscious mind may establish telepathic communication with the sitters’ subconscious minds and may shape the ectoplasmic forms according to their thoughts and desires. While the second part of the hypothesis seemed far-fetched, the first was supported by many reports. The influence of the human mind, however, was evident to a certain stage only. The phantom shapes did not keep the medium’s physiognomy, gestures, and voice for long and displayed, after the transitory period, an apparent independence. Their bodies were said to have temperature and blood circulation and to breathe and behave in every way as an unrelated entity. Epes Sargent writes in Proof Palpable of Immortality (1875) that a feminine spirit who manifested herself at Moravia in the séances of Mary Andrews on one occasion produced, in rapid succession, facsimiles of her personal appearance at six different periods of her corporeal life, ranging from childhood to old age. The phantoms of Etta Roberts were often said to transform themselves into the forms of other persons in view of the sitters. From his experiences, E. A. Brackett (another author of books on Spiritualism) concluded that the sitter’s will has an influence over the phantom shapes as well. In his séances with Annie Eva Fay, he found that by the exercise of his will he could cause the materialized forms to recede.

Interdependence of Phantom and Medium A community of sensation between the medium and the materialized phantom was described as part of the drama of the séance. The interaction between the two bodies was reportedly constant, a fact that is today seen as a rationalization to explain away what is now viewed as further evidence of the fraud in the séance room. Florence Cook once had a dark stain on a covered part of her body after an ink mark had been made on ‘‘Katie’s’’ face while the medium was locked in the cabinet. Annie Fairlamb (‘‘Mrs. Mellon’’) reported: ‘‘I feel as though I were that form, and yet I know I am not and that I am still seated on my chair. It is a kind of double consciousness—a faraway feeling, hard to define. At one moment I am hot, and the next moment cold. I sometimes have a choking, fainting, sinking sensation when the form is out.’’ Describing an early materialization séance of Rosina Thompson, F. W. Thurstan stated: ‘‘All this while Mrs. T. was 989

Materialization in full consciousness, but she kept exclaiming that she felt ‘all hollow’ and another thing she noticed was that whenever ‘Clare’s’ fingers touched anyone she distinctly felt a pricking sensation in her body, very similar to her experiences when she had been placed once on an insulating stool and charged with electricity and persons had touched her to make sparks come from her.’’ D’Esperance, who never touched tobacco, suffered from nicotine poisoning if her sitters smoked during the ectoplasmic process. W. Reichel, author of Occult Experiences (1906), observed that the phantoms of the medium C. V. Miller smelled of tobacco and even of food and wine if the medium had liberally partaken of them before the séance. When the materilized child of Florence Marryat filled her mouth with sugar-plums, she nearly choked the medium. ‘‘Mahedi,’’ the Egyptian phantom of medium F. W. Monck, discovered a dish of baked apples in the room. ‘‘I got him to eat some,’’ wrote Archdeacon Thomas Colley. ‘‘Our medium was at this time six or seven feet away from the materialised form and had not chosen to take any of the fruit, averring that he could taste the apple the Egyptian was eating. Wondering how this could be, I, with my right hand, gave our abnormal friend another baked apple to eat, holding this very bit of paper in my left hand outstretched towards the medium, when from his lips fell the chewed skin and core of the apple eaten by ‘The Mahedi’—and here it is before me now after all these years in this screwed up bit of paper for any scientist to analyse.’’ Ectoplasm was seen as a sensitive substance. It was to be handled with caution and protected from the light. Gustav Geley observed that the shock of sudden light was proportional to the duration of the light and not to its intensity. A magnesium flash would hurt the medium less than the rays of a pocket lamp. If the ectoplasm had solidified, the danger of injuring the medium was less, but a danger nevertheless. Reportedly, the medium could suffer if the phantom was hurt, but the injury did not necessarily appear on the corresponding part of the medium’s body. A phantom hand could be pierced through with a knife and the medium might shriek with pain, yet his hands would bear no trace of the wound. F. L. Willis had an experience of this kind in his mediumship. However, séance-room atrocities seldom went beyond spirit grabbing. When Florence Marryat was conducted into the cabinet by the materialized spirit of Mary Showers, she was told: ‘‘You see that Rosie is half her usual size and weight. I have borrowed the other half from her, which, combined with contributions from the sitters, goes to make up the body in which I show myself to you. If you increase the action of the vital half to such a degree, that, if the two halves did not reunite, you would kill her. You see that I can detach certain particles from her organism for my own use, and when I dematerialise, I restore these particles to her, and she becomes once more her normal size. You only hurry the re-union by violently detaining me, so as to injure her.’’ In an earlier account given to a Mr. Luxmoore by ‘‘Katie King,’’ the danger was graphically but less scientifically pictured. To the question ‘‘When you disappear, where is it to?’’ she answered, ‘‘Into the medium, giving her back all the vitality which I took from her. When I have got very much from her, if anyone of you were to take her suddenly round the waist and try to carry her you might kill her on the spot; she might suffocate. I can go in and out of her readily, but understand, I am not her—not her double; they talk a deal of rubbish about doubles; I am myself all the time.’’ Colley’s experience with ‘‘Mahedi’’ appeared to conform to the above theories. This phantom was a giant. His physical strength was so great that he could lift the archdeacon from his chair to the level of his shoulders apparently without effort. He reminded the archdeacon of a mummy of gigantic proportions he once saw in a museum. Colley described the ‘‘Mahedi’s’’ first visit through the medium F. W. Monck: 990

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. ‘‘He wore a kind of metal skull cap, with an emblem in front which trembled and quivered and glistened, overhanging the brow. I was allowed to feel it, but there was little resistance to my fingers, and it seemed to melt away like a snowflake under my touch, and to grow apparently solid again the moment after. For once (February 18, 1878) by daylight, it was arranged, as a most dangerous experiment, that I should grasp the white-attired Egyptian and try to keep him from getting back to invisibility through the body of the medium. I was, by an invisible force, levitated, as it seemed instantly some eighteen or twenty feet from my drawing room door right up to where the medium stood, whom, strangely and suddenly, wearing white muslin over his black coat, I found in my arms just as I had held The Mahedi. The materialised form had gone, and the psychic clothing that he evolved with him from the left side of my friend must also have gone the same way with the speed of thought back to invisibility through the medium.’’ It is difficult to find a corroboration of this experience in the literature of Spiritualism. Far more often it was said that the spirit dissolved in the grabber’s hand. William Volckman had that experience with ‘‘Katie King.’’ Most of the time, however, when the light was switched on the spirit was found to be identical to the medium. Cases of transfiguration in a state of deep trance may offer an excuse, but generally it is a safe assumption that a successful grabbing of the medium in the spirit’s guise establishes a prima facie case for fraud. The question that usually complicates the case is of the drapery that is visible in the dark and may serve for purposes of transfiguration. The drapery often disappeared when the light was switched on, but often it was found and turned out to be very material and enduring.

Some Early Explanations According to the explanation of the controls, the phenomena of materialization were not produced by a single spirit. ‘‘John King,’’ in a séance with Cecil Husk, disclosed to Florence Marryat: ‘‘When the controls have collected the matter with which I work—some from everybody in the circle, mostly from the medium’s brain—I mould with it a plastic mask, somewhat like warm wax in feel, but transparent as gelatine, into the rough likeness of a face. . . . I therefore place this plastic substance over the spirit features and mould it to them. If the spirits will have the patience to stand still I can generally make an excellent likeness of what they were in earth life, but most of them are in such haste to manifest that they render my task very difficult. That is why very often a spirit appears to his friends and they cannot recognise any likeness.’’ The solidity of the materialized form varied. Some mediums only produced vaporous phantoms called ‘‘etherealizations.’’ The exertion of force apparently had no relationship to the spirit entity’s solidity. For example, an early illustrative account appears in Spiritualism by John Worth Edmonds and G. T. Dexter (2 vols., 1853–55): ‘‘I felt on one of my arms what seemed to be the grip of an iron hand. I felt distinctly the thumb and fingers, the palm of the hand, and the ball of the thumb, and it held me fast by a power which I struggled to escape from in vain. With my other hand I felt all round where the pressure was, and satisfied myself that it was no earthly hand that was thus holding me fast, nor indeed could it be, for I was as powerless in that grip as a fly would be in the grasp of my hand.’’ The word materialization was first used in 1873 in the United States in place of ‘‘spirit forms.’’ Hands and arms were seen in the séances of the Davenport brothers in the earliest days of modern Spiritualism. According to Epes Sargent’s The Scientific Basis of Spiritualism (1881), ‘‘as far back as 1850, a full spirit form would not infrequently appear.’’ Chemist James J. Mapes became the first scientist to speculate on a means by which such temporary organisms might be produced in accordance with the kinetic theory of gases, with a minimum of actual material particles, if enough energy of motion were imparted to them.

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. Phantom Eyes and Hands A record published in the Report on Spiritualism of the London Dialectical Society (1871) narrates the metamorphosis of a psychic light into an eye: ‘‘Mr W. Lindsay said there was a large bright eye in the centre of the table, from whence other eyes appeared to emanate and approach and retreat.’’ Eyes winking humorously were frequently reported in the Boston séances of ‘‘Margery’’ (the name used in the literature for Mina Crandon). F. W. Pawlowski, professor of aeronautical engineering at the University of Michigan, writes about his experiences with Franek Kluski in the Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research (1925, pp. 481–504): ‘‘Bright bluish stars appear and begin to move high above the table, near the ceiling. When they approached me at a distance of about 16 inches I recognised to my great astonishment that they were human eyes looking at me. Within a few seconds such a pair of eyes develops into a complete human head, and with a hand moving a luminous palm illuminating it clearly. The hand will move around the head as if to show itself more clearly to the onlooker, the eyes looking at one intensely and the face smiling most pleasantly. I have seen a number of such heads, sometimes two at a time, moving through the air like drifting toy balloons from one sitter to another. On several occasions the apparitions appeared just behind my back, and I was aware of them from the sound of their breathing, which I could hear distinctly before they were noticed by the sitters opposite to me. When I turned around I found their faces just about a foot from me, either smiling or looking intently at me. Some of these were breathing violently as if after a strenuous run, and in these cases I felt their breath on my face. Once I listened to the heartbeat of an apparition. They conducted themselves as callers at a party. The expression of curiosity in their eyes is most appealing. I have seen a similar look only in the eyes of children at the age of the awakening of their intelligence. On one occasion I saw two of them flying high above our heads in the higher room, illuminating each other with the plaques and performing fancy evolutions. It was really a beautiful sight, something like an aerial ballet.’’ William Crookes testified that the phantom hand ‘‘. . . is not always a mere form, but sometimes appears perfectly life-like and graceful, the fingers moving and the flesh apparently as human as that of any in the room. At the wrist, or arm, it becomes hazy and fades off into a luminous cloud.’’ To the touch the hand was sometimes icy cold and dead, at other times warm and lifelike. Crookes said he saw a luminous cloud hover over a heliotrope, break a sprig off and carry it to a lady; he also claimed to have seen a finger and thumb pick petals from a flower in Home’s buttonhole and lay them in front of several persons sitting near him. Phantom hands playing the keys of an accordion floating in the air were frequently seen. Once in the full light of day in Hall’s drawing room, with D. D. Home’s feet and hands in full view the entire time, William Howitt, S. Carter Hall, and Emma Hardinge Britten claimed they saw 20 pairs of hands form and remain visible and active for about an hour. ‘‘One evening,’’ wrote John Ashburner of his experiences with the medium Charles Foster, ‘‘I witnessed the presence of nine hands floating over the dining table’’ (Notes and Studies on Animal Magnetism and Spiritualism, 1867). Signor G. Damiani testified before the London Dialectical Society as having seen, at a séance of the Davenport brothers in London in 1868, ‘‘. . . five pink transparent hands ranged perpendicularly behind the door. Subsequently,’’ he said, ‘‘I placed my hand in the small window of the cabinet, when I felt each of my five digits tightly grasped by a distinct hand; while my own was thus held down, five or six other hands protruded from the hole above my wrist. On withdrawing my hand from the aperture, an arm came out therefrom—an arm of such enormous proportions that had it been composed of flesh and bone, it would, I verily believe, have turned the scale (being

Materialization weighted) against the whole corporeal substance of the small Davenport.’’ A silver, luminous hand that began at the elbow and was seen in the process of formation is described in the report of a séance with D. D. Home in the Hartford Times, March 18, 1853: ‘‘In a moment there appeared a rather dull looking, grey hand, somewhat shadowy, and not quite so clearly defined as the first, but it was unmistakably there, and its grey hue could be clearly seen.’’ Eusapia Palladino was famous for her ‘‘third arm,’’ which issued from her shoulders and receded into them. This arm was often seen independently and well materialized. The ‘‘counterpartal arms’’ of William Stainton Moses, extending from his shoulders straight out, and above his true arms, presented a similar phenomenon. They simply retracted into the medium, or vanished if an attempt was made to grasp them. Describing ‘‘John King’s’’ materialized hand, Charles Richet stated: ‘‘I held it firmly and counted 29 seconds, during all which time I had leisure to observe both of Eusapia’s hands on the table, to ask Mme. Curie if she was sure of her control, to call Courtier’s attention, and also to feel, press and identify a real hand through the curtain. After 29 seconds I said: ‘I want something more, I want uno anello (a ring) on this hand.’ At once the hand made me feel a ring: I said ‘adesso uno braceletto’ and on the wrist I felt the two ends as of a woman’s bracelet that closes by a hinge. I then asked that this hand should melt in mine, but the hand disengaged itself by a strong effort, and I felt nothing further.’’ Sitting with Eusapia Palladino, Filippo Bottazzi ‘‘four times saw an enormous black fist come out from behind the left curtain, which remained motionless, and advance toward the head of Mme. B.’’ Eugene Crowell states in The Identity of Primitive Christianity with Modern Spiritualism (1874), ‘‘At Moravia, at one time, I saw an arm projected from the aperture of the cabinet, which with the hand, was fully three and a half feet in length. It remained in view, in free motion, for a time sufficient for all to observe and remark upon it. Its enormous length and size startled all present.’’ Despite such startling testimonies, the inference that telekinetic effects are produced by materialized hands should not be drawn hastily. Julien Ochorowicz noticed an alternative character about these manifestations: a well-materialized hand, when clearly visible, was mechanically inactive. Mechanical effects were generally produced by invisible hands. The same held true for chemical, luminous, and acoustic effects.

Phantoms of Fame and Name The best records of full form materializations have been furnished by ‘‘familiar’’ spirits: ‘‘Katie King,’’ who attended Florence Cook for three years; ‘‘Yolande,’’ who appeared in Elizabeth d’Esperance’s séances for a similar period; ‘‘Estella,’’ who manifested in the Livermore sittings for five years; and ‘‘Bertha,’’ a niece of E. A. Brackett who appeared to him through different mediums for two years. ‘‘Yolande’s’’ case was unique in one respect—she was sexually assaulted by a man who took her for a real woman. This resulted in a profound injury and serious illness to the medium. Materialized spirits seldom came in numbers and their range of activity was limited. The marvelous stories of C. V. Miller’s mediumship, which was powerful enough to make 12 materialized figures appear at once, rest mostly on the testimony of W. Reichel. Corroboration by a repetition of the occurrence is also wanting in the case of the peripatetic ghosts of George Spriggs, which were said to walk about the house and in the garden, and in the case of the open-air materializations of William Eglinton, in which the spirits walked 66 feet away from the medium. Crookes was the first modern scientist who studied materializations under laboratory conditions. ‘‘Katie King’’ offered him every opportunity for investigation. She even allowed Crookes 991

Materialization to enter the cabinet where, armed with a phosphorus lamp, he saw both the medium and ‘‘Katie’’ at the same time. In studying D. D. Home’s mediumship, Crookes did not see many fully materialized figures. He observed: ‘‘In the dusk of the evening during a séance with Mr. Home at my house, the curtains of a window about eight feet from Mr. Home were seen to move. A dark, shadowy, semi-transparent form, like that of a man, was then seen by all present standing near the window, waving the curtain with his hand. As we looked, the form faded away and the curtains ceased to move.’’ Mrs. Crookes described a semitransparent phantom form playing an accordian, which she said was also seen by her husband, the Reverend Stainton Moses, and Sergeant Cox in a Home séance: ‘‘As the figure approached I felt an intense cold, getting stronger as it got nearer, and as it was giving me the accordion I could not help screaming. The figure seemed to sink into the floor, to the waist, leaving only the head and shoulders visible, still playing the accordion, which was then about a foot off the floor.’’ A description of a more solid case was given by Lord Adare who also sat in Home’s séances: ‘‘Her form gradually became apparent to us; she moved close to Home and kissed him. She stood beside him against the window intercepting the light as a solid body, and appeared fully as material as Home himself; no one could have told which was the mortal body and which was the spirit. It was too dark, however to distinguish features. I could see that she had her full face turned towards us, and that either her hair was parted in the middle, and flowed down over her shoulders or that she had on what appeared to be a veil.’’ The next systematic investigation was made by Charles Richet, who confides to his readers: ‘‘At the Villa Carmen I saw a fully organised form rise from the floor. At first it was only a white, opaque spot like a handkerchief lying on the ground before the curtain, then this handkerchief quickly assumed the form of a human head level with the floor, and a few moments later it rose up in a straight line and became a small man enveloped in a kind of white burnous, who took two or three halting steps in front of the curtain and then sank to the floor and disappeared as if through a trapdoor. But there was no trap-door.’’ The phantom ‘‘Bien Boa’’ possessed all the attributes of life. Richet writes: ‘‘It walks, speaks, moves and breathes like a human being. Its body is resistant, and has a certain muscular strength. It is neither a lay figure nor a doll, nor an image reflected by a mirror; it is as a living being; it is as a living man; and there are reasons for resolutely setting aside every other supposition than one or other of these two hypotheses: either that of a phantom having the attributes of life; or that of a living person playing the part of a phantom.’’ At another time he notes, ‘‘At certain moments it was obliged to lean and bend, because of the great height which it had assumed. Then suddenly, his head sank, sank right down to the ground, and disappeared. He did this three times in succession. In trying to compare this phenomenon to something, I can find nothing better than the figure in a jack-in-the-box, which comes out all of a sudden.’’

Hands That Melted Like Snow The appearance of human organs or of complete bodies was followed by their dissolution. This phenomenon was observed under dramatic circumstances. Testimonies of this phenomenon were numerous: Frank L. Burr, editor of the Hartford Times, in a letter to Home’s wife, gave his account of one of Home’s last séances, held March 14, 1855, before his departure to England: ‘‘Turning this strange hand palm towards me, I pushed my right forefinger entirely through the palm, till it came out an inch or more, visibly, from the back of the hand. In other words, I pushed my finger clean through that mysterious hand. When I withdrew it, the place closed up, much as a piece of 992

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. putty would close under such circumstances, leaving a visible mark or scar, where the wound was, but not a hole. While I was still looking at it the hand vanished, quick as a lightning flash.’’ Crookes also wrote of Home: ‘‘I have retained one of these hands in my own, firmly resolved not to let it escape. There was no struggle or effort to get loose, but it gradually seemed to resolve itself into vapour, and faded in that manner from my grasp.’’ Crookes observed that the hands and fingers did not always appear to be solid and lifelike. Sometimes they looked like a cloud partly condensed into the form of a hand. H. D. Jencken said before the London Dialectical Society, ‘‘I have once been enabled to submit a spirit hand to pressure. The temperature was, as far as I could judge, the same as that of the room, and the spirit hand felt soft, velvety; dissolving slowly under the greatest amount of pressure to which I could submit it.’’ ‘‘Katie’s’’ wrist was once seized in anger by G. H. Tapp of Dalston, whom ‘‘Katie’’ had struck on the chest for a joke she resented. As Tapp described it, the hand ‘‘crumpled up in my grasp like a piece of paper, or thin cardboard, my fingers meeting through it.’’ ‘‘John King’’ was seen by Florence Marryat to ‘‘hold a slate so that both hands were visible, and then let one hand dematerialise till it was no larger than a doll’s, whilst the other remained the normal size.’’ Filippo Bottazzi of the University of Naples wrote, ‘‘I saw and felt at one and the same time a human hand natural in colour, I felt with mine the fingers and the back of a strong, warm, rough hand. I gripped it and it vanished from my grasp, not becoming smaller, but melting, dematerialising, dissolving.’’ Eugene Rochas wrote in the Annales des Sciences Psychiques (vol. 18, 1908, p. 280) of a séance in which M. Montorguiel seized a materialized hand and called for a light. The hand melted and ‘‘all of us thought we saw a luminous trail from his hand to F.’s body,’’ Rochas recalls. Hereward Carrington, one of the keenest fraudhunters among psychical researchers, wrote: ‘‘I myself have observed materializations under perfect conditions of control, and have had the temporary hand melt within my own, as I held it firmly clasped. This ‘hand’ was a perfectly formed, physiological structure, warm, life-like and having all the attributes of a human hand—yet both the medium’s hands were securely held by two controllers, and visible in the red light. Let me repeat, this hand was not pulled away, but somehow melted in my grasp as I held it’’ (The Story of Psychic Science, 1930).

Dramatic Exit of Spirit Visitants The dissolution of a full phantom was one of the most dramatic moments in a materialization séance. ‘‘Katie King’’ agreed to demonstrate it and Florence Marryat captures the moment in her book There is no Death (1892): ‘‘She [Katie King] took up her station against the drawing room wall, with her arms extended as if she were crucified. Then three gas-burners were turned on to their full extent in a room about 16 feet square. The effect upon ‘Katie King’ was marvelous. She looked like herself for the space of a second only, then she began gradually to melt away. I can compare the dematerialisation of her form to nothing but a wax doll melting before a hot fire. First the features became blurred and indistinct; they seemed to run into each other. The eyes sunk in the sockets, the nose disappeared, the frontal bone fell in. Next the limbs appeared to give way under her, and she sank lower and lower on the carpet, like a crumbling edifice. At last there was nothing but her head left above the ground—then a heap of white drapery only, which disappeared with a whisk, as if a hand had pulled it after her—and we were left staring by the light of three gas burners at the spot on which ‘Katie King’ had stood.’’ Sometimes the dissolution is unexpected, the medium later reporting that the power waned and the form could not be held

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. together. In a séance with Annie Eva Fay, a deceased sister appeared to Marryat, who recalled: ‘‘Suddenly she appeared to faint. Her eyes closed, her head fell back on my shoulder, and before I had time to realise what was going to happen, she had passed through the arm that supported her, and sunk down through the floor. The sensation of her weight was still making my arm tingle, but ‘Emily’ was gone, clean gone.’’ ‘‘Honto,’’ the Indian spirit control of the Eddy brothers, smoked a pipe. The light from the burning tobacco enabled Olcott to see her copper-colored cheek, the bridge of her nose, and the white of her eye. She remained out too long. Darting back, she collapsed into a shapeless heap before the curtains, only one hand being distinguishable. In half a minute she appeared again. The process of dissolution varied. Robert Dale Owen stated that he had seen a form fade from the head downward. William Oxley (author of Modern Messiahs and Wonder Workers, 1889) said he saw ‘‘Yolande’’ melting away from the feet upward until only the head appeared above the floor; this grew less and less until only a white spot remained. Then it too disappeared. Her materialization, as a rule, took ten to fifteen minutes. Her disappearance took place in two to five minutes, while the disappearance of the drapery lasted from one-half to two minutes. At one of Annie Fairlamb’s séances in Sydney, Australia, a form lay down on the platform, stretched out its limbs and each member of the body separately dematerialized. Most often the figures collapsed and disappeared through the floor. The phantoms of Virginia Roberts, however, (as Marryat testified) if they were strong enough to leave the cabinet, invariably disappeared by floating upward through the ceiling. ‘‘Their mode of doing this was most graceful,’’ Marryat wrote. ‘‘They would first clasp their hands behind their heads, and lean backwards; then their feet were lifted off the ground, and they were borne upward in a recumbent position.’’ The phantoms of Carlos Mirabelli, the South American medium, similarly raised themselves and floated in the air before full dissolution, which began with the feet. When matter apparently passes through matter or when apports are brought into the séance room, the process of dematerialization may be identical. This was suggested by d’Esperance (Shadow Land, 1897): ‘‘A lady once brought a brilliantly colored Persian silk scarf, which Yolande regarded with great delight, and immediately draped about her shoulders and waist. This scarf she could not be induced to part with. When she had disappeared and the séance closed a careful search was made, but it was not to be found. The next time she came, the lady asked her what she had done with it. Yolande seemed a little nonplussed at the question, but in an instant she made a few movements with her hands in the air and over her shoulders, and the scarf was there, draped as she had arranged it on the previous evening. . . . She never trusted this scarf out of her hands. When sometimes she herself gradually dissolved into mist under the scrutiny of twenty pairs of eyes, the shawl was left lying on the floor, we would say, ‘At last she has forgotten it’; but no, the shawl would itself gradually vanish in the same manner as its wearer and no search which we might afterwards make ever discovered its whereabouts. Yet Yolande assured us gleefully that we failed to see it only because we were blind, for the shawl never left the room. This seemed to amuse her, and she was never tired of mystifying us by making things invisible to our eyes or by introducing into the room flowers which had not been brought by human hands.’’

Marvels of Materialization On May 25, 1921, Juliette Bisson reported seeing the materialization on the hand of ‘‘Eva C.’’ of a naked woman eight inches high, with a beautiful body, long fair hair, and brilliantly white skin. It vanished and returned several times and either her hair was differently arranged or she appeared smaller. The little figure performed various gymnastic exercises and finally

Materialization stood on Bisson’s extended hand. (Bisson was Eva C.’s accomplice in producing materializations.) The materialization of small heads the size of walnuts in a glass of water was the peculiar feature of Lujza Ignath’s mediumship. ‘‘Nona,’’ the control, said the heads were plastic thoughtforms. Describing a visit to an unnamed materialization medium, Gladys Osborne Leonard states in her book My Life in Two Worlds (1931): ‘‘My husband was sitting with his feet and knees rather wide apart. His gaze suddenly was diverted from the materialised spirit to a kind of glow near his feet. Looking down he saw a tiny man and woman, between 12 and 18 inches high, standing between his knees. They were holding hands and looking up into my husband’s face, as if they were thinking ‘What on earth is that?’ They seemed to be interested, if not more so, in him, and the details of his appearance, as he was in theirs. He was too astonished to call anybody’s attention to the tiny people, who were dressed in bright green, like the pictures of elves and fairies, and who wore little pointed caps. A slight glow surrounded them, or emanated from them, he wasn’t sure which, but it was strong enough for him to see their little faces and forms clearly. After a moment or two they disappeared, apparently melting into the floor.’’ In a sitting with Countess Castelwitch in Lisbon, a communicator who called himself ‘‘M. Furtado’’ rapped out through the table that he would not allow himself to be photographed because he had forgotten what his face was like. At the next séance he said: ‘‘I have no face, but I will make one.’’ The photographic plate revealed a tall phantom clothed in white, having a death’s-head instead of a face. A similar but more gruesome instance was described in the reports of the Academia de Estudo Psychicos ‘‘Cesar Lombroso’’ of S˜ao Paolo, on the mediumship of Carlo Mirabelli: ‘‘The third sitting followed immediately while the medium was still in a state of exhaustion. A skull inside the closet began to beat against the doors. They opened it and the skull floated into the air. Soon the bones of a skeleton appeared one after another from neck to feet. The medium is in a delirium, beats himself and emits a bad smell like that of a cadaver. The skeleton begins to walk, stumble and walk again. It walks round the room while Dr. de Souza touches it. He feels hard, wet, bones. The others touch it. Then the skeleton disappears slowly until the skull alone remains which finally falls on a table. The medium was bound throughout the performance. It lasted 22 counted minutes in bright sunlight.’’ Alfred Vout Peters claimed to have seen in a séance with Cecil Husk the materialization of a living friend who was at the time asleep in his home. Horace Leaf reported (Light, January 29, 1932) on the materialization of the head, shoulders, and arm of a relative living 400 miles away. A conversation was carried on for several minutes on matters thoroughly appropriate, before the head bid him goodbye and vanished. Colley noticed some unique feature of the mysterious spirit entity ‘‘Mahedi.’’ The phantom could not speak English, so Colley had to use signs to make him understand that he wanted him to write. He looked puzzled at the lead pencil. When he was shown how to use it, he held it as he would hold a stylus and began to write quickly from the right to the left in unknown oriental characters, being ‘‘in a most peculiar way under the control of ‘Samuel’ ’’—one spirit controlling another spirit—the medium having nothing to do with it, since he was fully awake some 17 feet away and talking to a lady. Colley had samples of ‘‘Samuel’s’’ handwriting and he understood ‘‘Samuel’’ to be in control. He later argued: ‘‘It was something like what I had before seen and publicly reported relating to the evolution of a spirit form from another spirit form, which first form, as usual, extruded from the medium, so that (December 7, 1877) there stood in line our normal friend (entranced) and next to him the Egyptian thence derived, and from the Egyptian, in turn, the extruded personality 993

Materialization of ‘Lily,’ all at the same time—the three in a row ranked together yet separate and distinct entities.’’ After all these marvels, Colley’s description of the reabsorption of a phantom into the medium’s side in plain view appears to lose its wild improbability. Of a séance held on September 25, 1877, Colley stated: ‘‘As I brought my sweet companion close up to him, the gossamer filament again came into view; its attenuated and vanishing point being, as before, towards the heart. Greatly wondering, yet keen to observe, did I notice how, by means of this vapoury cord, the psychic figure was sucked back into the body of the medium. For like a waterspout at sea—funnel-shaped or sand column such as I have seen in Egypt—horizontal instead of vertical, the vital power of our medium appeared to absorb and draw in the spirit-form, but at my desire, so gradually that I was enabled quite leisurely thus closely to watch the process. For leaning against, and holding my friend with my left arm at his back and my left ear and cheek at his breast, his heart beating in an alarming way, I saw him receive back the lovely birth of the invisible spheres into his robust corporeal person. And as I gazed on the sweet face of the disintegrating spirit, within three or four inches of its features, I again marked the fair lineaments, eyes, hair and delicate complexion, and kissed the dainty hand as in process of absorption it dissolved and was drawn through the texture and substance of his black coat into our friend’s bosom.’’ The archdeacon once spoke to a materialized phantom before her extrusion was accomplished and he saw recognition in her eyes and heard her whisper, during the psychic parturition, ‘‘so glad to see you.’’ On one occasion a minister friend of Francis Monck materialized; by common consent the medium was carefully awakened. Colley recalled: ‘‘Dazed for a moment, and then most astonished, our aroused friend looked enquiringly at the materialised spirit form, and jumping up from the sofa on which we had placed him he excitedly rushed forward to his one-time fellow-student, shouting ‘Why, it is Sam’ and then there was handshaking and brotherly greetings between the two. When both friends were about to speak at once there was a momentary impasse and neither seemed able to articulate; the medium’s breath appearing to be needed by Samuel when he essayed to speak, while the materialised form was also checked in his utterance when the medium began to speak.’’ C. V. Miller, the San Francisco materialization medium, as a rule did not pass into trance and took the phantoms that issued from the cabinet by the hand and introduced them to his sitters. His amazing séances were duplicated by R. H. Moore, of San Diego, California. According to N. Meade Layne, in Psychic Research (June 1931), Moore was a well-known gentleman past 70 years of age, who did not go into trance and accompanied the forms that issued from behind a curtain within a few steps into the circle. The forms were never fully materialized; as a rule they were invisible below the bust, although the ectoplasmic drapery sometimes trailed nearly to the floor. Layne writes, ‘‘At a recent séance one of the forms, while conversing with the person at my side, advanced to within about 18 inches of my face. Dr. Moore then, after telling us what he was about to do, struck the head of the form lightly with his open hand to show the degree of materialization. The movement and the sound were plainly perceived. He then passed his arm through the form at the solar plexus’’ (Psychic Research, July 1930). Besides the materialization of spirit entities, many other objects came forth in the séance room. Such phenomena, which blend into that of apports, often served to confuse researchers and distract them from the central issues of spirit contact. However, in the end, the other objects served to confirm the fraudulent nature of materializations. Spirits were often observed enveloped in drapery. This was always considered one of the greatest puzzles of ghost lore, though if one considers materialization as basically fraudulent, the drapery was merely a prop to confuse the issue. The com994

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. munications received through mediums did little to elucidate the subject, though it was taken up in the discussions of the clothing of spirits in the afterlife. ‘‘Spirit drapery’’ seems to have been constructed of a light material such as cheesecloth and was occasionally coated with a luminous substance such as phosphorus. However, the discussion of the phenomena as part of the larger inquiry into spirit existence is of some interest. ‘‘Julia,’’ in her communications to W. T. Stead (Letters from Julia, 1897), notes that the spirit ‘‘is at the first moment quite unclothed, as at birth. When the thought of nakedness crosses the spirit’s mind, there comes the clothing which you need. The idea with us is creative. We think and the thing is. I do not remember putting on any garments.’’ Her observation was confirmed by Caroline D. Larsen in My Travels in the Spirit World (1927): ‘‘From every spirit emanates a strong aura, a pseudophosphoric light. This aura is completely controlled by the mind. Out of this substance is moulded the vesture of the body.’’ About a conscious projection of his astral body, Sylvan J. Muldoon observed: ‘‘On one occasion I noticed the clothing forming itself out of the emanation surrounding my astral body, when only a few feet out of coincidence, and the clothing was exactly like that covering my physical body. On another occasion I awakened and found myself moving along at the intermediate speed. A very dense aura surrounded me—so dense, in fact, that I could scarcely see my own body. It remained so until the phantom came to a stop, when I was dressed in the typical ghost like garb.’’ The idea of a power to form spirit clothing seems to have emerged slowly in materialization séances, where the formation of spirit drapery came to be viewed as preliminary to the building up of the body. It served, some speculated, the purpose of covering up imperfections or vacant spots in the temporary organism, protected the ectoplasmic substance from the effects of light, and satisfied the requirements of modesty (very important in both British and American societies). Once while ‘‘Yolande,’’ (who was often seen together with medium Elizabeth d’Esperance outside the cabinet) was talking to a sitter, ‘‘the top part of her white drapery fell off and revealed her form,’’ writes Oxley. ‘‘I noticed that the form was imperfect, as the bust was undeveloped and the waist uncontracted which was a test that the form was not a lay figure.’’ The drapery observed usually appeared to be white, sometimes of a dazzling whiteness, but could also be greyish in appearance; it was often luminous and so material that it was always the last to disappear when the séance concluded. The reason apparently was that the substance of the drapery, though its texture was finer, withdrawn from the medium’s clothes to be molded by the invisible operators, like ectoplasm, into all kinds of patterns. The medium Franek Kluski noticed that the curtains and carpets of his apartment, where his materialization phenomena were produced, were badly worn in an inexplicable manner. The observation was also made at the British College of Psychic Science that the lining of the underarms of a medium’s jacket used exclusively for séance purposes and apparently subjected to no rough wear had to be renewed frequently. The wife of medium John Lewis of Wales, who had to repair the garment, said that the wear on the jacket was greater than on garments worn in his work as a coal miner. The color of the garment was apparently of no consequence because the spirit drapery remained white, even if the original dress was black. In a séance with William Eglinton on September 9, 1877, a Dr. Nichols saw the materialized form ‘‘Joey’’ make, in the presence of three other persons, ‘‘20 yards of white drapery which certainly never saw a Manchester loom. The matter of which it was formed was visibly gathered from the atmosphere and later melted into invisible air. I have seen at least a hundred yards so manufactured,’’ he said.

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. Katherine Bates writes in Seen and Unseen (1907), ‘‘I stood close over her [the phantom] holding out my own dress, and as she rubbed her hands to and fro a sort of white lace or net came from them, like a foam, and lay upon my gown which I was holding up towards her. I touched this material and held it in my hands. It had substance but was light as gossamer, and quite unlike any stuff I ever saw in a shop.’’ F. W. Thurstan said that when medium Rosina Thompson produced physical phenomena, ‘‘a soft, gauzy, scented white drapery was flung over my head and seen by the others on my side of the room.’’ A spirit in séances with Annie Eva Fay supposedly made yards and yards of spirit drapery by rubbing her hands together with bare arms. Once she made a seamless robe and apparently dematerialized it instantaneously. William Harrison, editor of The Spiritualist, states in an account of a séance with Florence Cook, ‘‘She [‘Katie King’] threw out about a yard of white fabric, but kept hold of it by the other end, saying: ‘Look, this is spirit drapery.’ I said ‘Drop it into the passage Katie, and let us see it melt away; or let us cut a piece off.’ She replied: ‘I can’t; but look here.’ She then drew back her hand, which was above the top of the curtain, and as the spirit drapery touched the curtain, it passed right through, just as if there were no resistance whatever. I think at first there was friction between the two fabrics and they rustled against each other, but that when she said ‘Look here’ some quality which made the drapery common matter was withdrawn from it, and at once it passed through the common matter of the curtain, without experiencing any resistance.’’ ‘‘Katie King’’ often allowed her sitters to touch her drapery. Sometimes she cut as many as a dozen pieces from the lower part of her skirt and made presents of them to different observers. The holes were immediately sealed. Crookes examined the skirt inch by inch and found no hole, no marks, or seam of any kind. These pieces of drapery mostly melted into thin air, however carefully they were guarded, but sometimes they could be preserved. If they were, the medium’s dress was damaged. ‘‘Katie King’’ said in her attempt to cover up the trickery that nothing material about her could be made to last without taking away some of the medium’s vitality and weakening her. A specimen of ‘‘Katie’s’’ drapery was taken by a Miss Douglas to Messrs. Howell and James’s cloth and dry goods store, London, with the request to match it. They said that they could not, and that they believed it to be of Chinese manufacture. At a séance with Elizabeth d’Esperance, a sitter removed a piece of drapery that clothed one of the spirit forms. Later d’Esperance discovered that a large square piece of material was missing from her skirt, partly cut, partly torn. The stolen piece of drapery was found to be of the same shape as the missing part of the skirt, but several times larger, and white, the texture fine and thin as gossamer. After this experience d’Esperance seemed to understand a similar happening in England. ‘‘Ninia,’’ a child spirit control, was asked for a piece of her abundant clothing. She complied, but unwillingly. After the séance d’Esperance found a hole in her new dress. ‘‘Katie Brink,’’ the spirit of the medium Elizabeth J. Compton, cut a piece of her dress for Richard Cross of Montreal, but on the condition that he would buy a new dress for the medium, for a corresponding hole would appear on her skirt. The cut piece was fine, gossamer-like material. The medium’s dress was black alpaca, and much coarser. The cut piece fit the hole in the medium’s dress. William Stainton Moses was once given a piece of spirit drapery sweetened by ‘‘spirit musk.’’ He sent it to the wife of his friend Stanhope Speer. The scent on the letter was fresh and pungent 17 years afterward. Mediums explained that part of the power available to them for the materialization was consumed by the creation of spirit drapery. They added that, in some instances, for purely economical reasons, the operators accepted ready-made cloth

Materialization brought in for them to wear. ‘‘John King’’ was supposedly photographed in such borrowed garments. There were stories that for similar reasons wearing apparel could be ‘‘apported.’’ This speculation made it easy for fraud to flourish. Florence Cook’s mother was said to have once caught ‘‘Katie King’’ wearing her daughter’s dress. Katie confessed that she borrowed it because the medium’s power was weak. She said she would never do it again because the medium might be compromised. In other cases, it was claimed, yards of muslin and grenadine were apported expressly for draping purposes and left in the séance room. Further, traces of spirit cloth appeared in mediumistic plastics used to make impressions of spirit faces.

Souvenir Locks of Hair, Materialized Jewels, and Flowers Materialized phantoms often gave locks of hair to sitters for souvenirs. ‘‘Katie King’’ did it very often. Once in the cabinet, she cut off a lock of her own hair and a lock of the medium’s and gave them both to Florence Marryat. One was almost black, soft and silky, the other a coarse, golden red. On another occasion she asked Marryat to cut her hair with a pair of scissors as fast as she could. ‘‘So I cut off curl after curl, and as fast as they fell to the ground the hair grew again upon her head,’’ Marryat said. Severed hair usually vanished, but not always. Crookes, in a later communication, spoke of a lock of ‘‘Katie’s’’ hair he still possessed. Similarly a lock that Charles Richet cut from the head of an Egyptian beauty during the mediumship of Marthe Béraud remained intact. Richet stated: ‘‘I have kept this lock, it is very fine, silky and undyed. Microscopical examination shows it to be real hair; and I am informed that a wig of the same would cost a thousand francs. Marthe’s hair is very dark and she wears her hair rather short.’’ Materialized phantoms apparently often wore ornaments. Admiral Usborne Moore, in his séances with the medium J. B. Jonson of Detroit, found these ornaments yielding to the touch. In other instances they were solid. ‘‘Abd-u-lah,’’ the onearmed spirit of William Eglinton, appeared bedecked with diamonds, emeralds, and rubies. The materialization of precious stones is described by a Mrs. Nichols in the Spiritualist (October 26, 1877): ‘‘For some time he moved his hands as if gathering something from the atmosphere, just as when he makes muslin. After some minutes he dropped on the table a massive diamond ring. He said: ‘Now you may all take the ring, and you may put it on, and hold it while you count twelve.’ Miss M. took it and held it under the gaslight. It was a heavy gold ring with a diamond that appeared much like one worn by a friend of mine worth £1000. Joey said the value of this was 900 guineas. Mr. W. examined it as we had done. He now made, as it seemed, and as he said, from the atmosphere two diamonds, very clear and beautiful, about the size of half a large pea. He gave them into our hands on a piece of paper. We examined them as we had the others. He laid the ring and the diamonds on the table before him, and there next appeared a wonderful cluster of rubies, set with a large ruby about half an inch in diameter in the centre. These we all handled as we had the others. Last there came a cross, about four inches in length, having 20 magnificent diamonds set in it; this we held in our hands, and examined as closely as we liked. He told us that the market value of the gems was £25,000. He remarked: ‘I could make Willie the richest man in the world, but it would not be the best thing, and might be the worst.’ He now took the jewels in front of him and seemed to dissipate them, as one might melt hailstones in heat until they entirely disappeared.’’ Stainton Moses was told by ‘‘Magus,’’ one of his controls, that he would deliver him a topaz, the material counterpart of his spiritual jewel, which would enable him to see scenes in the spheres on looking into it. The jewel was found in his bedroom. Moses was excited. He believed it to be an apport, taken without the consent of the owner. He never received any definite 995

Materialization information as to its origin. It cannot be traced how long the stone, which was set in a ring, remained in his possession. Gems and pearls were frequently brought to Moses’ circle. His theory was that they were made by spirits because he could see them falling before they reached the table, while others could not see them until they had fallen. Further, an emerald had flaws in it, and therefore it could not have been cut or have been an imitation. Flower materializations were more frequent. There was a remarkable instance in d’Esperance’s mediumship. On June 28, 1890, at a séance in St. Petersburg, in the presence of Alexander Aksakof and one Professor Boutlerof, a golden lily, seven feet high, appeared in the séance room. It was kept for a week and was photographed six times. After the week it dissolved and disappeared. A record of the Livermore séances with Kate Fox on February 22, 1862, notes: ‘‘Appearance of flowers. Cloudy. Atmosphere damp. Conditions unfavourable. At the expiration of half an hour a bright light rose to the surface of the table, of the usual cylindrical form, covered with gossamer. Held directly over this was a sprig of roses about six inches in length, containing two halfblown white roses, and a bud with leaves. The flowers, leaves and stem were perfect. They were placed at my nose and smelled as though freshly gathered; but the perfume in this instance was weak and delicate. We took them in our fingers and I carefully examined the stem and flowers. The request was made as before to ‘be very careful.’ I noticed an adhesive, viscous feeling which was explained as being the result of a damp, impure atmosphere. These flowers were held near and over the light, which seemed to feed and give them substance in the same manner as the hand. By raps we were told to ‘Notice and see them dissolve.’ The sprig was placed over the light, the flowers dropped, and in less than one minute, melted as though made of wax, their substance seeming to spread as they disappeared. By raps ‘See them come again.’ A faint light immediately shot across the cylinder, grew into a stem; and in about the same time required for its dissolution, the stem, and the roses had grown into created perfection. This was several times repeated, and was truly wonderful.’’ F. W. Thurstan observed in sittings with Rosina Thompson (Light, March 15, 1901) that when a pineapple was to be materialized the smell and notion of it was ‘‘in her head’’ all day. He believed that ideas of forms, actions, and words that would manifest at a séance were placed in the medium’s mind days beforehand.

Animal Materializations One place where animals have made a noticeable impact upon the world of paranormal research has been in claims of their manifestation in the séances of materialization mediums. There are abundant accounts of such apparitions, the strangest reports being attributed to three Polish mediums: Franek Kluski, Jan Guzyk and one Burgik. It was claimed that Guzyk materialized dogs and other animals, and Kluski, a large bird of prey, small beasts, a lion, and an apeman. The year 1919 abounded with apparent animal materializations in the Kluski séances. An account in Psychic Science (April 1926) reads in part: ‘‘The bird was photographed, and before the exposure a whirring, like the stretching of a huge bird’s wings, could be heard, accompanied by slight blasts of wind, as if a large fan were being used. . . . Hirkill (an Afghan) materialised. . . . Accompanying him always was a rapacious beast, the size of a very big dog, of a tawny colour, with slender neck, mouth full of large teeth, eyes which glowed in the darkness like a cat’s, and which reminded the company of a maneless lion. It was occasionally wild in its behaviour, especially if persons were afraid of it, and neither the human nor the animal apparition was much welcomed by the sitters. . . . The lion, as we may call him, liked to lick the sitters with a moist and prickly tongue, and 996

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. gave forth the odour of a great feline, and even after the séance the sitters, and especially the medium, were impregnated with this acrid scent as if they had made a long stay in a menagerie among wild beasts.’’ According to one Professor Pawlowski’s account in the Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research (September 1925), the bird was a hawk or a buzzard. It ‘‘flew round, beating his wings against the walls and ceiling, and when he finally settled on the shoulder of the medium he was photographed with a magnesium flash, as the camera was accidently focussed on the medium before, and was ready.’’ An anthropoidal ape showed itself first in July 1919. Gustav Geley reports in his book Clairvoyance and Materialisation (1927): ‘‘This being which we have termed Pithecanthropus has shown itself several times at our séances. One of us, at the séance of November 20, 1920, felt its large shaggy head press hard on his right shoulder and against his cheek. The head was covered with thick, coarse hair. A smell came from it like that of a deer or a wet dog. When one of the sitters put out his hand the pithecanthrope seized it and licked it slowly three times. Its tongue was large and soft. At other times we all felt our legs touched by what seemed to be frolicsome dogs.’’ Col. Norbert Ocholowicz, in his book on Kluski, quotes an article by Mrs. Hewat McKenzie: ‘‘This ape was of such great strength that it could easily move a heavy bookcase filled with books through the room, carry a sofa over the heads of the sitters, or lift the heaviest persons with their chairs into the air to the height of a tall person. Though the ape’s behaviour sometimes caused fear, and indicated a low level of intelligence, it was never malignant. Indeed it often expressed goodwill, gentleness and readiness to obey. . . . After a long stay a strong animal smell was noticed. It was seen for the last time at the séance of December 26, 1922, in the same form as in 1919 and making the same sounds of smacking and scratching.’’ McKenzie also writes of a small animal reminding the sitters of the ‘‘weasel’’ so often sensed at Guzyk’s séances: ‘‘It used to run quickly over the table on to the sitters’ shoulders, stopping every moment and smelling their hands and faces with a small, cold nose; sometimes, as if frightened, it jumped from the table and rambled through the whole room, turning over small objects, and shuffling papers lying on the table and writing desk. It appeared at six or seven séances, and was last seen in June, 1923.’’ Charles Richet writes of Burgik in Thirty Years of Psychical Research (1923): ‘‘In the last séance that I had with him the phenomena were very marked. I held his left hand and M. de Gielski his right. He was quite motionless, and none of the experimenters moved at all. My trouser leg was strongly pulled and a strange, ill-defined form that seemed to have paws like those of a dog or small monkey climbed on my knee. I could feel its weight very light and something like the muzzle of an animal (?) touched my cheek. It was moist and made a grunting noise like a thirsty dog.’’ Col. E. R. Johnson reported in Light (November 11, 1922) of a séance with Etta Wriedt, ‘‘It was quite common to meet one’s departed dogs. I had one of these, a very small terrier, placed on my knees. It remained there for about a minute, and both its weight and form were all recognised. It was not taken away but seemed gradually to evaporate or melt. Two others, a large retriever and a medium-sized terrier, came very often, and all three barked with their direct voices in tones suitable to their sizes and breeds. Other sitters saw, heard and were touched by them. Those three had died in India some 30 years previously.’’ The flight of birds was often heard in séances with D. D. Home and later with the Marquis Scotto Centurione. A tame flying squirrel was materialized by ‘‘Honto,’’ an Indian woman control, in the séances of the Eddy brothers.

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. Two triangular areas of light, with curved angles like butterfly wings, audibly flitting and flapping, were noticed in the February 24, 1924, séance of ‘‘Margery’’ (Mina Crandon). The flying creature, said to be Susie, a tame bat of the control ‘‘Walter,’’ performed strange antics. The wings would hover over roses on the table, pick one up, approach a sitter and hit him over the head with it. Susie pulled the hair of the sitters, pecked at their faces, and flapped her wings in their eyes. Another large, beetlelike area of light that scrambled about the table with a great deal of flapping was called by ‘‘Walter’’ his Nincompoop. Peculiar motions were also performed by a patch of light said to be a tame bear, over a curtain pole. Clicking and whizzing it toboganed down the pole and climbed back again. Nothing definite could be established about these curious animated patches of light. ‘‘Materialisation of both beasts and birds sometimes appeared,’’ writes Gambier Bolton in his book Ghosts in Solid Form (1914), ‘‘during our experiments, the largest and most startling being that of a seal which appeared on one occasion when Field-Marshal Lord Wolseley was present. We suddenly heard a remarkable voice calling out some absurd remarks in loud tones, finishing off with a shrill whistle. ‘Why, that must be our old parrot,’ said the lady of the house. ‘He lived in this room for many years, and would constantly repeat those very words.’ ‘‘A small wild animal from India which had been dead for three years or more, and had never been seen or heard of by the Sensitive, and was known to only one sitter, suddenly ran out from the spot where the Sensitive was sitting, breathing heavily and in a state of deep trance, the little creature uttering exactly the same cry which it had always used as a sign of pleasure during its Earth life. It has shown itself altogether on about ten different occasions, staying in the room for more than two minutes at a time, and then disappearing as suddenly as it had arrived upon the scene. ‘‘But on this occasion the lady who had owned it during its life called it to her by its pet name, and then it proceeded to climb slowly up on her lap. Resting there quietly for about half a minute it then attempted to return, but in doing so caught one of its legs in the lace with which the lady’s skirt was covered. It struggled violently, and at last got itself free, but not until it had torn the lace for nearly three inches. At the conclusion of the experiment a medical man reported that there were five green-coloured hairs hanging in the torn lace, which had evidently become detached from the little animal’s legs during its struggles. The lady at once identified the colour and the texture of the hairs, and this was confirmed by the other sitter— himself a naturalist—who had frequently seen and handled the animal during its Earth life. The five hairs were carefully collected, placed in tissue paper, and then shut up in a light-tight and damp-proof box. After a few days they commenced to dwindle in size, and finally disappeared entirely.’’ The story of a materialized seal is told in detail in Light (April 22, 1900), on the basis of Gambier Bolton’s account before the London Spiritualist Alliance. The story goes as follows: Being well known as a zoologist, Bolton received a note from an auctioneer asking if he would come to see a large seal that had been sent from abroad. ‘‘The poor thing is suffering; come round and see what you can do,’’ wrote the seal’s temporary owner, and being deeply interested in the welfare of animals of all kinds, Bolton at once obeyed. The poor creature had been harpooned, and was languishing in a large basket. He saw at once that it could not live, but wishing to do what he could to prolong its life, he dispatched it to the Zoological Gardens. Later in the day he called to see how it was faring, and found that it had been put into the seal tank. When Bolton visited the tank the seal rose from the water and gave him a long look, which, as he humorously suggested, seemed to indicate that the animal recognized him and was grateful for its treatment. The seal died that night, and ten days later Bolton was at a séance at which Frederick Craddock was the medium. A num-

Materialization ber of people of social and scientific repute were present. Suddenly someone called out from the cabinet: ‘‘Take this great brute away, it is suffocating me.’’ It was the seal! It came slowly from the cabinet, flopping and dragging itself as do seals, which (unlike sea-lions) cannot walk. It stayed close to Bolton for some moments and then returned to the cabinet and disappeared. ‘‘There is no doubt in my mind,’’ said Bolton, ‘‘that it was the identical seal.’’ Asking about the modus vivendi of animal materializations, Bolton obtained the following answer from the spirit controls: ‘‘Their actions are altogether independent of us. Whilst we are busily engaged in conducting our experiments with human entities who wish to materialise in your midst, the animals get into the room in some way which we do not understand, and which we cannot prevent; obtain, from somewhere, sufficient matter with which to build up temporary bodies; coming just when they choose; roaming about the room just as they please; and disappearing just when it suits them, and not before; and we have no power to prevent this so long as the affection existing between them and their late owners is so strong as it was in the instances which have come under our notice.’’ In contradiction to this information, Ocholowicz made it a point that at the Kluski séances the animal apparitions were seen to be in the charge of human apparitions. The only animal that seemed to be able to act independently of a keeper was the ‘‘pithecanthropus,’’ he said. Generally the animal and human apparitions were not active at the same time. When the animal was fully materialized and active, the keeper was passive and kept in the background, and vice versa. The testimony of clairvoyants also suggested that when animal apparitions were seen the necessary link was furnished by a friend of the sitter.

Materializations and Apports In experiments with medium Thomas Lynn at the British College of Psychic Science, objects were photographed while supposedly in the process of materialization. They showed flecks and masses of a luminous material, possessing stringlike roots. These light masses floated over a harp lying upon the table and were visible to all present. A fingerlike projection extended from a mass of this luminosity, and extended toward the harp as if to play it. As the photo plates were developed, a bone ring was seen to hang from the medium’s nose, and an object similar to the top of an infant’s nursing bottle appeared to dangle from his lips by a cord. The medium’s features also seemed somewhat altered. At a second sitting, a two-pronged fishhook and a small ring materialized. The photo plates of this materialization showed that some round object proceeded from the region of the medium’s solar plexus. It had often appeared in the photographs; from it a root or string seemed to extend to the object materializing. In this case the root was strangely twisted. Similar observations of what seem in retrospect simple conjuring were reported by Karl Blacher of Riga University, with the apport medium ‘‘BX.’’ (Zeitschrift für Parapsychologie, June 1933). In trance and under control, nails, screws, or pieces of iron would be visibly drawn out of his chest, armpits, or arms, as could be clearly observed by means of luminous screens. On one occasion wire more than a yard long was drawn from the man’s bared chest; at another time Blacher himself caught hold of an end that was protruding from the same spot and drew out a long, leather strap. At another sitting the medium produced a heavy slab of metal from his chest and from his left arm a piece of wrought steel weighing more than three pounds. In a day when there was serious speculation over the reality of apports and materialization, the problem of explaining the various phenomena was becoming more and more complex. Consider the case of Lajos Pap, the Budapest apport medium (Light, July 14, 1933). Before his first apport of a frog, for two days he reported that he heard continual croaking. It seemed to him to come from his stomach, and he kept asking people if they heard it. He claimed he heard the chirping of apported 997

Mather, Increase grasshoppers long before their arrival; and, before the apport of a large packet of needles, he said he felt pricking sensations over the back of his hand. Pap was discovered in fraud by researcher Nandor Fodor.

Modern Views of Materialization All of the accounts of the marvels of materialization belong to the past; such astonishing phenomena are seldom reported in modern times. There is widespread acceptance of the fraudulence of materializations and related phenomena. The more blatant cases of fraud punctuate any discussions. One of the most impudent was that of Charles Eldred, who always took his ‘‘highly magnetized’’ armchair to séances. In 1906 the chair was examined and it was found that the back was really a box with a concealed lock and key. Inside was found a collapsible dummy, yards of cheesecloth for ‘‘ectoplasm,’’ reaching rods, wigs, false beards, a music box (for ‘‘spirit music’’), and even scent (for ‘‘spirit perfumes’’). Almost all of the materialization mediums who produced results to the point of having their marvels recorded were later caught in fraud. By World War II the only question remaining for a few who were still interested was whether mediums who had been caught impersonating spirits might also at times have produced genuine materialization phenomena. While it would be untenable to suppose that spirits influenced mediums to purchase wigs, masks, cheesecloth and other properties used fraudulently at séances, it is arguable that genuine mediums might have sometimes cheated to fulfill the expectation of sitters for consistently remarkable phenomena. A notable example often held up as illustrative of this possibility was the famous Italian medium Eusapia Palladino, who seemed to have produced materialization phenomena under fairly strict conditions with a variety of more-or-less skilled observers, but was also known to take shortcuts and cheat if the opportunity arose. Another controversial medium was Helen Duncan, convicted in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1933 for fraudulent mediumship in which an undervest was used as a materialized spirit. A few reputable observers believed she also produced genuine phenomena, although psychical researchers like Harry Price insisted that his photographs of ‘‘ectoplasm’’ clearly showed cheesecloth, rubber gloves, and pictures of heads clipped from magazine covers. Price did not discover how the mediums hid these objects but theorized that the cheesecloth was swallowed and regurgitated, other props perhaps being manipulated by accomplices. However, the days of materialization mediums are clearly over. No modern medium has come forward with comparable phenomena to be tested in the more rigorous atmosphere of present times. Until they do, materialization must be consigned to the dustbin of rejected phenomena. No evidence of fraud was ever discovered on the part of one medium, D. D. Home, whose séances produced some of the most extraordinary phenomena, but his career now stands as an anomaly. In his book The Spiritualists: The Story of Florence Cook and William Crookes (1962), Trevor H. Hall seeks to show that not only was the mediumship of Florence Cook fraudulent, but that William Crookes became her accomplice because he was infatuated with her. Crookes’s psychical research occurred at the beginning of his career, before the unquestioned scientific accomplishments for which he was justly honored. Hall is a noted critic (even debunker) of psychical phenomena, and his book is well documented. The evidence is somewhat speculative and anecdotal, but does demonstrate how Crookes could have been hoodwinked by Cook. Some of Hall’s colleagues, including K. M. Goldney and R. G. Medhurst, have attempted to salvage Crookes’s reputation in light of Hall’s charges. Sources: Abbot, David P. Behind the Scenes with Mediums. Chicago: Open Court, 1907. Rev. ed. 1926. 998

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. Aksakof, Alexander. A Case of Partial Dematerialization of the Body of a Medium. Boston, 1898. Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House, 1991. Bisson, Juliette A. Les Phénomènes dits de Matérialisations. Paris, 1914. Bolton, Gambier. Ghosts in Solid Form. London, 1914. Brackett, E. A. Materialized Apparitions. Boston, 1886. London: William Rider, n.d. Carrington, Hereward. The American Séances with Eusapia Palladino. New York: Helix, 1954. ———. The Physical Phenomena of Spiritualism. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1920. Reprint, London: T. Werner Laurie, n.d. Colley, Thomas. Confessions of a Medium. London, 1882. ———. Sermons of Spiritualism. London, 1907. Crookes, William. Researches in the Phenomena of Spiritualism. London: J. Burns, 1874. Crossley, Alan Ernest. The Story of Helen Duncan, Materialization Medium. UK: Stockwell, 1975. Delanne, Gabriel. Les Apparitions Materialisées des Vivants et des Morts. Paris, 1911. Geley, Gustav. Clairvoyance and Materialisation. New York: George Doran, 1927. Reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1975. ———. From the Unconscious to the Conscious. London: William Collins, 1920. Gray, Isa. From Materialisation to Healing. London: Regency Press, 1973. Hall, Trevor H. The Spiritualist: The Story of Florence Cook and William Crookes. London: Duckworth, 1962. Reprinted as The Medium and the Scientist: The Story of Florence Cook and William Crookes. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1984. Henry, T. Shekleton. Spookland: A Record of Research and Experiment in the Much Talked of Realm of Mystery. Chicago, 1902. Marryat, Florence. There Is No Death. 1891. Reprint, New York: Causeway Books, 1973. Medhurst, R. G., ed. Crookes and the Spirit World: A Collection of Writings by or Concerning the Work of Sir William Crookes, O.M., F.R.S. in the Field of Psychical Research. New York: Taplinger; London: Souvenir Press, 1972. Medium, A. [A. Lunt]. Mysteries of the Séance. Boston, 1905. Olcott, Henry S. People from the Other World. Hartford, Conn.: American Publishing, 1875. Reprint, Rutland, Vt.: Charles Tuttle, 1972. Price, Harry, and Eric J. Dingwall, eds. Revelations of a Spirit Medium. London: Kegan Paul, 1922. Putnam, Allen. Flashes of Light from the Spirit-Land. Boston, 1872. Richet, Charles. Thirty Years of Psychical Research. New York: Macmillan, 1923. Reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1975. Sargent, Epes. Proof Palpable of Immortality. Boston: n.p., 1876. Schrenck-Notzing, Baron von. Phenomena of Materialisation. London: Kegan Paul, 1920. Reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1975. Stein, Gordon. Encyclopedia of Hoaxes. Detroit: Gale Research, 1993. Viereborne, A. Life of James Riley. Akron, Ohio: Werner, 1911. Wolfe, N. B. Startling Facts in Modern Spiritualism. Cincinnati, Ohio: The Author, 1874.

Mather, Increase (1639–1723) and Cotton (1662–1728) Father and son, two eminent divines of Boston, Massachusetts. The Mathers were among the first to respond to the wave of skepticism that assaulted Christianity at the end of the seventeenth century and emerged in the next century as Deism. Deism denied the possibility of human contact with what had

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. traditionally been thought of as the supernatural. Both of the Mathers wrote books offering evidence of contact with the spiritual world as an apologetic for Christian faith. Part of their understanding of the supernatural was supernatural evil. Witchcraft, which they equated with Satanism, was one major form taken by supernatural evil, and they saw evidence of witchcraft both among the Native Americans and members of the Boston urban community. This caused them to be seen as believers in the existence of widespread witchcraft throughout New England. Though counseling some degree of caution, especially in responding to the unsupported accounts of people claiming to be afflicted by a witch, they were early supporters of the inquiries at Salem Village (now Danvers), Massachusetts, in 1692. In fact, Increase Mather had chosen the governor, Sir William Phips, who was partly responsible for the Salem Witchcraft trials. However, as the trials proceeded, Cotton Mather especially became one of the strong forces arguing against the litigation. His personal visit with the governor was of great effect in this endeavor. In the years immediately after the trials, as the people of Massachusetts came to see the error of what had occurred, the Mathers were accused by some of the more skeptical voices in the community, such as Robert Calef, as the real cause of the colony’s disgrace. Only in the twentieth century, with the massive reevaluation of the whole of the witchcraft phenomenon in New England, has the Mathers’ reputation been somewhat put into a more balanced perspective. Sources: Calef, Robert. More Wonders of the Invisible World; or, The Wonders of the Invisible World Display’d in Five Parts. London, 1700. Mather, Cotton. Memorable Provinces, Relating to Witchcraft and Possessions. Boston, 1689. ———. The Wonders of the Invisible World. Observations as Well Historical as Theological, upon the Nature, the Number, and the Operations of the Devil. Boston: Benjamin Harris, 1693. Mather, Increase. Essay for the Recording of Illustrious Provinces. Boston, 1684.

Mathers, Moina (1865–1928) Moina Mathers, a leading member of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (HOGD), was largely responsible for the rituals of this ground-breaking magical organization. Born on Feburary 28, 1865, as Mina Bergson, she was the daughter of Jewish parents and the sister of noted philosopher Henri Bergson. Her brother was a professor at the University of Paris, the winner of a Nobel Prize (1927), and president of the Society of Psychical Research. He authored the noted volume Creative Evolution, in which he articulated his theory of elan vital, or life urge, an idea integral to magical thought. The elan vital was analogous to the subtle energy that allowed magic to work. Mina was born and grew up in London, though the family lived briefly in Paris (1868–73). She had an artistic bent and in 1880 enrolled at the Slade School of Art, an affiliated school of the University of London. She had a stellar career and was awarded several certificates of merit. Upon receiving a certificate of completion in 1886 she opened a studio in London. The following year, at the British Museum, she met Samuel L. MacGregor Mathers. He was, at the time, doing the initial research that would lead to the founding of the HOGD. The Isis-Urania Temple, the first center of the HOGD, was opened in 1888 and Mina became the first initiate, taking the magical name Vestigia Nulla Retrorsum. The couple was married in 1890, at which time Mina changed her name to Moina. Shortly after their marriage, at a gathering of people interested in psychic matters, Moina’s ability as a clairvoyant was discovered. She subsequently played a key role in the development of the order. In 1891, Mathers claimed that he had made contact with the Secret Chiefs, from

Mathers, S(amuel) L(iddell) MacGregor whom he would be receiving the material to construct the higher grades of the order. As Mathers increased his magical activity, Moina served as his priestess. More importantly, she perfected her abilities to contact the inner magical planes through the process known as scrying. It was she as a scryer who contacted magical sources of information and channeled material that supplied both the rituals and teaching material for the order. In 1892, the Matherses settled in Paris, where Samuel had access to the large number of manuscripts in the Parisian libraries. They lived a financially restricted life and apparently a celibate one, as Mathers had been instructed to remain sexually pure as he pursued his important magical work. Moina also aided her husband in high political work centered both on his belief that the world was soon to enter a period of massive war and his hope for the independence of Scotland from England. She remained loyal to him through the organizational disruptions that plagued the order in the late 1890s, and was rewarded by losing some of her closest friends who broke with Mathers. Both were expelled from the HOGD when the largely British membership rebelled in 1900. Those members loyal to Mathers reorganized. Meanwhile in Paris, the Matherses formed the Isis Temple. At the time of revolt of the British members, Mathers had selected a youthful Aleister Crowley as his agent. This alliance proved short-lived as Crowley broke with the Matherses in 1904. He would later publish HOGD material in his magazine, Equinox, leading Mathers to sue him. Following Mathers’ death in 1918, Moina moved back to London where she founded and led the Alpha et Omega Lodge, though the days of its glory were already in the past. Never possessing a large membership, the HOGD ended its days in the 1920s splintered into various factions. Among Moina’s notable actions as the leader of one faction was the expulsion of one of the order’s American members, Paul Foster Case, who would later found a Golden Dawnlike organization, the Builders of the Adytum. Moina Mathers passed away in London on July 25, 1928. Sources: Colquhoun, Ithell. Sword of Wisdom: MacGregor Mathers and the Golden Dawn. New York: Putnam, 1975. Greer, Mary K. The Women of the Golden Dawn: Rebels and Priestesses. Rochester, Vt.: Park Street Press, 1995. Howe, Ellic. The Magicians of the Golden Dawn: A Documentary History of a Magical Order, 1887–1923. York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser, 1972, 1985. King, Francis. Ritual Magic in England. London: Neville Spearman, 1970.

Mathers, S(amuel) L(iddell) MacGregor (1854–1918) Leading British occultist who was one of the founders of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. Born in Hackney, London, January 8, 1854, he lived with his mother at Bournemouth after the early death of his father. As a boy he was intensely interested in symbolism and mysticism. He claimed a romantic descent from Ian MacGregor of Glenstrae, an ardent Jacobite who was given the title of Comte de Glenstrae by Louis XIV. Mathers became a Freemason on October 4, 1877, and a Master Mason on January 30, 1878, soon after his 24th birthday. His mystical interests led him to become a member of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia (Rosicrucian Society of England), where he was an associate of William Wynn Westcott, William Robert Woodman, and Kenneth Mackenzie. Together with Westcott and Woodman, Mathers founded the Golden Dawn in 1888. Meanwhile he lived in poverty after the death of his mother in 1885 and spent much time researching occultism at the British Museum Library, London. Anna Kingsford introduced him to Helena Petrovna Blavatsky. Blavatsky invited him to collaborate in the building of 999

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the Theosophical Society, but he declined. In 1890 he married Moina Bergson, sister of the French philosopher Henri Bergson. Soon afterward he moved to Paris with his wife. Mathers and his wife received a small allowance from Annie Horniman (daughter of the founder of the Horniman Museum, London, and a member of the Golden Dawn), so that he might continue his studies on behalf of the order. However, disputes developed between them on financial issues, and in December 1896 Mathers peremptorily expelled Horniman from the organization. Mathers was also deceived by the charlatans Theodore and Laura Horos, who acquired Golden Dawn rituals from him for their own misuse. Other disagreements developed in the order, and during a dispute between Mathers and British officials, a youthful Aleister Crowley sided with Mathers and attempted to take over the London premises and documents. The poet W. B. Yeats, a noted member, played a prominent part in rejecting Crowley. Eventually Mathers himself was expelled from the Golden Dawn. Mathers died November 20, 1918. The MacGregor Mathers Society was founded in Britain as a dining club for men only, membership by invitation. The society can be contacted at BM#Spirotos (M.M.S.), London W.C.1, England. Mathers’s most lasting contributions to the magical revival of the twentieth century were his many translations of key magical texts, which he rescued from the obscurity into which they had fallen. Sources: Colquhoun, Ithell. The Sword of Wisdom: MacGregor Mathers and The Golden Dawn. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1975. Mathers, S. L. MacGregor. Astral Projection, Ritual Magic, and Alchemy. Rochester, Vt.: Destiny Books, 1987. ———. The Kabbalah Unveiled. 1907. Reprint, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1926. ———. The Key of Solomon the King. 1889. Reprinted as: The Greater Key of Solomon. Chicago: De Laurence, 1914. Mathers, S. L. MacGregor, trans. The Book of the Sacred Magic of Abra-Melin the Mage. 1898. Reprint, Chicago: De Laurence, 1932. Reprint, New York: Causeway Books, 1974.

Mathur, Raghuvansh B(ahadur) (1918–


Indian educator who has investigated parapsychological subjects. He was born September 17, 1918, at Lucknow, India. He studied at the University of Lucknow (B.A., 1937), London University (B.A. with honors, 1940; DPA, 1942; Ph.D., 1947), and Cambridge University (certificate in education, 1942). In 1953 he became the chair of the Department of Education, University of Lucknow. He was interested in clairvoyance, telepathy, and psychokinesis, and investigated ESP in school children. Sources: Pleasants, Helene, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Parapsychology. New York: Helix Press, 1964.

‘‘Matikon’’ A mystical work printed at Frankfurt in 1784, whose theories resemble the doctrines of the Brahmins. It speculated about the biblical creation story that before the Fall, Adam was a pure spirit, a celestial being, surrounded by a mystic covering that rendered him invulnerable to any poison or any power of the elements. The physical body, therefore, is but a coarse husk in which, having lost his primitive invulnerability, a human is sheltered from the elements. In his condition of perfect glory and perfect happiness, Adam was a natural king, ruling all things visible and invisible, and showing forth the power of the Almighty. He also bore ‘‘a fiery, two-edged, all-piercing lance’’—a living word, which united all powers within itself, and by means of which he could perform all things. 1000

Matter Passing through Matter Matter interpenetrating matter has been claimed frequently as a séance-room phenomenon. It is involved in the marvel of apports and teleportation of the human body, and its validation under test conditions, which has never occurred, would help toward these greater phenomena becoming recognized. Robert Hare’s report of the passing of two small balls of platinum into two hermetically sealed glass tubes was not witnessed by others, and no repetition of the feat has ever been noted. The possibility of such interpenetration is not generally admitted. The outstanding medium D. D. Home denied its possibility, and his controls declared that fissures or cracks are necessary to permit the passage of a solid body through another. Sir William Crookes stated in ‘‘Notes of an Enquiry into the Phenomena called Spiritual’’ (Quarterly Journal of Science, January 1894): ‘‘After several phenomena had occurred, the conversation turned upon some circumstances which seemed only explicable on the assumption that matter had actually passed through a solid substance. Thereupon a message was given by means of the alphabet: ‘It [is] impossible for matter to pass through matter, but we will show you what we can do.’ We waited in silence. ‘‘Presently a luminous appearance was seen hovering over the bouquet of flowers, and then, in full view of all present, a piece of china-grass 15 inches long, which formed the centre ornament of the bouquet, slowly rose from the other flowers, and then descended to the table in front of the vase between it and Mr. Home. It did not stop on reaching the table, but went straight through it and we all watched it till it had entirely passed through. Immediately on the disappearance of the grass, my wife, who was sitting near Mr. Home, saw a hand come up from under the table between them, holding the piece of grass. It tapped her on the shoulder two or three times with a sound audible to all, then laid the grass on the floor and disappeared. Only two persons saw the hand, but all in the room saw the piece of grass moving about as I have described. ‘‘During the time this was taking place Mr. Home’s hands were seen by all to be quietly resting on the table in front of him. The place where the grass disappeared was 18 inches from his hands. The table was a telescope dining table, opening with a screw; there was no leaf in it, and the junction of the two sides formed a narrow crack down the middle. The grass had passed through this chink, which I measured and found to be barely one eighth of an inch wide. The stem of the piece of grass was far too thick to enable me to force it through this crack without injuring it, yet we had all seen it pass through quietly and smoothly; and on examination it did not show the slightest signs of pressure or abrasion.’’ However, some have argued for the reality of such a phenomenon. For example, the psychic researcher Camille Flammarion described the passing of a book through a curtain in a séance with Eusapia Palladino on November 21, 1898. A book was held up by Jules Bois before the curtain at about the height of a man, 24 inches from each side of the edge. It was seized by an invisible hand, and Flammarion, who observed the rear of the curtain, suddenly saw it coming through, upheld in the air, without hands or arms, for a space of one or two seconds. Then she saw it fall down. There is some similarity between this observation of Flammarion and an account of Mrs. Speer (friend of William Stainton Moses) dated October 17, 1874: ‘‘Before the meeting Mr. Stainton Moses had taken three rings from his hands and threaded them on to his watch chain; his watch was on one end of the chain and a small pocket barometer on the other; both of these articles he placed in side pockets of his waistcoat, the rings hanging midway on his chain in full sight of the circle. We suddenly saw a pillar of light advance from a corner of the room, stand between me and Dr. S. then pass through the table to Mr. S. M. In a moment the figure flashed back again between us and threw something hard down upon the table. We passed

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. our hands over the table, and found the rings had been removed from the medium’s chain without his knowledge.’’ Mr. F. Fusedale, testifying to the London Dialectical Society in 1869, submitted an account of spirit manifestations in his own house: ‘‘The children and my wife would see the things they [the spirits] took (in particular a brooch of my wife’s) appear to pass through solid substances, such as the wall or the doors, when they were taken from them; and they would take things out of the children’s hands, as if in play, and hide them, and then after a little time return them again.’’ In a séance with the Italian medium Francesco Carancini, a dinner plate, covered with soot and out of the medium’s reach, was placed in a padlocked wooden box held by one of the sitters. In experiments with Mary Baker Thayer, Robert Cooper found a Japanese silk handkerchief belonging to one of the sitters and flowers that came from nowhere in the locked box he brought to the séance, and the key of which he retained (Light, March 15, 1902). Gambier Bolton (author Psychic Force, 1904) noted: ‘‘During my sixteen years of experiments, investigation into the question of the existence of this psychic force the apparent penetration of matter by matter had been such a common occurrence at our experimental meetings, that unless this happens to take place in connection with some unusually large and ponderous object that is suddenly brought into our midst, or removed from the place in which we are holding our meetings, I take but very little notice of it.’’ One of the occasions he took notice of came in a séance with the medium Cecil Husk. A light table was placed in the middle of the circle and was securely fastened by heavy baize curtains around the four sides, pinning the bottom of the curtain to the floor boards with drawing pins. The table was first heard rocking and tapping the floor boards, and in less than three minutes it had apparently passed through the curtain and was found in its old place, 21 feet away from the curtain. After having been accused of fraud, the American medium Etta Roberts, in a test séance on September 3, 1891, was enclosed in a wire cage out of which many phantom forms issued. Finally Roberts herself stepped out through the padlocked and sealed door without breaking the fastenings. The same feat was witnessed by Dr. Paul Gibier, director of the Bacteriological Institute of New York, with Carrie M. Sawyer (Mrs. Salmon) in his own laboratory on three occasions. The trellis of the cage was found to be burning hot by several sitters.

Matter Passing through Matter Paranormal Release and Movement of Clothing The release of the medium from strong bonds without disturbing the knots or seals was claimed by the Davenport brothers, although justifiable skepticism surrounds their stage performances. The psychic feat was also claimed by Sir William Crookes in his experiments with Florence Cook. A kindred demonstration, of which the Davenport brothers were the greatest exponents, was the taking on and off of coats while the medium’s hands were held. In a letter to the London Daily News, Dion Boucicault, the famous English actor and author, spoke of a séance at his house on October 11, 1864, in which, by striking a light, the participants actually witnessed the coat of Mr. Fay, the fellow-medium of the Davenport brothers, flying off. ‘‘It was seen quitting him, plucked off him upwards. It flew up to the chandelier, where it hung for a moment and then fell to the ground. Mr. Fay was seen meanwhile bound hand and foot as before.’’ Robert Cooper wrote in his book Spiritual Experiences (1867): ‘‘The coat of Mr. Fay has, scores of times, been taken from his back in my presence, and Mr. Fay at the time might be seen sitting like a statue with his hands securely tied behind him and the knots sealed. I have seen coats of various descriptions, from a large overcoat to a light paletot, put on in the place of his own in a moment of time, his hands remaining securely tied and the seal unbroken. I have known the coat that has been placed on Mr. Fay so small that it could only with difficulty be got off him. I have known a coat that was first placed on Mr. Fay transferred in a moment to the back of Ira Davenport, whose hands, like Mr. Fay’s, were tied behind him, and the most curious part of the proceedings was that it was put on inside out. I have also known the waistcoat of Ira Davenport taken from under his coat, all buttoned up, with his watch and guard just as he wore it.’’ The same feat was witnessed in 1886 in Washington by Alfred Russel Wallace in a séance with Pierre L. O. A. Keeler. Italian researcher Cesare Lombroso recorded a similar instance with Eusapia Palladino. An overcoat was placed on a chair beyond the reach of the medium whose hands and feet had been continuously controlled. Several objects from an inside pocket of the overcoat had been brought and laid on a phosphorescent cardboard on the table. All at once the medium began to complain of something about her neck and binding her tight. On light being produced it was found that she had the overcoat on. Accounts of release from bonds and flying clothing must be treated with caution as they are stock feats of stage conjurers.

Paranormal Knot-tying

Ring Experiments and Chair Threading

Knots tied in an endless cord was the first phenomenon Johann Zöllner witnessed in his experiments with the medium Henry Slade. Zöllner made a loop of strong cord by tying the ends together. The ends projected beyond the knot and were sealed down to a piece of paper. In the séance room he hung the loop around his neck until the moment of experiment arrived. Then he took it off, placed the sealed knots on the table, placed his thumbs on each side of the knot, and dropped the loop over the edge of the table on his knees. Slade kept his hands in sight and touched Zöllner’s hands above the table. A few minutes later four symmetrical single knots were found on the cord. Zöllner’s knot-tying experiment was repeated by Dr. Nichols with the medium William Eglinton in the presence of six observers. Nichols cut four yards of common brown twine from a fresh ball, tied the two ends together with a single knot, then passed each end through a hole in one of his visiting cards, tied another square knot, and firmly sealed this knot to the card. In daylight, the sealed card upon the center of the table, the loop hanging down upon the floor, a minute later five single knots were found tied in the string about a foot apart. (Both Slade and Eglinton were frequently caught in fraudulent mediumship.)

Ring experiments and chair threading were claimed on many occasions. In October 1872 the Religio-Philosophical Journal of Chicago claimed to have witnessed this demonstration. The editor wrote: ‘‘We had the pleasure of attending a séance at which Capt. Winslow was the medium. The manifestations were very fine. One remarkable feat is the union of two solid iron rings, leaving them thus interlinked, and yet the metal perfectly sound.’’ In the majority of cases, however, this plain test was always shirked for the far less convincing demonstration of placing an iron ring on the sitter’s arm after the clasping of the hands or of placing a ring too small to pass over the hand on the medium’s wrist. The medium Cecil Husk wore such a ring until his death. The Society for Psychical Research, London, investigated it and claimed that the ring could be forced off if the medium were chloroformed. George Wyld, a physician of Edinburgh, said the ring was specially made to Husk’s order and secretly marked by him, and that he [Wyld] held the medium’s hand tight while the ring was taken from him in the dark. A similar wrought-iron ring was passed on to the ankle of the medium F. F. Craddock. It was very tight and caused him great discomfort and actual pain until it was filed off by a 1001

Matter Passing through Matter friendly blacksmith. Hearing of this occurrence, Gambier Bolton procured two welded iron rings, and visiting Craddock, he fastened his hands behind his back with strong tape, then led him to a chair and fastened both arms, above the elbows, to the back of the chair with strong tapes and double knots. Bolton stated: ‘‘Placing the two rings at his feet, I turned to the gas pendant hanging over our heads and lowered it somewhat, and before I had time to turn round again I heard the well-known ring of two pieces of iron being brought into sharp contact with each other, and walking up to him I found both rings on his wrist. To make sure that my eyes were not deceiving me. I pulled them strongly, struck one with the other, and found that they really were on his wrists; and I then carefully examined the tapes and found them not only secure, but so tight that his hands were swollen as a result of the tightness with which I had tied them. I stepped backwards, keeping my eyes on him, when suddenly with a crash both rings fell at my feet. To have withdrawn his hands and arms and replaced them in that time was a physical impossibility. On attempting to untie the tapes I found that I had pulled the knots so tightly that it was only after cutting them with a finely pointed pair of scissors, that I was able to release his hands once more, his wrists being marked for some time with a deep red line as the result.’’ In his pamphlet Les Preuves scientifique de la survivance de l’âme (1905), Dr. L. Th. Chazarain wrote of his experience in meetings organized in Paris by Dr. Puel, director of the Revue des Sciences Psychiques: ‘‘I took the ring which had been laid on the table and passed it round her right wrist. Immediately afterwards I took hold of the corresponding hand, and waited, holding it firmly between my own. At the end of eight or ten minutes she uttered a cry, like a cry of pain or fright, and at the same instant she woke and the ring was seen on the ground.’’ August Reveillac, observing the same effect, found the fallen ring, when picked up, almost burning hot. Col. W. A. Danskin described a séance in Baltimore in How and Why I Became a Spiritualist (1869), in which a secretly marked iron ring, seven inches smaller than the circumference of the medium’s head, was repeatedly placed around the medium’s neck. From the Banner of Light (January 11, 1868), he reproduced the following testimony, signed by thirty-two names: ‘‘We, the undersigned, hereby testify that we have attended the social meetings referred to; and that a solid iron ring, seven inches less in size than the young man’s head was actually and unmistakably placed around his neck. There was as the advertisement claims, no possibility of fraud or deception, because the ring was freely submitted to the examination of the audience, both before and while on the neck of the young man.’’ The medium was a 19-year-old boy. Danskin further wrote: ‘‘Once, when only three persons were present—the medium, a friend and myself—we sat together in the dark room. I held the left hand of the medium, my friend held his right hand, our other hands being joined; and while thus sitting, the ring, which I had thrown some distance from us on the floor, suddenly came round my arm. I had never loosened my hold upon the medium, yet that solid iron ring, by an invisible power, was made to clasp my arm.’’ The medium Charles Williams often demonstrated the ring test. In Some Reminiscences: An Account of Startling Spiritual Manifestations (1890), A. Smedley described several instances during which he used a ring that he secretly marked. On one occasion, for example, Col. Lean (husband of Florence Marryat) mentally asked the control ‘‘John King’’ to fetch the halfhoop diamond ring from his wife’s finger and place it on his. The ring, wrote Florence Marryat, ‘‘was worn between my wedding ring and a heavy gold snake ring and I was holding the hand of my neighbor all the time and yet the ring was abstracted from between the other two and transferred to Colonel Lean’s finger without my being aware of the circumstance.’’ In experiments with Maria Vollhardt in Berlin, two highly skeptical members of the Medical Society for Psychic Research, 1002

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. holding the hands of the medium at either side, found two unbroken wooden rings about their arms. Robert Cooper, in a séance with the Eddy brothers, experienced an electric shock at his elbow and found two iron rings on his arm, which was held by the medium (reported in Light, March 15, 1902). Count Perovsky-Petrovo-Solovovo took a marked ring to a séance with the Russian medium S. F. Sambor on November 15, 1894. The ring was placed on M. Vassilief’s arm when he was holding the medium’s hands (Rebus, No. 47, 1894). In séances with the same medium at the Spiritist Club, St. Petersburg, a Dr. Pogorelski suddenly felt a blow on his right arm (close to the shoulder) and felt a chair passed onto his right arm. He held Sambor’s hands by interlacing the fingers so that ‘‘it was impossible for our hands to become separated, even for a hundredth part of a second, without my feeling it.’’ The experiment was repeated with another sitter whose hand was tied to Sambor’s by means of a nearly ten yards long linen ribbon on the ends of which seals were placed. John S. Farmer, William Eglinton’s biographer, wrote in his Twixt Two Worlds (1886) that in June 1879 at Mrs. Gregory’s house, ‘‘in the presence of Mr. Eglinton and a non-professional medium, two chairs were threaded at the same moment of time upon the arms of two sitters, each of whom was then holding the hand of the medium. Mr. Sergeant Cox was holding the hand of Mr. Eglinton and the back of the chair passed through his arm, giving him the sensation of a blow against the elbow when it did so. When a light was struck the chair was seen hanging on Mr. Sergeant Cox’s arm and his hand was still grasping that of Mr. Eglinton. An immediate examination of the chair showed that the back of it was in good condition, with none of the woodwork loose or broken.’’ In Planchette; or, The Despair of Science (1880), Epes Sargent quoted many testimonies of similar occurrences with Charles Read of Buffalo and other mediums. Gambier Bolton wrote of his experience with Cecil Husk as follows: ‘‘With Mrs. Cecil Husk, on half a dozen occasions, in my own room and using my own chairs, I have held both hands of another experimenter with my two hands, about fifteen inches from the top of the back of one of the chairs, when with a sudden snap the back of the chair has passed over our wrists and has been seen by twelve to sixteen other observers hanging from our arms, in gas light, my hands never for an instant releasing those of my fellow-experimenters.’’ Well-documented experiments in the claimed demonstration of the passage of matter through matter were carried out in June and July 1932, in the ‘‘Margery’’ circle in Boston (see also Mina Crandon). The phenomena, as reported by William H. Button in the Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research (August–September 1932) consisted of the removal of a variety of objects from locked or sealed boxes and the introduction of various objects into such boxes. They were undertaken to confirm some of the results of the Zöllner experiments. The most astonishing phenomenon of the ‘‘Margery’’ mediumship was the interlocking rings. Sir Oliver Lodge had suggested the paranormal linking of two rings made of different woods might provide an irrefutable evidence of psychic force. The rings were duly provided, one of white wood and the other of red mahogany. At a séance with ‘‘Margery’’ in 1932, the rings were interlocked. According to Thomas R. Teitze in his book Margery (1973), the Irish poet W. B. Yeats was present at this séance. The feat of linking two rings made from different woods was apparently repeated. One set was sent to Sir Oliver Lodge for independent verification, but unfortunately arrived cracked and broken, presumably damaged in the post. Another set of interlocked rings of different woods was shown to the British Spiritualist journalist Hannen Swaffer when he visited the Crandons in 1934. The rings were photographed and show one of white wood and the other of red mahogany. They passed into the care of William Button, then

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. president of the American Society for Psychical Research, and were kept in a sealed, glass-covered box. On a return visit to Boston in 1936, Swaffer asked to see the rings again, but when they were taken out of the box it was found that one of the rings was broken. In 1979 the SORRAT group formed by John G. Neilhardt attempted to validate such paranormal linkages in an unassailable experiment. Since it could be argued that wooden rings might be cleverly separated along the grain and glued together again, parapsychologist W. E. Cox proposed seamless rings made from a single layer of ordinary leather. It would not be possible to cut and rejoin leather without trace of manipulation. In the event, the experiment was successful and film records show the paranormal materializing and dematerializing process. The linkages, however, were not permanent, as the leather rings separated again after a few seconds, a curious echo of the ‘‘Margery’’ experiments. Sources: Richards, John Thomas. SORRAT: A History of the Neilhardt Psychokinesis Experiments, 1961–1981. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1982. Teitze, Thomas. Margery. New York: Harper & Row, 1973. Transcendental Physics: An Account of Experimental Investigations from the Scientific Treatises of Johann Carl Friedrich Zöllner. Translated by Charles C. Massey. London: W. H. Harrison, 1882. Reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1976.

Maxwell, Joseph (ca. 1933) Attorney-general at the Court of Appeal at Bordeaux and prominent French psychic investigator. The chance reading of a book on Theosophy gave him the first impulse to study occult mysteries. He then found a remarkable medium in Limoges. The result, however, was unconvincing. But he realized that certain manifestations could only be studied with the knowledge of nervous and mental pathology, and for six years he studied at the University of Bordeaux for a medical degree. As a trained investigator he had the rare fortune to find a medium in a friend, a Mr. Meurice, who could produce telekinetic phenomena in good light. He obtained further good results with a Miss Agullana of Bordeaux, two young mediums of Agen, and others. In 1895 in l’Agnelas, he and Eugene Rochas, Dariex, Sabatier, Count de Gramont, and Watteville attended experiments with Eusapia Palladino. After an extensive study of the phenomena of raps, he wrote in Les Phénoménes psychiques (Paris, 1903) about the reality of telekinesis: ‘‘I am certain that we are in the presence of an unknown force; its manifestations do not seem to obey the same laws as those governing other forces more familiar to us; but I have no doubt they obey some law.’’ He admitted that the force is intelligent but wondered if that intelligence did not come from the experimenters. His theory was that a kind of collective consciousness produced the intellectual results. The book, the result of ten years of research, is a valuable contribution to psychical literature. Sources: Maxwell, Joseph. La Divination. Paris: E. Flammarion, 1927. ———. La Magie. Paris: E. Flammarion, 1922. ———. Les Phénomènes psychiques (Metapsychical Phenomena). London: Duckworth, 1905.

Maya A term used in Hinduism to denote the illusory nature of the world or empirical reality. It is to be distinguished from delusion, since it implies that there is something present, although not what it seems to be. According to the Vedas, the ancient scriptures of India, the divine infinity of Brahman (impersonal

Mayne, Alan James absolute) or Brahma (creative God) is real and is present in empirical reality but is veiled by the illusory power of maya.

Mayavi-rupa According to Theosophy and drawing on Hindu religious insights, the mayavi-rupa is the invisible part of the physical body. Its appearance is exactly similar to that of the physical body.

Maynard, Henrietta Sturdevant (1841–1892) American inspirational speaker known as Nettie Colburn before her marriage. She was born in Bolton, Connecticut, in 1841. Abraham Lincoln had a high opinion of her gift and was, to an appreciable extent, influenced by her trance exhortations in the issue of the antislavery proclamation. Maynard described her meetings with the president in her book Was Abraham Lincoln a Spiritualist? (1891). She visited Washington in spring 1862 in order to see her brother, then in the Federal Army hospital. Lincoln’s wife had a sitting with Maynard and was enormously impressed. The next day she sent a carriage to bring the medium to see the president. In a state of trance, the medium delivered a powerful address relating to the forthcoming Emancipation Proclamation, forcefully urging Lincoln ‘‘not to abort the terms of its issue and not to delay its enforcement as a law beyond the opening of the year; and he was assured that it was to be the crowning event of his administration and his life,’’ even though he was being strongly counseled by certain individuals to defer the matter. According to reports, President Lincoln acknowledged the pressures upon him and was deeply impressed by the medium’s message. Maynard died at White Plains, New York, June 27, 1892. Sources: Maynard, Henrietta S. Was Abraham Lincoln a Spiritualist? Philadelphia, Pa.: R. C. Hartranft, 1891. Reprint, London: Psychic Book Club, 1917.

Mayne, Alan James (1927–


British researcher and consultant. He was born November 29, 1927, at Cambridge, England, and studied at Oxford University (B.A., 1949; B.S., 1951; M.A., 1953). He held a variety of positions in industry, including work as scientific officer, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (1951–56); research statistician and consultant with A. C. Nielsen Co., Oxford (1956–59); and research fellow with Electronic Computing Laboratory, University of Leeds (1960–61). He edited The Scientist Speculates, an anthology, and wrote articles on mathematical statistics and operational research. Mayne also studied parapsychological phenomena and published contributions in the Journal of the British Society of Dowsers. He acted as director of research for the Society of Metaphysicians (Archer’s Court, Hastings, Sussex, England) and was president of the Institute of Parascience (Spryton, Lifton, Devon, England) on its foundation in 1971. Sources: Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House, 1991. Mayne, Alan James. ‘‘The Promotion of Research.’’ Journal of the Society for Psychical Research 42 (1963). Pleasants, Helene, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Parapsychology. New York: Helix Press, 1964. 1003

Ma Yoga Shakti International Mission

Ma Yoga Shakti International Mission A Hindu organization founded in 1979 by Maha Mandaleshwar Ma Yoga Shakti Saraswati, an Indian female guru who immigrated to the United States in 1977. She established ashrams in Ozone Park, New York, and Palm Bay and Deerfield Beach, Florida, and alternates her time between them. She has also organized four ashrams in India: Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi, and Gondia. She teaches a balanced approach to all forms of yoga— hatha, rajah, bhakti, and karma. Devotional services, classes and retreats are held at all centers. Ma Yoga Shakti has published several books or commentaries, including: Yoga Syzygy, Techniques of Meditation, Shri Satya Narayan Katha, Adhyaatma Sandesh—Spiritual Message, and Invisible Psychic Lotuses, which the mission distributes. It also publishes the Yogashakti Mission Newsletter. The address of the New York center is 114-41 Lefferts Blvd., South Ozone Park, NY 11420. Sources: Yoga Shakti, Ma. Adyaatma Sandesh—A Spiritual Message. Melbourne, Fla.: Yogashakti Mission, 1991. ———. Invisible Psychic Lotuses. Bombay: Yogashakti Mission, n.d. ———. Shri Satya Narayan Katha. Melbourne, Fla.: Yogashakti Mission, 1979. ———. Techniques of Meditation. New York: Ma Yoga Shakti Mission, 1994. ———. Yoga Para La Salud Fisica Mental. New York: Yogashakti Publications, 1997. ———. Yoga Syzygy. Gherand Samhita Hatha Yoga, New York: Ma Yoga Shakti International Mission, 1984.

Mazdaznan Temple Association A Zoroastrian group founded in 1890 by Ottoman ZarAdhusht Hanish (1854–1936). The name Mazdaznan is derived from the Persian Mazda and Znan which Hanish translated as ‘‘master thought,’’ although this interpretation might be questioned by Persian scholars. As a Zoroastrian group, members affirm the monotheistic faith in the Lord God Mazda, the creator of humanity. God finds expression in the Holy Family of Father (the male creative principle), Mother (the procreative female principle), and Child (destiny/salvation). Hanish was born in Leipzig, Germany. When only a boy, he was supposed to have been taken to a Persian monastery at Math-El-Kharman and taught every major art and science, including occultism. Early in this century, Hanish settled in Chicago, where he founded Mazdaznan. In 1916 he moved to Los Angeles. A European headquarters was established as a colony called Aryana (admitting only white-skinned Aryans) at Herliberg, Lake Zurich. The Mazdaznans believe that their task is to reclaim the earth and turn it into a paradise, a place suitable for even God to dwell. The process of reclaimation begins with the human body. Hanish taught a series of spiritual exercises centering on breathing and regular prayers and chants. A vegetarian diet is recommended and daily exercise prescribed. In the 1980s the group moved its headquarters to California. Members are scattered across North America and a number of foreign countries. Hanish wrote several books that embody the group’s beliefs and practices. A new magazine is currently being worked on called, All Is Well. Address: 4364 Bonita Rd., #617 Bonita, CA 91902. Website: http:// www.mazdaznan.org/. Sources: Ecroyd, H. R. ‘‘A Strange Adventure in Switzerland.’’ The Quest 21, 1 (October 1939). 1004

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. Hanish, O. Z. A. Health and Breath Culture. Chicago: Sun Worshipper Publishing, 1902. ———. Inner Studies. Mokelumne Hill, Calif.: Health Research, 1963. ———. Mazdaznan: What It Teaches. Los Angeles: Mazdaznan Press, 1969. ———. The Philosophy of Mazdaznan. Los Angeles: Mazdaznan Press, 1960. Mazdaznan. http://www.mazdaznan.org/. March 8, 2000.

McConnell, Robert A. (1914–


Biophysicist and parapsychologist who was president of the Parapsychological Association in 1958. McConnell was born in Pennsylvania in 1914, and studied at Carnegie Institute of Technology (B.S., physics, 1935) and the University of Pittsburgh (Ph.D., physics, 1947). He worked as a physicist with Gulf Research and Development, at a U.S. Naval aircraft factory (1937–41), and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Radiation Laboratory, where he was a group leader (1944–46). While at MIT he read of J. B. Rhine’s work in parapsychology and, intrigued, delved into the literature of psychical research. After graduation McConnell joined the faculty at the University of Pittsburgh where he remained until his retirement in 1984, when he was named research professor emeritus. In addition to his work in parapsychology, he also specialized in radar moving target indication, theory of the iconoscope, and ultrasonic microwaves. He was unusual for a parapsychologist in an academic appointment in that he was able to spend the majority of his research time in parapsychological work throughout his active career. He was a founding member of the Parapsychological Association and was the organization’s first president (1957–58). He later served a second term in that office (1977–78). In addition to his articles in technical journals, McConnell has written widely on parapsychology. He contributed chapters to a Ciba Foundation symposium on Extrasensory Perception (1956) and a symposium edited by Eileen J. Garrett, Does Man Survive Death? During his retirement he wrote Parapsychology in Retrospect: My Search for the Unicorn (1987). Sources: Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House, 1991. McConnell, Robert A. Encounters with Parapsychology. Pittsburgh, Pa.: The Author, 1982. ———. ESP Curriculum Guide. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1971. ———. An Introduction to Parapsychology in the Context of Science. Pittsburgh, Pa.: The Author, 1983. ———. Parapsychology and Self-Deception in Science. Pittsburgh, Pa.: The Author, 1982. ———. Parapsychology in Retrospect: My Search for the Unicorn. Pittsburgh, Pa.: The Author, 1987. McConnell, Robert A., and Gertrude Schmeidler. ESP and Personality Patterns. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1958. Pleasants, Helene, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Parapsychology. New York: Helix Press, 1964.

McDonnell Laboratory for Psychic Research Parapsychology laboratory at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, funded from 1979 to 1986 by a grant from the McDonnell Foundation. The director of the laboratory was Peter R. Phillips, who has worked on high energy physics, cosmology, and parapsychology. Address: Washington University, Parapsychology laboratory, One Brookings Dr., St. Louis, MO 63130.

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed.

McDougall, William (1871–1938) Professor of psychology successively at Oxford University, Harvard University, and Duke University who made important contributions to parapsychology. He was born June 22, 1871, in Lancashire, England, and was educated at Owens College, Manchester, St. Thomas Hospital, London, and Cambridge, Oxford, and Göttingen universities. He was a fellow of St. John’s College, Cambridge (1898; hon. fellow, 1938), a reader at University College London, and a reader in mental philosophy and fellow at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, before becoming a professor at Harvard. In 1920 he became president of the Society for Psychical Research, and the following year became president of the American Society for Psychical Research (ASPR). He sat on the Scientific American Committee for the investigation of the mediumship of ‘‘Margery’’ (Mina S. Crandon) and was a keen but reserved investigator who took great care initially not to commit himself to affirming the genuine occurrence of the supernormal. McDougall later came to believe that Margery’s phenomena were created fraudulently and joined with other members of the ASPR to protest the organization’s public identification with her. In 1925 he joined with others in the founding of the Boston Society for Psychical Research. McDougall was one of the leading psychologists of his time and the author of numerous books. He contributed an article on hypnotism to the eleventh edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica (1910), as well as articles on hallucination, suggestion, and trance (11th–14th editions). His continuing interest in psychical research was a dominant influence in the development of modern parapsychology. He is most remembered for the period he spent as head of the Psychology Department at Duke University (1927–38), and he encouraged J. B. Rhine in the founding of the Parapsychology Laboratory, from which modern research in laboratory controlled experiments developed. He also authored a variety of articles on parapsychology, defended the place of parapsychology as an academic discipline, and co-edited the Journal of Parapsychology (1937–38). He died November 28, 1938. Sources: Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House, 1991. McDougall, William. Body and Mind: A History and Defense of Animism. London: Methuen, 1911. ———. ‘‘The Case of Sally Beauchamp.’’ Proceedings of the Society of Psychical Research 19–20 (1905–07). ———. ‘‘Further Observations on the ‘Margery’ Case.’’ Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 19 (1925). ———. ‘‘The Margery Mediumship.’’ Psyche 26 (1926). ———. Modern Materialism and Emergent Evolution. New York: D. Van Nostrand, 1929. ———. ‘‘The Need for Psychical Research.’’ Harvard Graduate Magazine. Reprinted in ASPR Journal 17 (1923). ———. The Riddle of Life. London: Methuen, 1938. Pleasants, Helene, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Parapsychology. New York: Helix Press, 1964.

McKenzie, James Hewat (1869–1929) Founder of the British College of Psychic Science. McKenzie was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, November 11, 1869. He began the study of the paranormal in 1900 as a result of his dissatisfaction with the failure of science or theology to throw any light on human destiny. Years of private study and investigation followed. The fruit of this period of research was a series of lectures in London, Edinburgh, and Glasgow (1915), a book, Spirit Intercourse: Its Theory and Practice (1916), and a pamphlet If a Soldier Die (1916), which had a wide circulation. In 1917 he toured the eastern United States and the Midwest as far as Chi-

McMahan, Elizabeth Anne cago in search of mediums. After spending a good deal of time in California, he returned home in 1920. McKenzie raised money to found the British College of Psychic Science in 1920. He started Psychic Science, the college’s quarterly journal, two years later. In the same year he and his wife, Barbara, who collaborated in all his investigations, visited Germany, Austria, and Poland and had sittings with many of the best psychics on the Continent. In Warsaw they sat with the materializing medium Franek Kluski and secured plaster casts of materialized hands, which they brought to London. These casts were the only ones in England at the time. They also brought Maria Silbert of Graz, Austria, and a poltergeist medium to the college for experimental work. A devoted Spiritualist, McKenzie had no scientific training. Characterized by a strong, assertive personality, he was known to cover up evidence of fraud when he discovered it. McKenzie had a deep interest in physical mediumship in all its aspects and a profound knowledge of the conditions necessary for good results. On many occasions he was asked to investigate cases of hauntings and disturbances and was able to clear up annoying conditions. He also made an intensive study of trance mediumship with Gladys Osborne Leonard and Eileen Garrett and assisted in the development of the psychic talents of several other trance mediums. He was convinced that only through psychic ‘‘facts’’ was there any proved knowledge of survival, a belief he affirmed continuously in his writings and lectures. During the years in which he acted as honorary president of the college, it was the first substantial organization in London to become a center for psychic demonstration and instruction. McKenzie died August 29, 1929, in London. Barbara McKenzie, who also brought a fine intellect and understanding to the study of psychic phenomena, was honorary secretary of the college until 1929, and then became honorary president for one year, being succeeded by Rose Champion de Crespigny. Sources: Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House, 1991. Hankey, Muriel. J. Hewat McKenzie: Pioneer of Psychical Research. London: Aquarian Press, 1963.

McMahan, Elizabeth Anne (1924–


Assistant professor of zoology, also active in the field of parapsychology. She was born May 5, 1924, at Mocksville, North Carolina, and studied at Duke University (M.A., 1948) and the University of Hawaii (Ph.D., 1960). She was a research fellow at the Parapsychology Laboratory at Duke University (1948–54); in 1960 she joined the faculty of the department of zoology at the University of North Carolina. In addition to her many articles on entomology, she published a number of papers on parapsychology, based on her own investigations in telepathy, psychokinesis, and precognition. She was a charter member of the Parapsychological Association. Sources: Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House, 1991. McMahan, Elizabeth Anne. ‘‘An Experiment in Pure Telepathy.’’ Journal of Parapsychology 10 (1946). ———. ‘‘PK Experiments with Two-Sided Objects.’’ Journal of Parapsychology 9 (1945). McMahan, Elizabeth Anne, and E. K. Bates. ‘‘Report of Further Marchesi Experiments.’’ Journal of Parapsychology 18 (1954). McMahan, Elizabeth Anne, and J. B. Rhine. ‘‘Extrasensory Perception of Cards in an Unknown Location.’’ Journal of Parapsychology 12 (1948). 1005

McMoneagle, Joseph

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———. ‘‘A Review of the Evidence for Dowsing.’’ Journal of Parapsychology 11 (1947). ———. ‘‘A Second Zagreb-Durham ESP Experiment.’’ Journal of Parapsychology 11 (1947). Pleasants, Helene, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Parapsychology. New York: Helix Press, 1964.

McMoneagle, Joseph (1946–


Joseph McMoneagle, a psychic known for his remote viewing abilities and participation in the government-sponsored research on parapsychology, was born in Miami, Florida on January 10, 1946. After high school he enter the army and soon was assigned to the Army Security Agency. After 13 years of service overseas, in 1977 he returned to the United States to work with the Intelligence and Security Command where he became a warrant officer. In 1978 he was recruited into the secret psychic spy unit of the government program, later known as the STAR GATE Project, designed to develop an operative intelligence operation using remote viewing. He worked with the unit until his retirement in 1984. He moved to rural Virginia where he met and eventually married Nancy Lea Honeycutt, the step-daughter of Robert A. Monroe, known for his out-of-body experiences. She was the director of the Monroe Institute for Applied Sciences. Following his retirement, McMoneagle was also hired by the Cognitive Sciences Laboratory, responsible for the research and development side of the STAR GATE Project. He worked both as a remote viewer and as a research assistant. He continues as an employee of the laboratory. McMoneagle has written two nonfiction books about remote viewing, Mind Trek (1993) and The Ultimate Time Machine (1998). In the wake of the declassification of data on the government’s paranormal research in 1995, McMoneagle has made numerous media appearances discussing the subject matter. McMoneagle and his wife Nancy have founded Intuitive Intelligence Applications, Inc., through which offers astrological consultant and remote viewing services and programs in paranormal research. Sources: McMoneagle, Joseph. Mind Trek. Charlottesville, Va.: Hampton Roads Publishing Co., 1993. Rev. ed., 1997. ———. The Ultimate Time Machine: A Remote Viewer’s Perception of Time, and Predictions for the New Millennium. Charlottesville, Va. : Hampton Roads Publishing Co., 1998.

McNallen, Stephen A. (1948–


Stephen A. McNallen, the pioneer advocate of modern Norse Neo-Paganism in North America, was born in Breckenridge, Texas, on October 15, 1948. He attended Midwestern University in Wichita Falls, Texas, and during his college days discovered the deities of the ancient Norsemen and began to identify with the Viking element in his own ancestry. He eventually dedicated himself to Odin and the whole of the Norse pantheon, though he kept this commitment to himself and a few friends. However, in the winter of 1971–72, as his college career was coming to an end, he released the first issue of The Runestone. Previously he had placed an ad in Fate magazine, and compiled a list of potential subscribers from it. From those who responded he founded the Viking Brotherhood. McNallen completed his degree in political science and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the army. He did his basic training at Fort Benning (Georgia) and was assigned to a unit in Germany, where he served for the remainder of his term. The Viking Brotherhood continued at a minimal level until he returned to the States in 1976. He settled in California and began to meet with Norse Neo-Pagans in the San Francisco Area. 1006

McNallen actively developed his understanding of the Asatru (or loyalty to the Germanic deities) and shortly after his assuming active leadership in the brotherhood, he reformed it as Asatru Free Assembly. His efforts received a significant boost when the first edition of Margot Adler’s survey of the contemporary community, Drawing Down the Moon, appeared in 1979. He even appeared on the radio show of Christian evangelist Bob Larson, which provided further national exposure. He continued to edit The Runestone and compiled a book of Norse rituals. Feeling burned out, he dissolved the assembly in 1987, though he did not abandon his faith. Others continued the work of the assembly in various alternative organizations and McNallen moved to northern California. He obtained his teaching credentials and got a job teaching science and math in a junior high school. In his spare time, he traveled to northern India and Burma and turned his observations on the political and military conflicts into articles for national magazines. In 1992, McNallen felt ready to resume his leadership in what had become an expansive international Asatru community. He revived The Runestone and founded a new fellowship group, the Asatru Folk Assembly, modelled on the previous Asatru Free Assembly. He has also continued his global travels, beginning with Africa and Bosnia in 1993. He maintains the Internet page for the new assembly at http://www.runestone.org. Sources: McNallen, Stephen A. Rituals of Asatru. 3 vols. Breckenridge, Tex.: Asatru Free Assembly, 1985. ———. What Is the Norse Religion? Turlock, Calif.: The Author, n.d.

Mead, G(eorge) R(obert) S(tow) (1863–1933) Theosophist, scholar, and writer on Gnosticism and early Christianity. Born March 22, 1863, he was educated at St. John’s College, Cambridge (M.A., 1885). In 1884 Mead joined the Theosophical Society, and in 1889 he gave up his work as a teacher to be closely concerned with the Theosophical Society and its cofounder Helena Petrovna Blavatsky. Mead became her private secretary for the last three years of her life and subedited her monthly magazine Lucifer, which he renamed the Theosophical Review on becoming editor. Mead was one of the few of Blavatsky’s associates to have a realistic view of her complex character. He believed her to be a racy personality as well as a powerful medium, and not simply a charlatan, as alleged by her critics. In 1890 Mead was appointed general secretary of the Theosophical Society, a position he held for eight years. Among his first tasks, he helped to edit the second edition of Blavatsky’s massive text, The Secret Doctrine (1890). In 1908 he resigned from the society (with some 700 other members) in protest against the sexual scandals concerning C. W. Leadbeater. In March of the next year, Mead founded the Quest Society, which he saw as a group of sincere seekers after spiritual wisdom without taint of charlatanism. He edited the Quest, a quarterly review, for over 20 years (1909–30). After the death of his wife, Mead became actively interested in psychic science and sat with several mediums. He died September 28, 1933, and is remembered for the many books he wrote and edited. Sources: Mead, George R. S. Apollonius of Tyana. 1901. Reprint, New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1966. ———. Did Jesus Live 100 B.C.? 1903. Reprint, New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1968. ———. The Doctrine of the Subtle Body. 1919. Reprint, London: Stuart & Watkins, 1967. ———. Echoes from the Gnosis. 1907. Reprint, Hastings, E. Sussex, England: Chthonius Books, 1987.

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. ———. Fragments of a Faith Forgotten. 1900. Reprint, New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1960. ———. Pistis Sophia. London: Theosophical Publishing Society, 1921. ———. Simon Magus. London: Theosophical Publishing Society, 1892. ———. Thrice Greatest Hermes. London: Theosophical Society, 1906.

Meddelande Fran Sallskapet fur Parapsykologis Publication in Swedish of the Swedish Society for Psychical Research. Last known address: P.O. Box 7045, Stockholm 10386, Sweden.

Medea In Greek mythology, an enchantress and daughter of the king of Colchis who fell in love with Jason when he came to that country. Medea enabled him to slay the sleepless dragon that guarded the golden fleece. She fled from Colchis with Jason, who made her his wife, and from whom she exacted a pledge never to love another woman. They were pursued by her father, but she delayed the pursuit by the cruel expedient of cutting her brother Absyrtus to pieces and strewing his limbs in the sea. Medea accompanied Jason to Greece, where she was regarded as a barbarian. Having conciliated King Peleus, who was now a very old man, she induced him to try to regain youth by bathing in a magic cauldron she had prepared. So great was his faith in her powers that the old man unhesitatingly plunged into her cauldron and was boiled alive. Her reason for this act of cruelty was to hasten Jason’s succession to the throne. In due course, Jason would have succeeded Peleus, but now the Greeks would have none of either him or Medea, and he was forced to leave Iolcos. Growing tired of the formidable enchantress to whom he had bound himself, Jason sought to contract an alliance with Glauce, a young princess. Concealing her real intentions, Medea pretended friendship with the bride-elect and sent her as a wedding present a garment, which as soon as Glauce put it on, caused her to die in the greatest agony. Eventually Medea parted from Jason. Having murdered her two children by him, she fled from Corinth in a car drawn by dragons to Athens, where she married Argeus, by whom she had a son, Medus. But the discovery of an attempt on the life of Theseus forced her to leave Athens. Accompanied by her son, she returned to Colchis and restored her father to the throne, of which he had been deprived by his own brother Perses. Much literature has been written about the character of Medea. Euripides, Ennius, Aeschylus, and later Pierre Corneille made her the theme of tragedies. Sources: Kingsley, Charles. The Heroes. 1856. Reprint, New York: Dutton, 1963.

Medhurst, R. G. (1920–1971) British writer on parapsychology and a leading member of the Society for Psychical Research (SPR), London. He was attracted to psychical research after hearing some of S. G. Soal’s lectures on the subject. Medhurst’s degree in mathematics and his outstanding work in mathematical engineering were of special value in evaluating the mathematical aspects of ESP. His paper ‘‘On the Origin of the Prepared Random Numbers Used in the Shackleton Experiments’’ (1971) was undertaken to defend Soal’s reputation, but instead Medhurst discovered flaws in his mentor’s work, and he concluded that the common meth-

Medicine, Occult od of constructing quasi-random series in parapsychology was incorrect. Medhurst’s work led eventually to Soal’s illegitimate manipulation of data being discovered. Medhurst also contributed work on such subjects as the investigation of Dutch psychic Gerard Croiset and Duke University’s ESP cards. He discussed one project to discover ESP agents and percipients and wrote a number of book reviews. He headed the SPR’s library committee. Sources: Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House, 1991. Medhurst, R. G. Crookes and the Spirit World: A Collection of Writings by or Concerning the Work of Sir William Crookes. Edited by K. M. Goldney and M. R. Barrington. London: Taplinger, 1972. ———. ‘‘On the Origin of the Prepared Random Numbers Used in the Shackleton Experiments.’’ Journal of the Society for Psychical Research 46 (1971). Medhurst, R. G., and K. M. Goldney. ‘‘William Crookes and the Physical Phenomena of Mediumship.’’ Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research 54, no. 195 (March 1964).

Medicine, Occult Nineteenth-century magus Éliphas Lévi observed: ‘‘The whole power of the occult physician is in the conscience of his will, while his whole art consists in exciting the faith of his patient. ‘If you have faith,’ says the Master, ‘all things are possible to him who believes.’ The subject must be dominated by expression, tone, gesture; confidence must be inspired by a fatherly manner, and cheerfulness stimulated by seasonable and sprightly talk. Rabelais, who was a greater magician than he seemed, made pantagruelism his special panacea. He compelled his patients to laugh, and all the remedies he administered subsequently succeeded better in consequence. . . . He established a magnetic sympathy between himself and them, by means of which he imparted his own confidence and good humour; he flattered them in his refaces, termed them his precious, most illustrious patients, and dedicated his books to them. So are we convinced that Gargantua and Pantagruel cured more black humours, more tendencies to madness, more atrabilious whims, at that epoch of religious animosities and civil wars, than the whole Faculty of medicine could boast. ‘‘Occult medicine is essentially sympathetic. Reciprocal affection, or at least real good will, must exist between doctor and patient. Syrups and juleps have very little inherent virtue; they are what they become through the mutual opinion of operator and subject; hence homeopathic medicine dispenses with them and no serious inconvenience follows. Oil and wine, combined with salt or camphor, are sufficient for the healing of all wounds, and for all external frictions or soothing applications. Oil and wine are the chief medicaments of the Gospel tradition. They formed the balm of the Good Samaritan, and in the Apocalypse, when describing the last plagues, the prophet prays the avenging powers to spare these substances, that is, to leave a hope and a remedy for so many wounds. What we term Extreme Unction was the pure and simple practice of the Master’s traditional medicine, both for the early Christians and in the mind of the apostle Saint James, who has included the precept in his epistle to the faithful of the whole world. ‘Is any man sick among you,’ he writes, ‘let him call in the priests of the church, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord.’ ‘‘This divine therapeutic science was lost gradually, and Extreme Unction came to be regarded as a religious formality, as necessary preparation for death. At the same time, the thaumaturgic virtue of consecrated oil could not be effaced altogether from remembrance by the traditional doctrine, and it is perpet1007

Medieval Magic uated in the passage of the catechism which refers to Extreme Unction. Faith and charity were the most signal healing powers among the early Christians. The source of most diseases is in moral disorders; we must begin by healing the soul, and then the cure of the body will follow quickly.’’ Some of these concepts have been revived in the modern New Age concept of holistic medicine. Sources: Hartmann, Franz. The Life and Teachings of Paracelsus. London: George Redway, 1887. Reprinted with The Prophecies of Paracelsus. Blauvely, N.Y.: Rudolf Steiner, 1973. Lévi, Éliphas. Transcendental Magic. London: George Redway, 1896. Rev. ed. London: William Rider, 1923. Paracelsus. The Archidoxes of Magic. Translated by Robert Turner. London, 1656. Reprint, New York: Samuel Weiser, 1975.

Medieval Magic In the belief of the medieval professors, the science of magic conferred upon the adept power over angels, demons (see demonology), elementary spirits, and the souls of the dead, the possession of esoteric wisdom, and actual knowledge of the discovery and use of the latent forces and undeveloped energies resident in man. This was supposed to be accomplished by a combination of will and aspiration, which by sheer force germinated an intellectual faculty of psychological perception, enabling the adept to view the wonders of a new world and communicate with its inhabitants. To accomplish this magic, the ordinary faculties were almost invariably heightened by artificial means. The grandeur of the magical ritual overwhelmed the neophyte and quickened his senses. Ceremonial magic was a spur to the latent faculties of human psychic nature, just as were the rich concomitants of religious mysticism. In the medieval mind, as in other periods of human history, it was thought that magic could be employed both for good and evil purposes, its branches being designated ‘‘white’’ and ‘‘black,’’ according to whether it was used for benevolent or wicked ends. The term ‘‘red’’ magic was also occasionally employed, as indicating a more exalted type of the art, but the designation is fanciful. White magic to a great extent concerned itself with the evocation of angelic forces and the spirits of the elements. The angelology of the Catholic Church was undoubtedly derived from the ancient faith of Israel, which in turn was indebted to Egypt and Babylon. The Alexandrian system of successive emanations from the eternal substance evolved a complex hierarchy of angels, all of whom appear to have been at the bidding of the magician who was in possession of the Incommunicable Name, a concept deriving from that of the ‘‘Name of Power’’ so greatly used in Egyptian magic. The letters that composed this name were thought to possess a great measure of occult significance, and a power which in turn appears to have been reflected upon the entire Hebrew alphabet (see Kabala). The alphabet was endowed with mystical meaning, each of the letters representing a vital and creative number. Just as a language is formed from the letters of its alphabet, so from the secret powers that resided in the Hebrew alphabet were magical variations evolved. [Comparable concepts existed in esoteric Hinduism (see AUM).] There are many species of angels and powers. More exalted intelligences were conjured by rites to be found in the ancient book known as the ‘‘Key of Solomon the King,’’ and perhaps the most satisfactory collection of formulae for the invocation of the higher angels is that included in the anonymous Theosophia Pneumatica, published at Frankfurt in 1686, which bears a strong family resemblance to the Treatise on Magic by Arbatel. The names in this work do not tally with those that have been already given, but as it is admitted by occult students that the 1008

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. names of all unseen beings are really unknown to humanity, this does not seem of such importance as it might at first sight. It would seem that such spiritual knowledge as the medieval magus was capable of attaining was insufficient to raise him above the intellectual limitations of his time, so that the work in question possesses all the faults of its age and type. But that is not to say that it possessed no practical value, and it well illustrates the white magic of medieval times. It classifies the names of the angels under the title of ‘‘Olympic or Celestial Spirits,’’ who abide in the firmament and constellations: they administer inferior destinies and accomplish and teach whatever is portended by the several stars in which they are insphered. They are powerless to act without a special command from the Almighty. The stewards of Heaven are seven in number—Arathron, Bethor, Phaleg, Och, Hagith, Ophiel, and Phul. Each of them has a numerous host at his command, and the regions in which they dwell are 196 in all. Arathron appears on Saturday at the first hour and answers for his territory and its inhabitants, as do the others, each at his own day and hour, and each presides for a period of 490 years. The functions of Bethor began in the fiftieth year before the birth of Christ until 430. Phagle reigned till 920 C.E.; Och till the year 1410; Hagith governed until 1900. The others follow in succession. These intelligences are the stewards of all the elements, energizing the firmament and, with their armies, depending from each other in a regular hierarchy. The names of the minor Olympian spirits are interpreted in diverse ways. Generically, they are called ‘‘Astra,’’ and their power is seldom prolonged beyond 140 years. The heavens and their inhabitants come voluntarily to man and often serve even against the will of man, but come much more if we implore their ministry. Evil and troublesome spirits also approach men through the cunning of the devil, at times by conjuration or attraction, and frequently as a penalty for sins. Therefore he who would abide in familiarity with celestial intelligences should take pains to avoid every serious sin. He should diligently pray for the protection of God to vanquish the impediments and schemes of Diabolus, and God will ordain that the devil himself shall work to the direct profit of the worker in magic. Subject to divine providence, some spirits have power over pestilence and famine; some are destroyers of cities, like those of Sodom and Gomorrah; some are rulers over kingdoms, some guardians of provinces, some of a single person. The spirits are the ministers of the word of God and of the church and its members, or they serve creatures in material things, sometimes to the salvation of soul and body, or, again, to the ruin of both. But nothing, good or bad, is done without knowledge, order, and administration. It is unnecessary to follow the angelical host further here, as it has been outlined elsewhere. Many preparations, however, are described by the author of the Theosophia Pneumatica for the successful evocation of these exalted beings. The magus must ponder during his period of initiation on the method of attaining the true knowledge of God, both by night and day. He must know the laws of the cosmos, and the practical secrets that may be gleaned from the study of the visible and invisible creatures of God. He must further know himself, and be able to distinguish between his mortal and immortal parts, and the several spheres to which they belong. Both in his mortal and immortal natures, he must strive to love God, to adore and to fear him in spirit and in truth. He must sedulously attempt to find out whether he is truly fitted for the practice of magic, and if so, to which branch he should turn his talents, experimenting in all to discover in which he is most naturally gifted. He must hold inviolate such secrets as are communicated to him by spirits, and he must accustom himself to their evocation. He must keep himself, however, from the least suspicion of diabolical magic, which has to do with Satan, and which is the perversion of the theurgic power concealed in the word of God.

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. When he has fulfilled these conditions, and before he proceeds to the practice of his art, he should devote a prefatory period to deep contemplation on the high business he has voluntarily taken in hand, and must present himself before God with a pure heart, undefiled mouth, and innocent hands. He must bathe frequently and wear clean garments, confess his sins, and abstain from wine for the space of three days. On the eve of operation, he must dine sparely at noon and consume only bread and water for the evening meal (remembering that prior to modern refining techniques that bread was a very substantial food). On the day he has chosen for the invocation, he must seek a retired and uncontaminated spot, entirely free from observation. After offering up prayer, he compels the spirit he has chosen to appear. By this time he should have reached a state of awareness in which it is impossible that the spirit should remain invisible to him. On the arrival of the angel, the desire of the magus is briefly communicated to him, and his answer is written down. No more than three questions should be asked, and the magician then dismisses the angel to his special sphere. Besides having converse with angels, the magus also has power over the spirits of the elements and may choose to evoke one or more of them. To obtain power over the salamanders, for example, the ‘‘Comte de Gabalis’’ of the Abbé de Villars was largely concerned with the elementals and prescribed the following procedure: ‘‘If you would recover empire over the salamanders, purify and exalt the natural fire that is within you. Nothing is required for this purpose but the concentration of the Fire of the World by means of concave mirrors in a globe of glass. In that globe is formed the ‘solary’ powder, which being of itself purified from the mixture of other elements, and being prepared according to Art becomes in a very short time a sovereign process for the exaltation of the fire that is within you, and transmutes you into an igneous nature.’’ There is very little information extant to show in what manner the evocation of elementary spirits was undertaken, and no ritual has survived that will acquaint us with the method of communicating with them. In older writers, it is difficult to distinguish between angels and elementary spirits; the lower hierarchies of the elementary spirits were also frequently invoked by the black magician. It is probable that the lesser angels of the older magicians were the sylphs of Paracelsus, and the more modern professors of the art. The nineteenth-century magus Éliphas Lévi provided a method for the interrogation and government of elementary spirits, but he did not specify its source, and it was merely fragmentary. It is necessary, he claimed, in order to dominate these intelligences, to undergo the four trials of ancient initiation, and as these are unknown, their room must be supplied by similar tests. To approach the salamanders, therefore, one must expose himself in a burning house. To draw near the sylphs he must cross a precipice on a plank, or ascend a lofty mountain in a storm; and he who would win to the abode of the undines must plunge into a cascade or whirlpool. The air is exorcised by the sufflation of the four cardinal points, the recitation of the prayer of the sylphs, and by the following formula: ‘‘The Spirit of God moved upon the water, and breathed into the nostrils of man the breath of life. Be Michael my leader, and be Sabtabiel my servant, in the name and by the virtue of light. Be the power of the word in my breath, and I will govern the spirits of this creature of Air, and by the will of my soul, I will restrain the steeds of the sun, and by the thought of my mind, and by the apple of my right eye. I exorcise thee O creature of Air, by the Petagrammaton, and in the name Tetragrammaton, wherein are steadfast will and well-directed faith. Amen. Sela. So be it.’’ Water is exorcised by the laying on of hands, by breathing and by speech, and by mixing sacred salt with a little of the ash left in an incense pan. The aspergillus is made of branches of

Meditation vervain, periwinkle, sage, mint, ash, and basil, tied by a thread taken from a virgin’s distaff, with a handle of hazelwood which has never borne fruit, and on which the characters of the seven spirits must be carved with a magic awl. The salt and ashes of the incense must be separately consecrated. The prayer of the undines should follow. Fire is exorcised by casting salt, incense, white resin, camphor, and sulphur therein, and by thrice pronouncing the three names of the genii of fire: Michael, Samael, and Anael, and then by reciting the prayer of the salamanders. The Earth is exorcised by the sprinkling of water, by breathing, by fire, and by the prayer of the gnomes. Their signs are the hieroglyphs of the bull for the gnomes who are commanded with the magic sword; of the lion for the salamanders, who are commanded with the forked rod, or magic trident; of the eagle for the sylphs, who are ruled by the holy pentacles; and finally, of aquarius for the undines, who are evoked by the cup of libations. Their respective sovereigns are Gob for the gnomes, Djin for the salamanders, Paralda for the sylphs, and Necksa for the undines. These names, it will be noticed, are borrowed from folklore. The ‘‘laying’’ of an elementary spirit is accomplished by its adjuration by air, water, fire, and earth, by breathing, sprinkling, the burning of perfumes, by tracing on the ground the star of Solomon and the sacred pentagram, which should be drawn either with ash of consecrated fire or with a reed soaked in various colors, mixed with pure loadstone. The conjuration of the four should then be repeated, the magus holding the pentacle of Solomon in his hand and taking up by turns the sword, rod, and cup, this operation being preceded and terminated by the kabalistic sign of the cross. In order to subjugate an elementary spirit, the magus must be himself free of their besetting sins, thus a changeful person cannot rule the sylphs, nor a fickle one the undines, an angry man the salamanders, or a covetous one the gnomes. (The formula for the evocation of spirits is given under necromancy.) The white magician did not concern himself as a rule with such matters as the raising of demons, animal transformations, and the like, his whole desire being the exaltation of his spiritual nature, and the questions put by him to the spirits he evoked were all directed to that end. However, the dividing line between white and black magic is extremely ambiguous, and it seems likely that the entities evoked might be deceptive as to their nature. Sources: De Villars, L’Abbé de Montfaucon. Comte de Gabalis. Paris, 1670. Reprint, London: Old Bourne Press, 1913. The Greater Key of Solomon. Translated by S. L. MacGregor Mathers. London: George Redway, 1888. Lévi, Éliphas. The History of Magic. London: William Rider, 1913. Reprint, New York: Samuel Weiser, 1971. ———. Transcendental Magic. London: George Redway, 1896. Reprint, New York: Samuel Weiser, 1970. Shah, Sayed Idries. Oriental Magic. London: Rider, 1956. ———. The Secret Lore of Magic. London: Frederick Muller, 1956. Waite, Arthur E. The Book of Ceremonial Magic. London: William Rider, 1911. Reprint, New York: Bell, 1969. ———. The Holy Kabbalah. London: Williams & Norgate, 1929. Reprint, New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1960. Walker, D. P. Spiritual and Demonic Magic: From Ficino to Camperella. South Bend, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1975.

Meditation A traditional spiritual exercise in both Eastern and Western mystical systems, usually involving a static sitting position, a blocking of the mind from normal sensory stimuli, and a con1009

Medium centration upon divine thoughts or mystical centers in the human body. In Christian and some Eastern traditions, meditation was often enhanced by asceticism—prolonged fasts and other physical mortification practiced in order to assert the supremacy of the soul over all physical and sensory demands. Certain welldefined stages of spiritual growth are recorded by saints and mystics, notably the awakening of the soul, contemplation, the dark night of the soul, illumination, and spiritual ecstasy. Several basic types of meditation can be distinguished by the particular nature of the alteration of consciousness sought. For example, Zen meditation tends to produce a focused concentration in the present. The person who meditates in this way is perfectly alert but takes no notice of surrounding noises or other phenomena. Instead of blocking outside distractions, the meditator allows them to come and go as quickly as they arise, always retaining perfect concentration. In Hindu-based meditation forms, an attempt is made to distance oneself from the ‘‘illusionary’’ outside world of noise and distractions and retreat completely into the ‘‘real’’ world of the inner self, which causes a trancelike state. In such a condition one can easily step into a state of ecstacy and lose consciousness of the outside world. Meditation in the West is frequently identified with contemplation of a religious symbol or pious story. That is, the consciousness remains awake and alert as in Zen, but also shut off from the outside world in total concentration upon a predetermined thought. Roman Catholics, for example, have a number of meditative practices built around contemplation of particular episodes in the life of Jesus, the Virgin Mary, or the saints, while Protestants have extolled the value of contemplating verses of Scripture. Eastern meditation traditions are numerous and complex. In Hinduism, for example, meditation was usually taught by a guru only to a properly qualified pupil who had already followed a pathway of sadhana, or spiritual discipline that ensured purification at all levels. The various yoga systems describe such spiritual disciplines in detail, with special emphasis on moral restraints and ethical observances. Meditation without such preliminary training was considered premature and dangerous. The most generally known system has been that of the sage Patanjali (ca. 200 B.C.E.), who taught that in order to experience true reality one must transcend the body and mind. In his Yoga Sutras, Patanjali outlines a program of physical exercises (to strengthen a meditation posture), breathing techniques (to purify the body), withdrawal of the senses, concentration, and meditation, culminating in mystical experience. In this process supernormal powers might be manifested, but were to be ignored. The ultimate goal of meditation was spiritual illumination transcending individuality and extending the consciousness beyond time, space, and causality, but also interfusing it with the everyday duties and responsibilities of the individual. Thus it was not necessary for an illuminated individual to renounce the world, and there are stories in Hindu scriptures of kings and princes who did not forsake their mundane tasks after transcendental experience. It is clear from consideration of the practices of many religions that meditation may be active or passive, depending upon the techniques employed and the degree of purification of the meditator. Fixed concentration upon one mental image, sound, or center in the body is a passive mechanical technique that may bring relaxation, a sense of well-being, and other benefits, but is not in itself spiritual or transcendental in the traditional sense of those terms. The popular so-called transcendental meditation technique of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi appears to be of this order, hence criticism from practitioners of other systems. In active meditation systems, there must be purification at all levels—physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual—and the mind is exercised creatively before it can transcend its own ac1010

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. tivity. Meditators who have attained stages of higher consciousness or mystical illumination testify that there is a gradual process of refinement arising from the activity of a mysterious energy that Hindu mystics call kundalini that modifies the entire organism. Today the variety of meditation techniques practiced throughout the world all have their advocates and practitioners in the West. Both teachers and texts are available to the aspiring student, and psychologists have dedicated research time to exploring the variant effects of the differing systems, from Zen meditation to Sufi dancing to drug-enhanced states of consciousness to Christian contemplative practices. Each of the meditation practices has particular benefits, though the majority of those benefits are only received as the practice is placed within a larger system of spiritual activity, with which it is normally integrated. Sources: Augustine of Hippo. Confessions of St. Augustine. Edited by Francis J. Sheed. New York: Sheed, 1943. John of Ruysbroeck. Adornment of the Spiritual Marriage. Translated by P. Synschenk. London, 1916. Gopi Krishna. Kundalini, the Evolutionary Energy in Man. Boulder, Colo.: Shambhala, 1970. ———. Kundalini for the New Age: Selected Writings. Edited by Gene Kieffer. New York: Bantam, 1988. Luk, Charles. The Secrets of Chinese Meditation. London: n.p., 1964. Melton, J. Gordon. The Ways of Meditation. Evanston, Ill.: Stellium Press, 1974. Patanjali The Yoga-Sutras of Patanjali. Translated by M. N. Dvidedi. Adyar, India: Theosophical Publishing House, 1890. Underhill, Evelyn. Mysticism: A Study in the Nature and Development of Man’s Spiritual Consciousness. London: n.p., 1911. Van Over, Raymond. Total Meditation. New York: Collier Books, 1978.

Medium Throughout the history of Spiritualism, a special place has been occupied by the medium as an individual qualified in some special manner to form a link between the living and the dead. Most Spiritualists would agree with the definition adopted by the National Spiritualist Association of Churches: ‘‘A Medium is one whose organism is sensitive to vibrations from the spirit world and through whose instrumentality intelligences in that world are able to convey messages and produce the phenomena of Spiritualism.’’ Through the medium, Spiritualism asserts, the spirits of the departed may communicate with their friends or relatives still on earth, either by making use of the material organism of the medium (i.e., through automatic phenomena) or by producing in the physical world certain manifestations that cannot be explained by known physical laws (i.e., physical phenomena). The essential qualification of a medium is a unique sensitiveness that enables the medium to be readily ‘‘controlled’’ by spirits. Mediums thus stand in contrast to sensitives or psychics, terms applicable to psychically gifted individuals who are not controlled by spirits of the dead. If one accepts the possibility of mediumship, the next question is whether mediumship is an inherent faculty or whether it may be acquired. Some Spiritualists hold that all individuals are mediums to some degree, and consequently that everyone is in communication with spirits, from whom proceeds what is called inspiration. Those who are ordinarily designated mediums, say the Spiritualists, are gifted with this common ability to a higher degree than their fellows. What came to be known as mediumship in nineteenthcentury Spiritualism is an ability that was found in the ancient world. Early written records of demonic possession afford an excellent example of mediumship, as does the ancient practice

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. of witchcraft. The somnambule of the eighteenth-century mesmerists provides a more recent example. In its usual application, the term medium is used to describe sensitives associated with the modern Spiritualist movement, which had its origin in the United States in 1848. Spiritualism was distinct as a post-Enlightenment movement in which mediumship was used as a means of demonstrating to the public and proving scientifically the reality of spirit contact and therefore life after death. This peculiar context set it apart from all similar behavior that had preceded it. In this sense, then, Mrs. Fox and the Fox sisters, the subject of the Rochester rappings, were the earliest mediums. The phenomena of their séances consisted mainly of knockings, by means of which messages were supposedly conveyed from the spirits to the sitters. Other mediums rapidly appeared, first in America and later in Britain and throughout Europe. Their mediumship was of both varieties—physical and automatic. One of these phases was exhibited exclusively by some mediums, but others demonstrated both, as in the case of William Stainton Moses. Indeed, by the end of the nineteenth century it was practically impossible to find a trance speaker who did not at one time or another practice the physical manifestations. Leonora Piper, who became well known early in this century, was unusual because the phenomena she demonstrated was purely subjective. The early rappings of the Fox sisters speedily developed into more elaborate manifestations. For a few years an epidemic of table turning caused widespread excitement, and the motions of the table became a favorite means of communicating with the spirits. The playing of musical instruments without visible agency was a form of manifestation that received the attention of mediums from an early date, as was the seemingly paranormal materialization in the séance room of ‘‘apports’’: fruit, flowers, perfume, and all manner of portable objects. Darkness was said to facilitate the spirit manifestations, and since there are certain physical processes (such as those in photography) to which darkness is essential, no logical objection could be offered to a dim séance room. The arrival of physical phenomena coincided with the introduction of many amateur conjurers into the movement, who saw a means of making a living bilking sitters hungry for information about their deceased relatives. Attendees at a Spiritualist séance were generally seated around a table, holding each other’s hands, and were often enjoined to sing or talk pending the manifestation of a spirit. All this, although offering grounds of suspicion to the incredulous, was plausible to the Spiritualists. As the demand for physical manifestations increased through the decades of the nineteenth century, they became more daring and more varied. The moving of objects without contact, the levitation of heavy furniture and of medium or sitters, the elongation of the human body, and the fire ordeal were all practiced by the medium Daniel Dunglas Home for a quarter of a century until his death in 1886. At public performances of the Davenport brothers, while the brothers were bound hand and foot in a small cabinet, musical instruments were played and moved about the room and objects moved without being touched. (The Davenport brothers did not claim to be mediums nor did they identify themselves with Spiritualism, but the Spiritualists certainly welcomed their performances.) The slate writing of ‘‘Dr.’’ Henry Slade and William Eglinton enjoyed considerable attention. The tying of knots in endless cords and the passing of matter through matter were typical physical phenomena of the mediumistic circle. The crowning achievement of mediumship, however, was the materialization of the spirit form. Quite early in the history of Spiritualism, hands were materialized, then faces, and finally the complete form of the spirit ‘‘control.’’ Thereafter materialized spirits allowed themselves to be touched, and even held conversations with the sitters. Further ‘‘proof’’ of the actuality of the spirits was offered by spirit photography.

Medium Physical phenomena were the highlight of Spiritualism through the 1920s. By the beginning of World War II, however, continual exposure of fraud within the movement largely drove the physical mediums to the fringe. To those for whom Spiritualism was a religion, however, the most important part of the mediumistic performances was the trance utterances, which came under the heading of automatic or psychological phenomena, commonly in the form of automatic speaking and automatic writing. These dealt largely with the conditions of life on the other side of the grave, although in style they often tended to be verbose and vague. Spirit drawings were sometimes amazingly impressive, at other times nondescript (see Automatic Drawing and Painting). Clairvoyance and crystal vision were included in the psychological phenomena, and so were the prophetic utterances of mediums and speaking in unknown tongues. According to the Spiritualist hypothesis that all individuals are mediums, it would be necessary to class inspiration—not only the inspiration of genius, but all good or evil impulses—as spiritual phenomena. That idea in turn suggested to the Spiritualist that the everyday life of the normal individual is to some extent directed by spirit controls. Therein lay the responsibility of mediumship, for the medium who desired to be controlled by pure spirits from the higher spheres had to live a wellconducted and principled life. Misuse of the divine gift of mediumship carried with it its own punishment, for the medium became the sport of base human spirits and elementals, his or her will was sapped, and the whole being degraded. Likewise the medium had to be wary of giving up individual personality to the first spirit who came by, for the low, earthbound spirits had the least difficulty in communicating with the living.

Great Mediums of the Past Of the physical mediums, the most noteworthy was Daniel Dunglas Home (1833–86), who claimed to be of Scottish birth. He arrived in the United States at an early age. He is worthy of note in that he was never detected in fraud (unlike most physical mediums) although his demonstrations were spectacular. All who came into contact with him were impressed by his simple manners and frank and affectionate disposition, so he possessed the most valuable asset of a medium—the ability to inspire confidence in his sitters. The production of physical phenomena was promoted at an early date by the Davenport brothers. Although widely popular in their time, they were quite different from Home. Their performance consisted of allowing themselves to be securely bound in a cabinet by the sitters, and while thus handicapped producing the usual mediumistic phenomena. The Davenports were said to be mere conjurers however, and when the stage magicians John Nevil Maskelyne and Cooke successfully imitated their feats, the Davenports lost credibility. Slate writing, which proved one of the most widely accepted forms of psychic phenomena, had as its principal exponents Henry Slade and William Eglinton. The best argument that can be advanced against their feats is to be found in the pseudoséances of S. T. Davey, given in the interests of the Society for Psychical Research, London. Davey’s slate-writing exhibitions, exposing the methods of producing spirit messages by simple conjuring, were so much like those of the professional mediums that some Spiritualists refused to believe that he was conjuring and hailed him as a renegade medium. Automatic drawing was principally represented by David Duguid, a Scottish medium who attained considerable success in that line. Prominent trance speakers and writers were Duguid, J. J. Morse, Emma Hardinge Britten, and Cora L. V. (Tappan) Richmond. One of the best-known and most respected private mediums was Stainton Moses (1839–92), a clergyman and schoolmaster whose normal life was beyond reproach. He produced both automatic and physical manifestations, the former including the writing of a work, Spirit Teachings (1894), dictated from time to 1011


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time by his spirit controls, while the latter consisted of levitations, lights, and apports. His position, character, and education gave to his support of Spiritualism a credibility of considerable value. It is to later mediums, however, that we must look for proof worthy of scientific consideration, and of these the most important were Eusapia Palladino and Leonora Piper. Palladino, an Italian medium, was born in 1854, and for a good many years acted as a medium for scientific investigators. In 1892 séances were held at Milan at which were present Professors Schiaparelli, Angelo Brofferio, Cesare Lombroso, Charles Richet, and others. In 1894 Richet conducted some experiments with Palladino at his house in the Ile Roubaud, to which he invited Sir Oliver Lodge, F. W. H. Myers, and Julien Ochorowicz. The phenomena occurring in Palladino’s presence were the ordinary manifestations of the mediumistic séance, but were of interest because all the distinguished investigators professed themselves satisfied that the medium, with her hands, head, and feet controlled by the sitters, could not herself produce the phenomena. Credible witnesses asserted that she possessed the ability to project psychic limbs from her person. Lodge and Myers were so impressed as to posit the existence of a new force, which they termed ectenic force, emanating from the medium. In 1895, however, some séances with Palladino were held at Myers’s home in Cambridge, where it became apparent that she habitually freed a hand or a foot—in short, habitually resorted to fraud if not properly controlled. Yet even these exposures were not conclusive, for in 1898, after a further series of experiments, Myers, Lodge, and Richet once more declared their belief in the genuineness of this medium’s phenomena. Leonora Piper, the Boston medium whose trance utterances and writings contain some of the best evidence forthcoming for the truth of Spiritualism, first fell into a spontaneous trance in 1884, and in the following year she was observed by Professor William James of Harvard. Thereafter her case was carefully studied by the American branch of the Society for Psychical Research, London. Her first important control was a French physician, ‘‘Dr. Phinuit,’’ but in 1892 a new control appeared, ‘‘George Pelham,’’ who claimed to be the spirit of a young author who had died in February of that year. So complete was her impersonation of Pelham, and so well was his identity established by the mention of many private matters known only to himself and a few of his friends, that more than thirty of his friends claimed to recognize him. In 1896 ‘‘George Pelham’’ gave place to ‘‘Imperator,’’ ‘‘Rector,’’ and other spirits who had formerly controlled Stainton Moses. From that time, and especially after 1900, the interest of the sittings declined, and they offered less material for the investigator. Another automatic medium, Hélène Smith, came under the observation of Theodore Flournoy. Smith’s trance utterances were spoken in what was claimed to be the ‘‘Martian language,’’ and she believed herself to be the reincarnation of Marie Antoinette and a Hindu princess. In his discovery of a more mundane explanation of Smith’s phenomena, Flournoy made her one of the most notable mediums in the history of psychical research, if not Spiritualism.

Healing Mediums The diagnosis and cure of disease were extensively practiced by Spiritualist mediums, following in the path of the older somnambulist and magnetic healers, who not only traced the progress of diseases but also diagnosed and prescribed modes of treatment. The prescribing aspect of the healing mediums’ work has largely been discarded since it frequently falls into the legal category of nonphysicians practicing medicine. In the beginning it was not considered proper for healing mediums, most of whom practiced part time, to accept any re1012

muneration for their services. As the movement developed and healers became full-time professionals, they either expected a fee or accepted freewill offerings. Although it may be true that healing mediums, like Christian Science and New Thought practitioners, mesmerists, and others, effected a considerable proportion of bona fide cures, whether the cures were caused by spirit influence, the release of some psychic power, psychic healing, or mere suggestion is a point on which controversy continues. Spiritualists, like almost every religious community that practices some form of spiritual healing, can point to people who have been cured of a wide variety of diseases.

Spiritualist Views of Mediumship Various theories have been advanced to explain mediumistic manifestations. Spiritualists, of course, claim that the phenomena are produced by the spirits of the dead acting on the sensitive organism of the medium. Today, evidence for such a theory is considered to be, at best, inconclusive. In fact, the change from psychical research to parapsychology was in large part a shift away from survival studies to laboratory experiments on basic psychic phenomena. Observation of Spiritualism by psychical researchers and its claims to demonstrate life after death have been dominated by the question of fraud. The exposure of two generations of physical mediums has largely driven such phenomena from the mainstream of even the Spiritualist movement, although it can still be found in various churches and camps. Fraud was mostly discovered in physical phenomena, but it was also active where mediums practiced mentalist tricks. Information about sitters was collected ahead of time, or, in the case of pellet reading, during the session itself. Spiritualists explain these lapses into fraud as being instigated by the spirits themselves, a hypothesis that is clearly untenable in the majority of cases of mediums who practice fraud as a matter of course. Automatism covers a wider field. The possibility that automatic utterances, writing, drawing, and so on may be involuntary and outside the sphere of the medium’s consciousness can no longer be dismissed. The psychological phenomena are sometimes found in small children and in private mediums whose good faith is beyond question. The state is recognized as being allied to hypnotism and hysteria. Besides automatism and fraud, there are some other factors to be considered. Some deception may be practiced by sitters as well as by the medium. It has been said that the ability to inspire confidence in sitters is essential to a successful medium. If the sitters are predisposed to believe in the paranormal, it is easy to imagine a lessening of the attention and observation so necessary to the psychic investigator. The impossibility of continued observation for even a short period is a fact that can be proved by experiment. Memory defects and proneness to exaggeration are also accountable for many of the claimed marvels of the séance room, and possible hallucination must be considered. When the medium is in a trance, with its accompanying hyperesthesia, unconscious suggestion on the part of the sitters might offer a rational explanation for so-called clairvoyance.

Psychical Researchers and Mediumship Joseph Maxwell defined a medium as ‘‘a person in the presence of whom psychical phenomena can be observed.’’ Gustav Geley’s definition was ‘‘one whose constituent elements— mental, dynamic, and material—are capable of being momentarily decentralised,’’ in other words, an intermediary for communication between the material and spirit worlds. Myers called the word medium ‘‘a barbarous and question-begging term’’ since many mediumistic communications were nothing but subconscious revelations; he suggested the use of the word automatist. The word psychic was proposed by others. Cesare Lombroso maintained that there was a close relationship between the phenomena of mediumship and hysteria.

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. Charles Richet believed that ‘‘mediums are more or less neuropaths, liable to headaches, insomnia, and dyspepsia. The facility with which their consciousness suffers dissociation indicates a certain mental instability and their responsibility while in a state of trance is diminished.’’ The same opinion was expressed slightly more circumstantially by psychical researcher Frank Podmore: ‘‘Physiologically speaking, the medium is a person of unstable nervous equilibrium, in whom the control normally exercised by the higher brain centres is liable, on slight provocation, to be abrogated, leaving the organism, as in dream or somnambulism to the guidance of impulses which in a state of unimpaired consciousness would have been suppressed before they could have resulted in action.’’ Joseph Maxwell advised caution. He admitted that a certain impressionability—or nervous instability—was a favorable condition for the effervescence of mediumship. But he stressed that the term nervous instability was not meant in a negative sense. His best experiments were made with people who were not in any way hysterical; neurasthenics generally gave no result whatever. Nor did instability mean want of equilibrium. Many mediums he had known had extremely well-balanced minds from the mental and nervous point of view. Their nervous systems were even superior to the average person’s, he said. The trance was a state such as appears in nervous hypertension. ‘‘There are four chief types of temperament,’’ wrote Dr. Charles Lancelin, ‘‘nervous, bilious, lymphatic and sanguine. Of these, the nervous temperament is the best suited for psychic experiments of all kinds; the bilious is the most receptive; the sanguine is liable to hallucinations, both subjective and objective; while the lymphatic is the least suitable of all, from every point of view. Of course, one’s temperament is usually a compound of all of these, which are rarely found in their ideal state; but the predominantly nervous temperament is the one best suited for this test.’’

What Mediumship Is and What It Is Not As mediumship emerged, some understood it to be a pathological state. Psychical researchers considered the question of pathology, but generally were able to draw sharp lines of distinction between dysfunctional mental disorders and unusual states of consciousness such as those displayed by mediums and others demonstrating psychic abilities. In the late nineteenth century W. F. H. Myers remarked that the confusion on the point was the result of the observation that supernormal phenomena use the same channels for manifestation as the abnormal phenomena. The phenomena of mediumship are developmental, however; they show the promise of powers as yet unknown, whereas abnormal phenomena (like hysteria or epilepsy) show the degeneration of powers already acquired. Flournoy, after his exhaustive study of the mediumship of Hélène Smith came to the same conclusion: ‘‘It is far from being demonstrated that mediumship is a pathological phenomenon. It is abnormal, no doubt, in the sense of being rare, exceptional; but rarity is not morbidity. The few years during which these phenomena have been seriously and scientifically studied have not been enough to allow us to pronounce on their true nature. It is interesting to note that in the countries where these studies have been pushed the furthest, in England and America, the dominant view among the savants who have gone deepest into the matter is not at all unfavourable to mediumship; and that, far from regarding it as a special case of hysteria, they see in it a faculty superior, advantageous and healthy, but that hysteria is a form of degeneracy, a pathological parody, a morbid caricature.’’ Dr. Guiseppe Venzano, an Italian psychical researcher, was similarly emphatic: ‘‘Mediumship only represents a temporary deviation from the normal psychic state, and absolutely excludes the idea of morbidity; it is even proved that the slightest

Medium alteration of a pathological nature is sufficient to diminish or arrest the mediumistic powers.’’ As Flournoy discovered, the conditions for the successful exercise of mediumistic powers are the same as for the voluntary exercise of any other power—a state of good health, nervous equilibrium, calm, absence of care, good humor, and facilitative surroundings. Physical defects, significant injury, or serious illness have been suggested as potential causes of mediumistic development. Spiritualist believer Arthur Conan Doyle suggested that a bodily weakness causes what may be described as a dislocation of the soul, so that it is more detached and capable of independent action. Eusapia Palladino had a peculiar depression of her parietal bone caused by an accident in childhood. Leonora Piper’s mediumship developed after two operations, and her control, ‘‘Imperator,’’ in an automatic script by Stainton Moses, said, ‘‘The tempering effect of a bodily illness has been in all your life an engine of great power with us.’’ In the case of Mary Jobson, Mollie Fancher, Lurrency Vennum (‘‘the Watseka Wonder’’) and Vincent Turvey, prolonged physical agony accompanied the period of their psychic activity. Spiritualists, however, consider mediumship to be a gift and its development to require great care and understanding. According to Barbara McKenzie (Light, March 18, 1932), who worked for many years at the British College of Psychic Science, the production and ripening of psychical gifts involves ‘‘a lengthy period of homely, warm, appreciative incubation . . . which is found at its best in a family or in a very intimate home circle, in which a continuity of conditions and a warm personal and even reverent interest is assured.’’ Sir Oliver Lodge believed that the medium should be treated as ‘‘a delicate piece of apparatus wherewith we are making an investigation. The medium is an instrument whose ways and idiosyncrasies must be learnt, and to a certain extent humoured, just as one studies and humours the ways of some much less delicate piece of physical apparatus turned out by a skilled instrument maker.’’

Age, Sex, and Psychical Phenomena Mediumship may appear spontaneously and early in life, somewhat like artistic gifts. The five-month-old son of Kate Fox wrote automatically. Raps occurred on his pillow and on the iron railing of his bedstead almost every day. The sevenmonth-old infant of Margaretta Cooper, the daughter of LaRoy Sunderland, gave communications through raps. Alexander Aksakof, in his book Animisme et Spiritism (1906), records many instances of infantile mediumship. The child Alward moved tables that were too heavy for her normal strength. Another wrote automatically when nine days old. In Eugène Bonnemère’s Histoire des Camisara (1869) and in Louis Figuier’s Histoire du Merveilleux (4 vols., 1886–89), many cases are quoted of mediumistic Camisard babies of 14 to 15 months of age and of infants who preached in French with the purest diction. During the persecution of the Huguenots, these babies were confined to prison in great numbers. The psychic contagion spread to Catholic children as well. Nationality has no known influence on the development of mediumship, though the peculiar form the mediumship may take and the ideas mediums espouse may show differences across national boundaries. These differences seem more related to social training than to any inherent aspect of mediumship. Puberty seems to have a peculiar significance. In old chronicles, prepubescent children were mentioned as the best subjects for crystal reading. Poltergeist cases mostly occur in the presence of young girls and boys between the ages of 12 and 16. Hereward Carrington, in a paper on the sexual aspect of mediumship presented at the First International Congress for Psychical Research in Copenhagen in 1921, speculated that the sexual energies that are blossoming into maturity within the body may, instead of taking their normal course, be somehow 1013


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turned into another channel and externalized beyond the limits of the body, producing paranormal manifestations: ‘‘There may be a definite connection between sex and psychical phenomena; and this seems to be borne out by three or four analogies. First, recent physiological researches as to the activities of the ductless glands and particularly the sex glands which have shown the enormous influence which these glands have upon the physical and even upon the psychic life. Second, the observation made in the cases of Kathleen Goligher and Eva C. which show that the plasma which is materialised, frequently issues from the genitals. [Given the questionable nature of the mediumship of these two women, however, the observations may have no relevance.] Third, the clinical observations of Lombroso, Morselli and others upon Eusapia Palladino, which brought to light many recognised sexual stigmata. Fourth, the teachings and practices of the Yogis of India, who have written at great length upon the connection between sexual energies and the higher, ecstatic states. Many suggest and explain the way to convert the former into the latter, just as we find instances of ‘sublimation’ in modern Freudian psychoanalysis, and connection between sex and religion, here in the West.’’ In his book, The Story of Psychic Science (1930), Carrington adds: ‘‘These speculations have, I believe, been amply verified by certain recent investigations, wherein it has been shown that (in the case of a celebrated European medium) the production of a physical phenomenon of exceptional violence has been coincidental with a true orgasm. From many accounts it seems probable that the same was frequently true in the case of Eusapia Palladino, and was doubtless the case with other mediums also.’’ Finally, Carrington pointed out that there was said to be a very close connection between the sexual energies and the kundalini energies that may be aroused and brought into activity by various yoga exercises.

Health and Mediumship The practice of mediumship appears to have no adverse affects on health. Recovery from the trance state is usually very quick and, unless too many sittings produce an excessive drain on the vitality of the medium, the results may prove more beneficial than harmful. Many spirit guides have been known to supply regular medical advice, to take care of the medium’s health to a greater extent than he or she could, and even to prescribe treatment in case of illness. The withdrawal of mediumship powers is often evidence of care for the health of the medium. Of course, the lapse may come for entirely different reasons. But recuperative rest was given as an explanation when the ‘‘Imperator’’ group announced on May 24, 1911, that Leonora Piper’s trance mediumship would be temporarily withdrawn. The withdrawal lasted until August 8, 1915. In the case of the Marquis Centurione Scotto, it was similarly announced on November 9, 1927, that ‘‘he will fall ill if he continues thus. His nerves are shattered. By superior will his mediumistic faculty will be taken from him for a time.’’ On another occasion, his mediumship was suspended, supposedly to allow him to read, study, and acquire more understanding of Spiritualistic belief. Similar experiences befell Stainton Moses, who revolted against his spirit guides when they tried to convince him, as a minister of the Anglican church, that ‘‘religion is eternal, whereas religious dogmas are but fleeting.’’ His mediumship was temporarily removed. The powerful mediumship of D. D. Home also lapsed from time to time, probably because he suffered from a tubercular diathesis. Mediums who are conscious during the production of phenomena appear to suffer more than those in trance. The extrication of power from their organism seems a veritable trial for nerve and flesh. Producing the phenomena is often equivalent to putting the body on the rack. The Neoplatonist philosopher Iamblichus says in Divination: 1014

‘‘Often at the moment of inspiration, or when the afflatus has subsided, a fiery appearance is seen—the entering or departing power. Those who are skilled in this wisdom, can tell by the character of this glory the rank of the divinity who has seized for the time the reins of the mystic’s soul, and guides it as he will. Sometimes the body of the man is violently agitated, sometimes it is rigid and motionless. In some instances sweet music is heard, in others discordant and fearful sounds. The person of the subject has been known to dilate and tower to a superhuman height, in other cases it has been lifted into the air. Frequently not merely the ordinary exercise of reason, but sensation and animal life would appear to have been suspended; and the subject of the afflatus has not felt the application of fire, has been pierced with spits, cut with knives and has not been sensible of pain.’’ However, the disagreeable result of physical phenomena soon vanishes. A quarter of an hour’s rest may be enough to dispel the effect. Curiously enough, the suppression of mediumship may manifest in symptoms of disease. Dr. C. D. Isenberg of Hamburg wrote of a case in Light (April 11, 1931) in which a patient of his suffered from sleeplessness and peculiar spasmodic attacks that generally occurred at night. The spasms seized the whole body; even the tongue was affected, blocking the throat and nearly suffocating her. When the patient mentioned that in her youth she tried table tilting, the doctor thought it possible that the mediumistic energy might be blocking his patient’s body. A sitting was tried. The lady fell into trance and afterward slept well for a few days. When the sleeplessness recurred the sitting was repeated and the results proved to be so beneficial that treatment with medication was discontinued. Regarding a deleterious influence on the mind, Gladys Osborne Leonard writes in her book My Life in Two Worlds (1931): ‘‘I myself have not found that the development of psychic awareness detracts in any way from other so-called normal studies. I am a more successful gardener than I used to be, I am a much better cook; in many quite ordinary but extremely useful directions, I know I have improved; my health and nerves are under better control, therefore they are more to be relied upon than they ever were before I developed what many people think of as an abnormal or extraordinary power.’’

Dangers of Mediumship Dangers, nevertheless, do exist in mediumship, but of another kind. Hereward Carrington warned that there is a true ‘‘terror of the dark’’ as well as ‘‘principalities and powers’’ with which, in our ignorance we can toy, without knowing or realizing the frightful consequence that may result from tampering with the unseen world. For that reason, he argued that a few men of well-balanced minds should be designated lifelong investigators in this field; they should be looked upon as recognized authorities, ‘‘and their work accepted upon these problems just as any other physicist is accepted on a problem in physics.’’ Moses agreed, saying, ‘‘I do not think it would be reasonable to say that it is wise and well for everyone to become acquainted with mediumship in his own proper person. It would not be honest in me to disguise the fact that he who meddles with this subject does so at his peril. I do not say that peril is anything that should always be avoided. In some cases it is not, but I do say that the development of mediumship is sometimes a very questionable benefit, as in others it is a very decided blessing.’’ The peril alluded to is the possibility of intrusion and control of undesirable spirits. Moses further stated, ‘‘In developing mediumship one has to consider a question involving three serious points. Can you get into relation with a spirit who is wise enough and strong enough to protect and good enough for you to trust? If you do not, you are exposed to that recurrent danger which the old occultists used to describe as the struggle with the dweller on the threshold. It is true that everybody who crosses the threshold of this occult knowledge does unquestion-

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. ably come into a new and strange land in which, if he has no guide, he is apt to lose his way.’’ The nervous equilibrium of the medium during the séance may be easily disturbed. Hudson Tuttle observed of his own work, ‘‘During the physical manifestations I was in semi-trance, intensely sensitive and impressible. The least word, a jarring question, even when the intention was commendable, grated and rasped. Words convey an imperfect idea of this condition. It can only be compared with that physical state when a nerve is exposed.’’ Yet regarding the moral responsibility of the medium, Tuttle was emphatic: ‘‘A medium cannot be controlled to do anything against his determined will, and the plea that he is compelled by spirits is no excuse for wrong-doing. The medium, like anyone else, knows right from wrong, and if the controlling spirit urges towards the wrong, yielding is as reprehensible as it would be to the promptings of passion or the appetite.’’

Intelligence and Mediumship The question of the medium’s intelligence seems to have nothing to do with psychic powers, but it may greatly influence the power of the communicators to convey clear ideas. The most stolid mediums may exhibit an extraordinary intelligence in trance. If they are educated the manifestation becomes more marvelous. The question naturally arises whether in the long run spirit influence imparts knowledge to rustic minds. The Reverend J. B. Ferguson answered the question in the affirmative: ‘‘Supramundane influence in the unfolding and education of mind has been a common and most interesting experience since my own attention was called to this subject. In the case of Mr. H. B. Champion we have a very remarkable instance. This gentleman, now distinguished for his comprehensiveness of thought on all subjects connected with mental and moral philosophy, and for unrivalled force and beauty of expression, was, to my personal knowledge, educated entirely under these influences. He was not educated even in ordinary branches, such as the orthography of his native tongue; was never at school but a few months in life. That which was at first the gift of a supramundane power is now his own; and unless his history were known he would be considered, as he often is, as a man of the highest accomplishments.’’ Ferguson testified similarly regarding George W. Harrison, another medium he believed to be educated by psychic power. He concluded: ‘‘These gentlemen are today highly educated men. They speak and write our language with great precision and accuracy. They converse with men of the first attainments on all questions that engage cultivated thought. They are sought by men distinguished as professors in various departments of science; and where their history is not known, as it is to myself and to others, they are recognised at once as men of very high order of culture.’’

Physical and Mental Mediums The classification of mediums is diverse, but in general they fall into two main groups: physical and mental mediums. Physical mediumship as a rule means that there is no intellectual content behind the phenomena. The distinction is useful, as the coexistence of highly developed intellectual and physical phenomena is somewhat rare. These gifts either alternate or develop along lines of specification. Leonora Piper produced no physical phenomena, and Gladys Osborne Leonard but very few. Franek Kluski was a universal medium. D. D. Home was mostly famous for his telekinetic manifestations. His trance phenomena were not studied in detail. Moses’ powerful physical manifestations occurred in a small circle of friends. He was not subject to scientific experiments on these phenomena, but they were recorded. A more valuable record, affording unusual opportunity for study, was left behind in the automatic scripts of his trance phenomena.

Medium The Medium’s Source of Power As a rule, most mediums require assistance for the production of their phenomena. The sitters of the circle often feel drained of power. According to Joseph Maxwell, Eusapia Palladino could quickly discern people from whom she could easily draw the force she needed: ‘‘In the course of my first experiments with this medium, I found out this vampirism to my cost. One evening, at the close of a sitting at l’Agnelas, she was raised from the floor and carried on to the table with her chair. I was not seated beside her, but, without releasing her neighbors’ hands she caught hold of mine while the phenomena was happening. I had a cramp in the stomach—I cannot better define my sensation—and was almost overcome by exhaustion.’’ Justinus Kerner stated that the Seeress of Prevorst (Frederica Hauffe) ate little and said that she was nourished by the substance of her visitors, especially of those related to her by the ties of blood, their constitution being more sympathetic with her own. Visitors who passed some minutes near her often noticed upon leaving that they were weakened. Some mediums seemingly draw more of the sitters’ vitality than others. These mediums become less exhausted and consequently can sit more often. Etta Wriedt, the direct voice medium, always left her sitters weak. Vice-Admiral Usborne Moore complained that he could hardly use his legs after a sitting. In one instance in Elizabeth d’Esperance’s mediumship the draw on the sitter was seen as the cause of death. The materialized phantom was grabbed, and an older woman (the mother of the assailant), who those in attendance suggested had contributed most of the ectoplasm for the materialization, was seriously injured. Reportedly, after much suffering, she died. (Light, November 21, 1903). If the sitters of the circle are mediumistic themselves, the phenomena tend to increase in strength. Perhaps the strongest mediumistic circle ever recorded was the family of Jonathan Koons, of Ohio. From the seven-month-old infant to the 18year-old Nahum, the eldest of the family, all the children were mediumistic, making, with the parents, a total of ten mediums. The same curious power was manifest in the family of John Tippie, who had a similar spirit house at a distance of two or three miles from that of the Koons. Ten children formed his ‘‘spirit battery.’’ From 1859 to 1860, D. D. Home often gave joint séances with the American medium and editor, J. R. M. Squire. Later he sometimes sat with Kate Jencken, one of the Fox sisters, and with Stainton Moses. Frank Herne and Charles Williams joined partnership in 1871; Miss C. E. Wood sat with Annie Fairlamb. The spirit photographer William Hope usually sat with Mrs. Buxton, a member of the Crewe Circle founded by Archdeacon Thomas Colley. Catherine Berry was known as a ‘‘developing’’ medium. According to a note signed by the editor of Human Nature, and published in Berry’s Experiences in Spiritualism (1876), ‘‘. . . after sitting with Mrs. Berry a medium has more power to cause the phenomena at any other circle he may have to attend. Messrs. Herne and Williams have been known to visit this lady for the purpose of getting a supply of power when they had a special séance to give. Mrs. Berry is, therefore, successful in developing mediums, and has conferred the spirit voice manifestation, as well as other gifts, upon several mediums. In a public meeting, a speaker or trance medium is benefitted by having Mrs. Berry sitting near him. These facts have not been arrived at hastily, but after years of patient investigation.’’ Automatic writers have often joined forces. Frederick Bligh Bond and the automatists with whom he received the Glastonbury scripts presented a case of dual mediumship. Similarly the ‘‘Oscar Wilde’’ scripts were produced through the mediumship of Hester Dowden and Mr. V. On the other hand, mediums may antagonize each other and nullify the power. Florence Cook always objected on this ground to sitting with her sister Katie. 1015

The Medium and Daybreak Machine Mediumship An early idea in the history of mediumship was the possibility of mechanical communication. The first confused thought of communicating with the spirit world through instruments occurred to John Murray Spear, who constructed something called the ‘‘new motor.’’ He arranged copper and zinc batteries in the form of an armor around the medium and expected a phenomenal increase of mediumistic powers through the combination of ‘‘mineral’’ and ‘‘vital’’ electricity. The dynamistograph, the Vandermeulen spirit indicator, the reflectograph and the communigraph were later developments. The most recent developments concern electronic voice phenomenon, also known as Raudive voices, and the SPIRICOM.

Mediumistic Induction Incidents with mediums have led some to conclude that, similar to electricity, mediumistic power can be generated by induction. D. D. Home was the most famous medium for imparting his powers to others. Cases are on record in which he levitated others. Once he imparted the power of elongation to a Miss Bertolacci, and he bestowed fire immunity in a number of cases on his sitters. The phenomenon of mediumistic induction was observed as modern Spiritualism spread. Those who sat with the Fox sisters sometimes discovered mediumistic abilities in themselves. Mrs. Benedict and Sarah Tamlin, the two best early mediums, were developed through the gift of Kate Fox. A writer in the New Haven Journal in October 1850, refers to knockings and other phenomena in seven different families in Bridgeport; 40 different families in Rochester, Auburn, and Syracuse; some two hundred in Ohio, New Jersey, and places more distant; as well as in Hartford, Springfield, Charlestown, and other cities. Several famous early investigators went on to become mediums. Judge John W. Edmonds, Prof. Robert Hare, and William Howitt, all confessed to having received the gift. In his last years the psychical researcher Richard Hodgson was said to be in direct contact with the ‘‘Imperator’’ group. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle developed automatic writing and direct voice in his family. H. Dennis Bradley received the power of direct voice after his sittings with George Valiantine. Marquis Centurione Scotto also developed his powers through Valiantine. Sources: Bayless, Raymond. Voices From Beyond. New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1975. Bouissou, Michaël. The Life of a Sensitive. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1955. Britten, Emma Hardinge. Modern American Spiritualism. London, 1870. Reprint, New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1970. ———. Nineteenth-Century Miracles. London & Manchester, 1883. Carrington, Hereward. Higher Psychical Development. London: Kegan Paul, 1920. Reprint, New York: Dodd, Mead, 1924. ———. Your Psychic Powers and How to Develop Them. New York: American Universities Publishing, 1920. Reprint, New York: Causeway, 1973. Chaney, Robert Galen. Mediums and the Development of Mediumship. Michigan: Psychic Books, 1946. Reprint, Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries, 1972. Christopher, Milbourne. Mediums, Mystics and the Occult. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1975. Ellis, D. J. The Mediumship of the Tape Recorder. Pulborough, England: The Author, 1978. Flint, Leslie. Voices in the Dark: My Life As a Medium. New York: Macmillan, 1971. Fodor, Nandor. The Haunted Mind: A Psychoanalyst Looks at the Supernatural. New York: Helix/Garrett, 1959. 1016

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. Garrett, Eileen J. Adventures in the Supernormal: A Personal Memoir. New York: Garrett/Helix, 1949. Reprint, New York: Paperback Library, 1968. ———. My Life As a Search for the Meaning of Mediumship. London: Rider, 1939. Reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1975. Home, D. D. Incidents in My Life. London, 1863. Reprint, New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1973. Leaf, Horace. Psychology and the Development of Mediumship. London, 1926. Leonard, Gladys Osborne. My Life in Two Worlds. London: Cassell, 1931. Leonard, Maurice. Battling Bertha; The Biography of Bertha Harris. London: Regency Press, 1975. ———. Medium: The Biography of Jessie Nason. London: Regency Press, 1974. MacGregor, Helen, and Margaret V. Underhill. The Psychic Faculties and Their Unfoldment. London: L.S.A. Publications, 1930. Manning, Matthew. The Link: Matthew Manning’s Own Story of His Extraordinary Psychic Gifts. London: Corgi, 1975. Reprint, New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1975. Northage, Ivy. The Mechanics of Mediumship. London: Spiritualist Association of Great Britain, 1973. Patanjali. The Yoga-Sutras of Patanjali. Translated by M. N. Dvivedi. Adyar, Madras, India: Theosophical Publishing House, 1890. Piper, Alta. The Life and Work of Mrs. Piper. London: Kegan Paul, 1929. Podmore, Frank. Modern Spiritualism. 2 vols. London, 1902. Reprinted as Mediums of the Nineteenth Century. 2 vols. New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1963. Price, Harry, and E. J. Dingwall, eds. Revelations of a Spirit Medium. London: Kegan Paul, 1922. Roberts, Estelle. Fifty Years a Medium. London: Corgi; New York: Avon Books, 1975. Salter, W. H. Trance Mediumship: An Introductory Study of Mrs. Piper and Mrs. Leonard. Rev. ed. London: Society for Psychical Research, 1962. Smith, Susy. Confessions of a Psychic. New York: Macmillan; London: Collier-Macmillan, 1971. Spraggett, Allen, and William V. Rauscher. Arthur Ford: The Man Who Talked with the Dead. New York: New American Library, 1973. Stemman, Roy. Medium Rare: The Psychic Life of Ena Twigg. London: Spiritualist Association of Great Britain, 1971. Stokes, Doris, with Linda Dearsley. Voices in My Ear: The Autobiography of a Medium. London: Futura, 1980. Tietze, Thomas R. Margery. New York: Harper & Row, 1973. Tubby, Gertrude Ogden. Psychics and Mediums. Boston: Marshall Jones, 1935. Turvey, Vincent N. The Beginnings of Seership. London: Stead Publishing House, 1911. Reprint, New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1969. Wallis, E. W., and M. H. Wallis. A Guide to Mediumship and Spiritual Unfoldment. 3 vols. London, 1903. Zymonidas, A. The Problems of Mediumship. London: Kegan Paul, 1920.

The Medium and Daybreak (Journal) Spiritualist weekly, started in 1869 by James Burns, originally published under the title, Medium, later absorbing the Daybreak, a provincial paper, founded in 1867. For years it had the largest circulation of any weekly on Spiritualism. It was published until Burns died in 1895.

Medjugorje Name of a village in Yugoslavia that has been the site of claimed apparitions of the Virgin Mary. The case follows a pat-

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. tern seen also at Lourdes, La Salette, and Fatima, in which teenage visionaries state that the Virgin has given them ‘‘secrets’’ concerning civilization and religion. It is the latest of a series of prominent cases of the apparition of the Virgin that began in the early nineteenth century. The visionaries have attracted some attention due to their location. They began to report apparitions in 1981 in Yugoslavia, at that time an atheist Marxist country. Although Yugoslavia was independent of the Soviet Union, the state tolerated religion but hardly encouraged it. The reported apparitions brought many tourists, especially from Italy, into the country. Medjugorje is located at some distance from the SerbianBosnian war as it progresses into the 1990s, but the number of visitors from outside of the country has definitely dropped. Additional complications concerning the apparitions occurred not only over confrontations between church and state, but also between different branches of Christianity (Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox). The intricate story of the apparitions has been presented in a stream of books and several documentaries such as The Madonna of Medjugorje, produced by Angela Tilby, which appeared in the British Broadcasting Company’s Everyman series in 1986.

Background History of Medjugorje Medjugorje is a small village of some 3,500 people in Bosnia-Herzegovina, about 200 kilometers inland from the Adriatic coast. The area is a meeting place between Serbs and Croats, between Moslem traditions, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the established Catholic Church, and the Franciscans. The region has a complex and troubled history, involving military and religious conflicts. For four centuries, the region was under Turkish rule, and many Christians were converted to Islam. The Franciscans kept the Catholic faith alive and became identified with the concept of Croatian identity. When the Turks lost power in 1878, Pope Leo XIII appointed non-Franciscans to work in the parish. This was resisted by the laity, and by the Franciscans themselves, who did not wish to lose their status. Conflict of interest between the established Church and the Franciscans on the issues of lay priests has remained latent into the twentieth century. Another historical problem dates from World War II, when in 1941 a Croatian fascist group was formed with strong Roman Catholic ties. It lasted only a few years, but during that period these Croats were responsible for terrible atrocities against their Serbian neighbors of the Eastern Orthodox faith. Only a short distance from the site of the modern apparitions, hundreds of Serbian women, children, and babies were thrown to their deaths from the top of a high cliff.

The First Apparitions The first apparition was reported in 1981. There were six visionaries, all teenagers or younger children: four girls, Marija Pavlovic (16), Vicka Ivankovic (16), Mirjana Dragicevic (16), and Ivanka Ivankovic (15), and two boys, Ivan Dragicevic (16) and Jakov Colo (10). On the feast of St. John, June 24, 1981, Ivanka, Marija, and Mirjana went for a walk to the hill of Crnica. Ivanka suddenly exclaimed ‘‘There’s Our Lady!’’ Mirjana felt unable to look, but Ivanka was convinced that she had seen an apparition of the Virgin Mary. The girls returned home, and a few hours later set out again to help a farmer with his sheep. They left a message for their friends to follow them. The apparition again appeared, and was also seen by some of the other children, who had met up with Ivanka and Mirjana. The apparition was a beautiful smiling mother with child, wearing a starry crown and floating above the ground. The following day, four of the teenagers returned to the same place, followed by friends, and this time, Jakov Colo and Marija Pavlovic saw the apparition. Similar encounters took place on succeeding days, when the Virgin spoke to the chil-

Medjugorje dren in excellent Croatian. She said that she was the Blessed Virgin Mary, sent from God with a gospel message. Asked why the message should come through such ordinary children, she replied that it was precisely because they were ordinary and average, neither the best nor worst, that they had been chosen. Thereafter, the children assembled on the hill each day to witness the apparition. When news of the apparition reached the church, the parish priest was temporarily absent. The assistant priest was not impressed and thought that maybe the children were on drugs and hallucinating. But after a few days, as the news spread, thousands of devout followers flocked to the hill, many in tears as they witnessed the children in a state of ecstasy. When Father Jozo Zovko, the parish priest, returned from a retreat, he was astonished to find a chaotic situation, with crowds gathering around the hill. His reaction was one of incredulity that people should seek divine revelation on a hillside when the church itself, with its sacraments, was the proper center for worship. However, Zovko gave the children some prayer books and rosaries, and tried to instruct them about the church in more detail. He also gave Mirjana a book about the apparitions of Lourdes, from which the children concluded that the current apparitions would cease after July 3rd, as they did at Lourdes. In fact, they did not. On the following day, the children did not visit the hill, but each one had a vision wherever he or she happened to be at the time. By now, there were serious difficulties involving both church and state authorities. According to state laws, gatherings for worship had to be regulated, and the daily assembly on the hill was not authorized by state or church. News of the apparitions had reached Sarajevo, capital of the republic of BosniaHerzegovina, where there was alarm that all this might be a right-wing plot in religious disguise. It was thought that this might indicate a return of Croatian nationalism, with a revival of the old Nazi sympathy. Official observers merged with the crowds to report back on this dangerous situation. The children were interrogated by police and examined by doctors. The gatherings on the hillside were forbidden.

The Second Stage On July 1, the eighth day of the apparitions, the parish priest was troubled by both religious and state problems. In the church, he prayed for divine guidance, while the police went to the hill to arrest the young visionaries. The children fled through the fields and vineyards, followed by the police. There was only one place of sanctuary—the church. In an answer to prayer, the priest heard a voice saying ‘‘Go and protect the children, then I will tell you what to do.’’ He went to the door of the church and found the children pleading to be hidden. He concealed them in a room in the presbytery. That evening, the apparition came to the children again, but this time in the church itself. Now each evening the congregation gathered to pray in the church and the apparitions appeared as usual to the children. Often in tears, the apparition urged the faithful to confess sins, do penance, and fast once a week on bread and water. The parish priest now supported the apparitions, and indeed also shared the vision in church. The local bishop, Pavao Zanic, visited the parish on several occasions, but was constrained by his theological and political responsibilities. Government observers attending a church congregation reported back that a sermon about the need for personal change was really a disguised criticism of socialism. Father Jozo was arrested by the police and accused of slandering the state system. In October, he was tried and sentenced to three years’ imprisonment. He saw the apparition in prison.

The Aftermath of the Apparitions Meanwhile, in March 1983, Bishop Zanic appointed a theological commission to investigate and form a judgment on the 1017

Medjugorje apparitions. The visionaries reported that the Virgin recommended special prayers for the bishop and his heavy responsibility. The religious authorities in Rome sent representatives to make their own on-the-spot investigations. The children were given extensive medical and psychological tests. Electroencephalographs probed the ecstatic state of the children during the apparitions, and scientists concluded that they were healthy and sane, and not telling lies. The visionaries focused intently on the same spot during the appearance of the apparition. The ecstatic state was genuine and elevating and certainly not a pathological condition. During this state, the children seemed transported into a higher condition of fulfillment. Thousands of pilgrims continued to flock to Medjugorje, many seeking inspiration and guidance from the young visionaries. Some typical informal question-and-answer sessions in the open air were recorded by the BBC television team. Because of the large number of pilgrims, priests often took confessions in the open air. The main focal point for these gatherings was a cross, which had been erected many years earlier in 1933 and stood opposite the site of the apparitions. People claimed that the cross sometimes changed into a column of light or into the form of the Virgin, and some photographs taken of the cross certainly show ‘‘extras’’ of this nature. A somewhat disturbing claim was that people believed that they were able to look into the sun and see it dancing, a phenomenon that had been reported earlier in conjunction with the apparitions at Fatima. Naturally gazing at the sun with the naked eye can produce a number of strange visual effects, but it is a highly dangerous practice. There were also reports of miraculous healings. The BBC television team recorded an interview with a German woman who was previously unable to walk, but now had no difficulty. These large-scale demonstrations of a revival of faith were alarming both to state and ecclesiastical authorities. Bishop Pavao Zanic found himself in an increasingly delicate position. He had earlier defended the integrity of the children, and was fully aware that their experience might be as valid as those at Lourdes and Fatima, but was reluctant to sanction organized pilgrimages to the site of the apparitions. While his commission worked slowly in its investigations, an old controversy was now inflamed. The Franciscans had been the parish clergy in Medjugorje for many years. In 1980, during a reorganization instigated by the authorities in Rome, the bishop had attempted to replace two of the Franciscans with secular clergy. The two friars now consulted the visionaries, seeking the opinion of the Virgin, and it was reported that the Virgin told the children that the bishop should not have suspended the friars. The bishop now became critical of the claimed apparitions as hallucinations inflamed by disaffected Franciscans, and refused to endorse the phenomena or to facilitate pilgrimages. On the other hand, he did not discourage the pilgrims. Consequently a vast pilgrim and tourist trade grew up at Medjugorje without state or religious sponsorship. In spite of primitive conditions in the area and the nearby war, pilgrims have continued to come from all over Europe in the thousands. Ironically, the Virgin’s message had been one of peace and reconciliation. The report of the bishop’s commission was secret, but it was believed to have concluded that the claims of the visionaries were false. The bishop himself stated that the apparitions were collective hallucinations, exploited by the Franciscans, and strongly criticized the chaplain at Medjugorje, Father Tomislav Vlasic, as ‘‘a mystifier and charismatic wizard.’’ There was a theological deadlock. The visionaries were banned from seeing apparitions in the church, but continued to do so in a study bedroom in the presbytery. Meanwhile, the international fame of Medjugorje won a grudging tolerance from the government, which saw the influx of pilgrims as a vindication of Yugoslavia as an open country. 1018

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. Part of the price of the spiritual revival at Medjugorje has been the inevitable commercialization of the religious tourist trade. The simple village life has been totally uprooted by thousands of tourists, ice cream and soft drink stands, stalls for the sale of religious souvenirs, and other worldly activities. But villagers still meet in small groups, sometimes at night. Two younger girls claim to have seen visions and received messages. The original group of six young visionaries claimed that the Virgin confided ten secrets, including warnings of future world chastisements if people did not return to spiritual life. People were recommended to give up watching television, and return instead to a life of prayer, fasting, and penance. The world had advanced civilization but had lost God. It was prophesied that Russia would come to glorify the name of God. As with apparitions elsewhere, it was said that there would be a visible sign left on the hill. The visions have now ceased so far as the six children are concerned. Ivanka received her last ‘‘secret’’ from the Virgin in May 1985, and in early 1987 married. Mirjana took up the study of agriculture at the University of Sarajevo. Ivan’s apparitions ceased when he was enlisted for a year of military service. Vicka became ill with an inoperable brain tumor. Jakov was still at school in 1986. Marija planned to become a nun. The fascinating film records of the children in states of ecstasy, as well as the EEG tests, remain a permanent record, as do other of the numerous medical and scientific studies. Psychiatrists, doctors, and scientists concluded that the visionaries were psychologically healthy, without neurosis or hysteria, and that their ecstasies were not a pathological phenomenon. The fasts on bread and water recommended once or twice weekly could merely counteract the excesses of normal diet without risk of starvation. The cures at Medjugorje were reported upon favorably by doctors from the University of Milan. The apparitions at Medjugorje present many intriguing problems, both for skeptics and believers. Such apparitions now follow a regular pattern within the framework of Catholic theology, just as claims of UFO contacts are often consistent with a different pattern of belief. It could be argued that once such conventions are established, knowledge of them influences other visionaries. In the case of Medjugorje, the parish priest had shown one of the visionaries a book about Lourdes, although it must be remembered that the apparitions had established a regular pattern before this. The ecstatic state of the young visionaries was undoubtedly very real, and in the audio-visual records they appear to be modest, honest, and touchingly sincere, too simple to be able to fabricate intellectually advanced theological discussions. The occasional contradictory elements in the claimed communications from the Virgin (as in the instance of apparent criticism of the bishop), may be due to the intense pressures from lay and ecclesiastical authorities to which the children were subjected; they may also have been misquoted from time to time. The messages about the need for renewal of religious faith and practice are a relevant comment on the secularism of our time, although with a sophistication normally beyond the awareness of village children. But, as with Lourdes, Fatima, Garabandal, and other apparitions, the messages are only within the framework of the Roman Catholic faith, and there is no insightful communication for Hindus, Buddhists, or people of other religions. In the West, the apparitions have produced a wave of enthusiastic acceptance of the visions and organizations have sprung up in every significant Roman Catholic community to spread the message of the Virgin and to facilitate tours to the site. However, there has been some opposition among those elements of the Roman Catholic Church who have not only failed to accept the visions, but who feel that they are false. Among the leading critics is Yugoslavian priest Ivo Sivric. He had compiled and published a host of records, many of which he claimed were suppressed, which cast grave doubts upon the ap-

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. paritions and the continued attention given to the site. He has argued that the apparitions emanated from the children who first saw them. He was joined by E. Michael Jones, who also found numerous contradictions in the events surrounding the apparitions. Sources: Jones, E. Michael. Medjugorje: The Untold Story. South Bend, Ind.: Fidelity Press, 1988. Kraljevic, Svetozar. Apparitions of Our Lady of Medjugorje (1981–1983). Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1984. Laurentin, René, and Henri Joyeux. Scientific & Medical Studies on the Apparitions at Medjugorje. Dublin: Veritas, 1987. Laurentin, René, and L. Rupcic. Is the Virgin Mary Appearing at Medjugorje? Washington, D.C.: Word Among Us Press, 1984. Laurentin, René, L. Rupcic, and René Lejeune. Messages and Teachings of Mary at Medjugorje. Milford, Ohio: The Riehle Foundation, 1988. O’Carroll, Michael. Medjugorje: Facts, Documents, Theology. Dublin: Veritas, 1986. Pelletier, Joseph A. The Queen of Peace Visits Medjugorje. Worchester, Mass.: Assumption, 1985. Sevric, Ivo. The Hidden Side of Medjugorje. Saint Francois du Lac, Canada: Psilog, 1989.

Meehl, Paul E(verett) (1920–


Professor of psychology who has written on parapsychology. He was born January 3, 1920, at Minneapolis, Minnesota, and was educated at the University of Minnesota (B.A. summa cum laude, 1941; Ph.D., 1945). Meehl joined the faculty of the psychology department at the University of Minnesota and served as its chair (1951–57); he was also a professor of clinical psychology with the University of Minnesota Medical School department of psychiatry beginning in 1951. He had his own private practice as a psychotherapist and was elected president of the American Psychological Association (1961–62). Meehl had a continuing interest in parapsychology and belonged to the American Society for Psychical Research. He wrote various books and many articles on psychological subjects, as well as articles on the paranormal, which he attempted to integrate into his mainstream psychological insights. Sources: Meehl, Paul E., and M. J. Scriven. ‘‘Compatibility of Science and ESP.’’ Science 123 (1956). Meehl, Paul E., H. R. Klann, and K. H. Breimeter. What, Then, Is Man? N.p., 1958. Pleasants, Helene, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Parapsychology. New York: Helix Press, 1964.

Meerloo, Joost A(braham) M(aurits) (1903–1976) Psychiatrist, psychoanalyst, and writer on parapsychology. He was born on March 14, 1903, at The Hague, Netherlands. He was educated at Leyden University (M.D., 1927) and Utrecht University (Ph.D., 1932). His appointments included psychiatric-neurologic consultant, Municipal Hospital, Voorburg and The Hague (1934–42); chief of the pychological department, Netherlands Army (1943–45); and high commissioner for welfare in the Netherlands (1945–46). He moved to the United States after World War II as an associate in psychiatry at Columbia University (1948–57). In 1958 he became a professor of political science at the New School for Social Research in New York City, then an associate professor of psychiatry at the New York School of Psychiatry in 1962. He was a member of Royal Society of Medicine, American Psychiatric Association, American Academy of Psychoanalysis, Schilder Society (secretary), Tokyo Institute for Psychoanalysis

Meher Baba (honorary member), and Albany Society for Psychosomatic Medicine. During the 1960s Meerloo was considered an influential thinker in America. Besides his many books, he published over 300 articles on psychology, politics, and literature. Less known was his interest and writings in parapsychology and his membership in the American Society for Psychical Research. He was also a corresponding member of the Studievereniging voor Psychical Research (Dutch Society for Psychical Research). He delivered a paper at the First International Conference on Parapsychology in the Netherlands. His activity on behalf of the paranormal came in the 1950s and 1960s. He died November 17, 1976. Sources: Meerloo, Joost A. M. ‘‘The Biology of Time.’’ Tomorrow (winter 1954). ———. Hidden Communion. New York: Garrett Publications, 1964. ———. ‘‘Man’s Ecstatic Healing.’’ Tijdschrift voor Parapsychologie 27 (1959). ———. The Rape of the Mind: The Psychology of Thought Control, Menticide, and Brainwashing. N.p., 1956. ———. ‘‘Telepathy and Foreknowledge.’’ In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Parapsychology. Utrecht, 1953. ———. ‘‘Telepathy as a Form of Archaic Communication.’’ Psychiatric Quarterly 23 (1949). ———. Unobtrusive Communication. Assen, The Netherlands: Van Gorcum, 1964.

Meher Baba (1894–1969) Indian spiritual teacher and mystic, born Merwin S. Irani on February 25, 1894 in Poona, India. His parents were Parsees, but he was strongly influenced by both Hinduism and Sufi mysticism and was educated at a Christian high school. At the age of 19, he contacted Hazrat Babajan, an elderly Moslem female saint, who kissed his forehead and, as he later related, induced divine consciousness and a state of ecstatic bliss. After that, he devoted his life to religious teaching, usually expressed in a rather erratic fashion, involving journeys with disciples that apparently led nowhere, or in searching out the eccentric and sometimes deranged wandering monks of India. In 1921 he established an ashram devoted largely to philanthropic work. He had contact with Sai Baba, of whom Satya Sai Baba is claimed to be a reincarnation. In 1925 Meher Baba entered upon a period of silence, conversing or giving lectures with an alphabet board. He often prophesied in this way that he would one day speak the One Word that would bring spiritualization and love to the world, but he died January 31, 1969, without utterance. Many believe that his prophecy may have been symbolic, like his mysterious life itself, and devotees continue to share the intense affection, of a Sufi kind, that characterized his mission during his lifetime. He came to be regarded by many disciples as an avatar, or descent of divine power. One early American disciple of Meher Baba was Rabia Martin. She led a Sufi group originally established by Pir Inayat Khan (1881–1927). She had a falling out with Pir Khan’s successors and looked for a new teacher, began to correspond with Meher Baba, and eventually accepted him as the Qutb, a Sufi term for hub of the universe. Martin’s successor, Ivy Duce, visited Meher Baba in India, and in 1952 he visited her in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, and gave her and the Sufis a plan of organization known as Sufism Reoriented. Since then, however, the followers of Meher Baba have grown quite apart from Sufism Reoriented. They have a very loose, decentralized organization built around independent centers where meetings are held and literature distributed. Because Meher Baba’s primary message was one of Divine Love, 1019

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his followers are generally termed ‘‘Lovers of Meher Baba.’’ To make contact with the followers of Meher Baba, write the Meher Spiritual Center, 10200 Hwy. 17 N., Myrtle Beach, SC 29577. Sources: Baba, Meher. Discourses. Myrtle Beach, S.C.: Sheriar Press, 1987. ———. God Speaks. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1973. Davy, Kitty. Love Alone Prevails. Myrtle Beach, S.C.: Sheriar Press, 1981. Duce, Ivy Oneida. How a Master Works. Walnut Creek, Calif.: Sufism Reoriented, 1971. Hopkinson, Tom, and Dorothy Hopkinson. Much Silence. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1975.

Meier, C(arl) A(lfred) (1905–


Swiss Jungian psychotherapist who wrote on parapsychology. He was born on April 19, 1905, at Schaffhausen, Switzerland. He was educated at University of Paris Medical School, the University of Venice, and the University of Zurich Medical School (M.D.). Besides his private practice as a psychotherapist, he was an assistant, then director, of laboratory research at the Burghölzli Psychiatric Clinic of Zurich University (1930–36) and became a professor of psychology at Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, in 1949. Meier served as president of the C. G. Jung Institute, Zurich (1948–57) and was editor of Studien aus dem C. G. Jung Institute (1949–57). In 1957 he founded the International Association for Analytical Psychology. Meier wrote Jung and Analytical Psychology (1959) and many articles on psychotherapy, Jungian analysis, and other psychological topics. He had a special interest in relationships between the unconscious and extrasensory perception. Meier edited Studien zu C. G. Jung’s Psychologie written by Toni Wolff (1959). Sources: Meier, Carl A. Ancient Incubation and Modern Psychotherapy. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 1968. ———. ‘‘C. G. Jung’s Concept of Synchronicity.’’ In Proceedings of the First International Conference of Parapsychological Studies (1955). ———. ‘‘Jung’s ‘Meaningful Coincidence.’&43’’ Tomorrow (spring 1954). ———. ‘‘Projection, Transference, and Subject-Object Relation.’’ In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Psychology and Parapsychology (1957). ———. ‘‘Psychological Background of So-Called Spontaneous Phenomena.’’ In Proceedings of the Conference on Spontaneous Phenomena (1957).

Meier, Eduard Albert ‘‘Billy’’ (1937–


One of the most famous of modern flying saucer contactees, Billy Meier emerged out of obscurity in 1975 when he claimed to have encountered people from the Pleiadian star system. To verify his claims he presented some dramatic photos of the spaceship and eventually made some videos of the ship flying near his home in rural Switzerland. Meier was born on February 3, 1937, in Bulach, Switzerland. According to his story, he had seen a UFO as a child and subsequently heard a voice and saw mental pictures. These communications occurred daily and he learned to respond to them telepathically. In 1944, he met a humanoid named Sfath and took his first ride in a saucer. Sfath told him that he had been chosen and would come to understand his special status at a later date. His telepathic contacts with Sfath continued for some years but he was replaced after Meier’s 16th birthday by 1020

Asket, a youthful female. These contacts existed side-by-side with outward signs of an unsettled life. As a youth Meier ran away from home several times, eventually landing in the French Foreign Legion. In 1958 he began a period of wandering through the Middle East and southern Asia. Following an accident in 1965, he lost his left arm just above his elbow. He finally returned to Switzerland in 1970 and settled on a farm. In 1974, he advertised for people who would like to be part of a metaphysical study group, and soon had a small gathering joining him for discussions of occult matters. The next year he announced that he had not only seen a flying saucer, but that it had landed and a beautiful woman disembarked. He talked with her for an hour and a half. The woman, Semjase, hailed from the planet Erra in the Pleiades. Of all the people with whom the Pleiadians had made contact, only Meier had passed all the tests. Semjase set the stage for Meier to take a host of pictures of what were termed ‘‘beamships,’’ Meier’s primary evidence to an unbelieving world. He claimed to have taken a number of rides in the beamships, including a visit to the Pleiades. European media began to give Meier coverage and controversy grew through 1976. His following also grew and with money they raised, he moved to property purchased near Hinterschmidruti that has been his headquarters ever since. The study group evolved into the Freie Interessengemeinschaft für Grenz-und Geisteswissenschaften und Ufologie-Studien. Among the people who learned of the Meier claims were Lou Zinstagg and Timothy Good, who were working on a biography of George Adamski, the original 1950s contactee. They brought copies of the Meier pictures to the United States and gave them to contactee enthusiast Wendelle Stevens. Stevens visited Meier in October of 1977, and after investigating his claims, created a company, Genesis III Productions Limited, to market the photos and related stories. In 1979, a coffee-table book, UFO. . . Contact from the Pleiades, Volume One, made the world aware of his claims. Additional books and several videos subsequently appeared. As controversy swelled around Meier, with most ufologists rejecting his contactee claims, in 1981 Kal K. Kroff published the results of his investigation, The Meier Incident: The Most Infamous Hoax in Ufology. He demonstrated that Meier’s photos were of small models held by string. He followed with a second book, Spaceships from the Pleiades, in 1990. Among the most damaging discoveries concerned some pictures supposedly taken from space by Meier that turned out to be NASA photos. More people, however, read writer Gary Kinder’s generally favorable book, Light Years. Stevens and his associates have remained staunch supporters of Meier and have continued to distribute the many Genesis III publications through the 1990s. Stevens has edited a multivolume series of Meier’s contact notes. The Semjase Silver Star Center was opened as an American counterpart to the Meier organization in Europe. The Meier material freely circulated through the New Age Movement, with New Age bookstores being a major means of distributing it. The impact of this material is visibly demonstrated in the prominence given the Pleiades in channeling material. Beginning in the late 1980s, a host of New Age channelers have regularly received messages from entities identifying themselves as Pleiadians. Sources: Elders, Lee J., Brit Nilsson-Elders, and Thomas K. Welch. UFO. . . Contact from the Pleiades, Volume One. Phoenix, Ariz.: Genesis III Productions, 1979. ———. UFO. . .Contact from the Pleiades, Volume Two. Phoenix, Ariz.: Genesis III Productions, 1983. Kinder, Gary. Light Years: An Investigation into the Extraterrestrial Experiences of Eduard Meier. New York: Atlantic Monthly, 1987. Kroff, Kal K. Spaceships of the Pleiades: The Billy Meier Story. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Press, 1995.

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. ———, and William Moore. The Meier Incident—The Most Infamous Hoax in Ufology. Fremont, Calif.: The Authors, 1981. Meier, Eduard ‘‘Billy.’’ Decalogue or the Ten Bids. Alamogordo, N. Mex.: Semjase Silver Star Center, 1987. ———. The Psyche. Alamogordo, N. Mex.: Semjase Silver Star Center, [1986].

Melton, J(ohn) Gordon William Windeyer, chief judge, and Alfred Deaking, prime minister of Australia, were, according to the letter, convinced that Mellon was genuine. Of course none of these men, however eminent, were trained observers.

Melton, J(ohn) Gordon (1942– Meisner (or Mesna Lorentz) (ca. 1608) Early alchemist whose work is recorded in his tract Gemma Gemmarum Alchimistarum; oder, Erleuterung der Parabolischen und Philosophischen Schrifften Fratris Basilij, der zwölff Schlüssel, von dem Stein der vharalten Weisen, und desselben aufsdrücklichen und warhaften praeparation; Sampt etlichen seinen Particularen, published in Leipzig in 1608. This edition also includes a tract on the philosophers’ stone by Conrad Schülern. (See also alchemy)

Mellon, Annie Fairlamb (Mrs. J. B. Mellon) (ca. 1850–ca. 1938) British materialization medium. Her first supernormal experience was at the age of nine, when she saw her brother at sea in danger of drowning. Later physical powers manifested in a violent trembling of hand and arm. This was followed, in the family circle, by automatic writing with lightning-like speed, by clairvoyance, and by clairaudience. With bandaged eyes she would fall into a trance and describe events happening at the time many miles away, events which were subsequently verified. In 1873 she and C. E. Wood were employed as official mediums of the Newcastle Spiritual Evidence Society. In 1875 they sat for Henry Sidgwick and F. W. H. Myers of the Society for Psychical Research at Cambridge, England. The séances, which were held under the strictest test conditions, produced excellent results, but neither Sidgwick nor Myers chose to announce their observations in public. In 1877 Alderman T. P. Barkas of Newcastle made successful experiments to obtain spirit molds (see plastics). Unknown to Fairlamb, he mixed magenta dye with the paraffin. The molds were found to be tinted with magenta, which proved that they were not smuggled in ready-made. After touring the Continent, during which German investigators found that she lost almost half of her bodily weight during materializations, Fairlamb went to Australia. There she married J. B. Mellon of Sydney but continued to give sittings at her own home. Charles W. MacCarthy, at whose residence Mellon often sat, became convinced of the reality of the phenomena. On October 12, 1894, a disastrous exposure of her fraud took place in Mellon’s house. T. Shekleton Henry, another medium and pretended friend, grabbed ‘‘Cissie,’’ the materialized spirit, and found it to be the medium half undressed. The missing pieces of garment were found in the cabinet. Mellon defended herself by saying that she seemed to shoot into the grabbed form and became absorbed. She was said to have suffered serious injury in consequence of the spirit grabbing, and after her recovery she resolved never to sit in the cabinet again but always before the curtain in full view of the sitters. The story of the exposure is told by T. Shekleton Henry in Spookland (1902), to which a rebuttal was published by someone under the pseudonym ‘‘Psyche’’ in A Counterblast to Spookland; or, Glimpses of the Marvellous (1895). As late as 1931 Mellon was still active as a medium. H. L. Williams, a retired magistrate from the Punjab, wrote to Harry Price (Psychic Research, June 1931): ‘‘As regards her (Mrs. Mellon), Dr. Haworth, a well-known doctor of Port Darwin, has testified before me that at Melbourne, in the presence of leading and professional men, he saw many times a spot of mist on the carpet which rose into a column out of which stepped a completely embodied human being who was recognised. . . .’’ Sir


Religious studies scholar and director of the Institute for the Study of American Religion, Santa Barbara, California. Born September 19, 1942, in Birmingham, Alabama, he attended Birmingham Southern College (A.B. in geology, 1964), Garrett Theological Seminary (M.Div. with distinction, 1968), and Northwestern University (Ph.D. in history and literature of religion, 1975). Melton was ordained a United Methodist minister in 1968. In 1969, while in graduate school, he founded the Institute for the Study of American Religion to focus research on the many new and small religious groups that were emerging in late twentieth-century America. Melton served as the national field director of the Spiritual Frontiers Fellowship (1971–74), and was one of the founders of the Academy of Religion and Psychical Research. In 1975 he transferred from the North Alabama Conference to the Northern Illinois Conference of the United Methodist Church and was appointed pastor of the Emmanuel United Methodist Church in Evanston, Illinois. In 1980 he left the pastorate and was appointed director of the Institute for the Study of American Religion, a post he has retained to the present. In 1985 the institute relocated to Santa Barbara, California. Melton is also a research specialist with the department of religious studies at the University of California–Santa Barbara. In 1990 he co-founded the Society for the Study of Metaphysical Religion and sits on its board. Melton achieved prominence after publishing his Encyclopedia of American Religions (1979; 6th ed., 1999), tracking the many different religions as well as the small religious and psychic/occult organizations in the United States and Canada. The encyclopedia documents their origins, interrelationships, and beliefs. He has taken a special interest in the problems of religious pluralism and the growth of many divergent religions in the Christian West. Melton ardently supports religious freedom and actively opposes the efforts of the anticult movement to stigmatize new religions as ‘‘destructive cults.’’ The Institute for the Study of American Religion maintains a unique and comprehensive collection of research materials on religious groups and organizations in North America. The collection is located at the Davidson Library of the University of California–Santa Barbara. For information, address correspondence to the American Religions Collection, c/o Special Collections Department, Davidson Library, University of California–Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106. Melton has authored or co-authored more than 25 books since his first in 1967, The History of the Bowling Green Yoked Charge (1967). He was an associate editor and contributor to the Encyclopedia of World Methodism (1968) and senior editor of several book series, including ‘‘The Garland Bibliographies on Sects and Cults’’ (1982–present); ‘‘The Churches Speak’’ (1989–90); ‘‘Cults and New Religions’’ (1990–91); ‘‘Cults and Noncoventional Religious Groups: A Collection of Outstanding Dissertations and Monographs’’ (1992–94); and ‘‘Religious Information Systems’’ (1992–94). He also works on the editorial board of Theosophical History. In 1996 he became the senior editor of the multi-volume International Directory of the World’s Religions. Melton’s avocational study of vampires manifested in 1983 when he served as editor for Vampires Unearthed by Martin Riccardo, the first comprehensive bibliography of Englishlanguage vampire literature. In 1994 he authored The Vampire Book: An Encyclopedia of the Undead (2nd edition, 1999), Video Hound’s Vampires on Video (1996), and The Vampire Gallery (1998). 1021


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Sources: Melton, J. Gordon. A Directory of Religious Bodies in the United States. New York: Garland Publishing, 1977. ———. Directory of Religious Organizations. Detroit: Gale Research, 1992. ———. Encyclopedic Handbook of Cults in America. New York: Garland Publishing, 1986. Rev. ed. 1992. ———. ‘‘A History of the New Age Movement.’’ In Not Necessarily the New Age. Edited by Robert Basil. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Press, 1988. ———. Paganism, Magic, and Witchcraft. New York: Garland Publishing, 1982. ———. ‘‘Paschal Beverly Randolph: America’s Pioneer Occultist.’’ In Le Défi Magique. Edited by Jean-Baptiste Martin and Franciose LaPlantine. Lyon, France: Presses Universitaires de Lyon, 1994. ———. ‘‘The Revival of Astrology in the United States.’’ In Religious Movements: Genesis, Exodus, and Numbers. Edited by Rodney Stark. New York: Paragon House Publishers, 1985. ———. ‘‘Toward a History of Magical Religion in the United States.’’ Listening 9, no. 3 (autumn 1974): 112–33. Melton, J. Gordon, Jerome Clark, and Aidan Kelly. New Age Encyclopedia. Detroit: Gale Research, 1990. Melton, J. Gordon, and James R. Lewis, eds. Perspectives on the New Age. Albany, N.Y.: State Unversity of New York Press, 1992. Murphy, Larry, J. Gordon Melton, and Gary L. Ward, eds. Encyclopedia of African American Religion. New York: Garland Publishing, 1993.

Melusina The most famous of the fays, or fairies, of medieval French legend. Being condemned to turn into a serpent from the waist downward every Saturday, she made her husband, Count Raymond of Lusignan, promise never to come near her on a Saturday. This prohibition finally excited his curiosity and suspicion, and he hid himself and witnessed his wife’s transformation. Melusina was now compelled to quit her mortal husband and was destined to wander about as a specter until the day of doom. She became the Banshee of Lusignan. It is said also that the count immured her in the dungeon of his castle. Sources: Briggs, Katherine A. A Dictionary of Fairies. London: Penguin Books, 1976. Reprinted as An Encyclopedia of Fairies, Hobgoblins, Brownies, Bogies, and Other Supernatural Creatures. New York: Pantheon Books, 1976.

Melzer, Heinrich (1873–


German apport medium of Dresden, the successor of Anna Rothe. His early séances were reported in Die Übersinnliche Welt in November 1905. These were held in darkness, but the medium allowed himself to be fastened into a sack. Quanties of flowers and stones were apported to sitters. The operators were said to be Oriental entities: ‘‘Curadiasamy,’’ a Hindu, who spoke with a foreign accent; ‘‘Lissipan,’’ a young Indian Buddhist; and ‘‘Amakai,’’ a man from China. ‘‘Quirinus,’’ who claimed to be a Roman Christian of the time of Diocletian, and ‘‘Abraham Hirschkron,’’ a Jewish merchant from Mahren, were other picturesque controls. By occupation Melzer was a small tobacconist. It is said that at one time he was an actor, which may account for his powers of declamation under control. He visited the British College of Psychic Science in 1923 and in 1926. Owing to a significant development in his mediumship, he was able to sit in good white or red light. In 1923 he was examined before each séance and dressed in a one-piece linen suit, secured at wrist and ankles. The flowers arrived 1022

when the medium was in deep trance. He seemed to be able to observe them clairvoyantly before they appeared to the physical sight. Occasionally sitters, who knew nothing of this, spoke of seeing shadows of flowers in the air before they arrived. Sometimes the medium seized upon the flowers and ate them voraciously, together with stalks and soil, often wounding his mouth by thorns on rose stalks. Returning to normal consciousness, he blamed a particular control for the occurrence. The flowers seemed to arrive toward the medium and were not thrown out from him. These phenomena were very impressive. The same could not be said of the stone apports. They were invariably very small, and led to his detection in fraud. In the sittings of 1926, the doctor in charge slipped his hands at the back of the ears of the medium and discovered two small light colored stones affixed by flesh-colored sticking plaster. The medium’s only attempt at excuse was that by that stage his power had gone and that he had been tempted by an undesirable control. Spiritualist leader James Hewat McKenzie defended Melzer in his report in Psychic Science (April 1927): ‘‘But there is a difference between stones of a quarter to half an inch in size, and flowers of 18 inches stalk length, with leaves and thorns. Twenty-five anemones—or a dozen roots of lilies of the valley, with soil attached, pure bells and delicate leaves— or violets appearing fresh and fragrant, after two and a half hours sitting—have all been received, when the medium’s hands have been seen empty a second before, when no friends of his were in the sittings, and when no opportunity could have presented itself to conceal them that would not have resulted in broken stems and blossoms.’’ However, the damage had been done to the medium’s credibility.

Menger, Howard (1922–


One of the original flying saucer contactees of the 1950s, Howard Menger emerged in 1956 when he told his story to late-night radio talk show host Long John Nebel. Three years later, his book From Outer Space to You appeared. Menger told of contacts that began when he was only ten years old. The original contact was with a beautiful blonde woman whom he met in person but who communicated via telepathy. Other contacts followed with other humanoid beings. Then in 1946, the woman disembarked from a spaceship and announced that a wave of contacts was in humanity’s immediate future as many space people were coming to Earth to assist in solving its problems. In 1956, in the wake of the publicity given contactee George Adamski, Menger took some photos of flying saucers, and claimed he took a ride in a Venusian ship. Following his appearance on Nebel’s show, he was a guest on a national television shows hosted by Steve Allen and Jack Paar. The television exposure led to attacks by critics. An examination of his pictures led to denouncements that they were a hoax, and they caught Menger lying about his having read (and drawing material from) Adamski’s books. Amid the controversy, a young blonde woman came to a gathering at the Menger home. He recognized her as the sister of the space person who had originally contacted him as a child. They began an affair and were eventually married. The woman, Connie Weber, wrote her story, which was published in a book under the pseudonym Karla Baxter. It actually appeared in 1958, a year prior to Menger’s first book. The title, My Saturnian Lover, continued Menger’s claim that he was actually an extraterrestrial who had reincarnated on Earth. Through the 1960s, Menger seemed to back away from some of his claims, but added assertions of government agents involving him in an elaborate hoax. Through the 1970s and 1980s, the Mengers withdrew from the flying saucer scene, but in the 1990s they returned to reassert their contactee claims. They authored a new book in 1991, and subsequently appeared

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. on a 1992 Discovery Channel one-hour special, ‘‘Farewell, Good Brothers,’’ that explored the experiences of several contactees. The Mengers were interviewed before the large saucer model that dominates one room of their Florida home. Sources: Baxter, Karla [Connie Weber Menger]. My Saturnian Lover. New York: Vantage Press, 1958. Menger, Connie. Song of Saturn. Clarksburg, W.Va.: Saucerian Books, 1968. Menger, Howard. From Outer Space to You. Clarksburg, W.Va.: Saucerian Books, 1959. ———, and Connie Menger. The High Bridge Incident: The Story Behind the Story. Vero Beach, Fla.: Howard Menger Studio, 1991.

Meng-Koehler, Heinrich Otto (1887–


Physician, psychoanalyst, and author. He was born on July 9, 1887, at Hohnhurst, Baden, Germany, and studied at the University of Heidelberg (M.D., 1912), the University of Leipzig, and the University of Würzburg. He became director of the Institute of Psychoanalysis, Frankfurt (1928–33), and after the fall of Nazism, he emerged as professor of mental hygiene at the University of Basel, Switzerland (1945–55). Following his retirement he was named professor emeritus. Meng-Koehler edited and contributed to a number of works on mental health and wrote one book, Psychohygiene (Mental Hygiene, 1960). In the field of parapsychology, he took special interest in connections with psychoanalysis. He attended the International Conference on Parapsychological Studies held in Utrecht, Netherlands, in 1953, and the Conference on Unorthodox Healing at St. Paul de Vence, 1954. Sources: Meng-Koehler, Heinrich O. ‘‘Parapsychologie, Psychohygiene, and Aerztliche Fortbildung’’ (Parapsychology, Mental Hygiene and Medical Training). Hippokrates (1954). ———. ‘‘Wunderheilungen’’ (Miracles of Healing). Hippokrates (1954).

Men in Black The mysterious and sinister visitors who are supposed to have silenced flying saucer investigator Albert K. Bender, as described in the book They Knew Too Much about Flying Saucers by Gray Barker (1956). They have since become part of flying saucer mythology, with claimed visitations to other UFO investigators and contactees. Some investigators preferred to believe that they were government officials, possibly from the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), determined to suppress information on the reality of UFOs. For most, the Men in Black myth became but a form in which paranoid fears could be expressed within the ufological community. Sources: Clark, Jerome. The Emergence of a Phenomenon: UFOs from the Beginning through 1959. Vol. 2 of The UFO Encyclopedia. Detroit: Omnigraphics, 1992. Rojcewicz, Peter M. ‘‘The ‘Men in Black’ Experience and Tradition: Analogues with the Traditional Devil Hypothesis.’’ Journal of American Folklore 100 (April/June 1987): 148–60.

Mentalphysics The system developed by Edwin John Dingle (1881–1972) as a synthesis of all he had learned as a young man in his travels in the Orient, especially Tibet. Dingle began teaching informally in 1927 in New York City. His early classes grew into the Institute of Mentalphysics in 1934.

Mental World Mentalphysics is seen as a super yoga. Dingle taught his students a set of what are believed to be universal truths and a system of practice built around pranayama (breathing), diet (vegetarian), exercises, meditation, and a system of working with one’s own particular body chemistry. Breathing is especially important as a means of making use of prana, the subtle energy that permeates the universe, which is both the key to good health and contacting the universal realms. The exact details of the teaching are given to students in a set of 26 basic lessons, 124 advanced lessons, and additional ‘‘preceptor’’ lessons. Current active membership is approximately 5,000 though more than 200,000 different students have at one time studied Mentalphysics. Students come from North America and various foreign countries. Address: Institute of Mentalphysics, 59700 Twenty-nine Palms Hwy., Joshua Tree, CA 92252. Sources: Dingle, Edwin John. Borderlands of Eternity. Los Angeles: Institute of Mentalphysics, 1939. ———. Breathing Your Way to Youth. Los Angeles: Institute of Mentalphysics, [1931]. ———. The Voice of the Logos. Los Angeles: Institute of Mentalphysics, 1950.

Mental World (in Theosophy) Formerly known as the Manas Plane. In the theosophic scheme of things, this is the third lowest of the seven worlds. It is the world of thought into which man passes on the death of the astral body, and it is composed of the seven divisions of matter in common with the other worlds. It is observed that the mental world is the world of thought, but it is necessary to realize that it is the world of good thoughts only, for the base thoughts have all been purged away during the soul’s stay in the astral world. Depending on these thoughts is the power to perceive the mental world. The perfected individual would be free of the whole of it, but the ordinary individual in past imperfect experience has gathered only a comparatively small amount of thought and is, therefore, unable to perceive more than a small part of the surroundings. It follows from this that although the individual’s bliss is inconceivably great, the sphere of action is very limited. This limitation, however, becomes less and less with the individual’s abode there after each fresh incarnation. In the Heaven world-division into which we awake after dying in the astral world, we find vast, unthought-of means of pursuing what has seemed to us good—art, science, philosophy and so forth. Here, all these come to a glorious fruition of which we can have no conception, and at last the time arrives when one casts aside the mental body and awakens in the causal body to the still greater bliss of the higher division of the mental world. At this stage, one has done with the bodies which form mortal personality, and which form one’s home in successive incarnations, and one is now truly whole, a spirit, immortal and unchangeable except for increasing development and evolution. Into this causal body is worked all that one has experienced in the physical, astral, and mental bodies, and when one still finds that experience insufficient for one’s needs, one descends again into grosser matter in order to learn yet more and more. These concepts derive from the Hindu religious classification of three bodies or states of being: gross (or physical), subtle, and causal (known as sthula, sukshma, and karana shariras). The causal body is pictured as surrounded by five sheaths (or koshas): annamayakosha (food or physical sheath); pranamayakosha (subtle energy sheath); manamayakosha (mental sheath); vijnanamayakosha (wisdom sheath); and anandamayakosha (bliss sheath of spiritual unity). 1023

‘‘Mentor’’ Sources: Jinarajadasa, C. The Early Teachings of the Masters, 1881–83. Chicago: Theosophical Press, 1923. Powell, Arthur E. The Astral Body and Other Astral Phenomena. London: Theosophical Publishing House, 1927.

‘‘Mentor’’ One of the controls of William Stainton Moses, said to be Al-gazzali or Ghazali, professor of theology at Baghdad in the eleventh century, the greatest representative of the Arabian Philosophical School. ‘‘Mentor’ ’’s main duty was to manage the phenomena at the séances. He was very successful with lights and scents and brought many apports. In Book 16 of the spirit communications of Stainton Moses there is a story of ‘‘Mentor’’ carving heads on two shells in the dining room while dinner was going on; the sound of the process was heard.

Mephis (or Memphitis) A fabled precious stone that, when ground to powder and drunk in water, was said to cause insensibility to torture.

Mercurii, Society of the The Society of the Mecurii was an occult magical organization that operated in London, England, in the 1830s and was one of the primary groups that launched the occult and astrological revival that has led to the spectacular growth of the occult world in the twentieth century. The first public mention of the society seems to have been an announcement in the August 14, 1824, issue of The Struggling Astrologer, a magazine that had been launched by astrologer Robert Cross Smith (1795–1832), later to become famous under his pen name Raphael. According to the brief statement, the society consisted of some ‘‘scientific gentlemen’’ interested in promoting occult science. In a later issue it was noted that the number of the society were few and select and that their meeting place was secret. It was noted, however, that they wished to publish occult books, and could be contacted through Smith. Beyond Smith, the exact membership of the society is unknown, but some speculation can be made from knowledge of those who were associated with him. One possible early member was artist Richard Cosway (d. 1821). Above and beyond his art, he gathered a large occult library, lectured on occult topics, and practiced spirit contact via clairvoyance. When he died, Smith came into possession of his library. The Struggling Astrologer was succeeded by a new periodical in 1825, Urania; or, The Astrologer’s Chronicle, and Mystic Magazine, which listed Smith as the editor under the pseudonym ‘‘Mecurius Angelicus, Jur.’’ assisted by members of the Mercurii. Like The Struggling Astrologer, Urania lasted only a few issues. However, after it folded Smith published a collection of articles from the two periodicals as a book, The Astrologer of the Nineteenth Century, described as a compendium of occult materials by members of the Society of the Mercurii. From the Smith publications, membership of the Mercurii appears to have included: George W. Graham, an alchemist who assisted Smith in setting up his business; John Varley (1778–1842), a noted artist and friend of the artist/poet William Blake and student of astrology; and John Palmer (1807–1837), a young alchemist who wrote for Smith. During this period of time, the only other significant occult group in England was the circle that had formed around magician Francis Barrett, author of The Magus, a seminal text of magical wisdom that stands at the fountainhead of modern magical practice. The Mercurii apparently dissolved following the death of so many of its members in the 1830s, though given its secretive nature it could easily have survived much longer. 1024

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. Sources: Godwin, Joscelyn. The Theosophical Enlightenment. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995.

Mercury Also popularly known as quicksilver. Known for many centuries, the metal has played an important part in the history of alchemy. In its refined state it forms a coherent, very mobile liquid that at ordinary room temparature was a well-known unique substance. The early alchemists believed that nature formed all metals from mercury, and that it was a living and feminine principle. It went through many processes, and the metal that evolved was pure or impure according to the locality of its production. The mercury of the philosophers’ stone needed to be a purified and revivified form of the ordinary metal; as the Arabian alchemist Geber stated in his Summa perfectionis: ‘‘Mercury, taken as Nature produces it, is not our material or our physic, but it must be added to.’’ Mercury seems to have been an entirely different substance than any ordinary metal or chemical element. Depending upon one’s interprepation of alchemy as a system of spiritual growth, mercury could be one of several substances or states of consciousness.

Merlin A legendary British enchanter who lived at the court of King Arthur. He emerged as a character in Geoffrey of Manmouth’s Historia Regum Britanniae (completed around 1135 C.E.). Geoffrey later wrote a complete book on Merlin, Vita Merlini (ca. 1150). According to Geoffrey, Merlin’s mother was a nun, and he was borne of his mother’s intercourse with an incubus. He lived in the sixth century in north Britain. By the end of the century, he was the subject of poems in Wales, where Geoffrey’s character was merged with the folklore image of a Wildman in the Wood. Merlin seems to have been associated with King Arthur in the poem ‘‘Merlin’’ by Robert de Boron. In Boron’s account, Merlin is the product of a demon’s mating with a young girl. She confesses the incident to her confessor, who puts the sign of the cross on her. The son, Merlin, is born without the demon’s evil nature, but with supernatural abilities. He assists Pendragon, the British king who was slain in a battle with the Saxons. Merlin then assists the king’s brother, Uterpendragon. He directs the new king’s construction of a roundtable, a replica of the one believed to have been used by Jesus at the Last Supper. Uterpendragon (with Merlin’s magical help) seduces the wife of one of the noblemen. From that union, Arthur is born. Though the king married the woman, who was widowed soon after conceiving Arthur, Merlin advises that Arthur be given to foster parents for his own protection. That action set up Arthur’s later claiming the throne based upon his pulling a sword from the stone. From Boron’s basic story, Merlin’s story grew and developed. By the nineteenth century, he had become the quinessential magician, and in the twentieth century the number of appearances in fantasy novels soared. Sources: Lacy, Norris J., ed. The Arthurian Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing, 1986. Loomis, Roger Sherman, ed. Arthurian Literature in the Middle Ages. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1959.

Mermaids and Mermen Legendary supernatural sea people, human from the head to the waist but with a fish tail instead of legs. In German folk-

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. lore, a mermaid was known as ‘‘meerfrau,’’ in Danish ‘‘maremind,’’ Irish ‘‘murduac’’ (or ‘‘merrow’’). In Brittany, the ‘‘morgans’’ were beautiful sirenlike women, dangerous to men, while in British maritime lore, seeing a mermaid might precede a storm or other disaster. A traditional ballad, ‘‘The Mermaid,’’ tells how a ship’s crew sees a mermaid sitting on a rock, combing her hair and holding a mirror. Soon afterward the ship is wrecked in a raging sea. In legend, one can gain power over a mermaid by seizing her cap or belt. There are many folk tales of marriages between a mermaid and a man, and in Machaire, Ireland, there are individuals who claim descent from such a union. The medieval romance of the fair Melusina of the house of Lusignan in France concerns the daughter of a union between a human and a fairy who cursed the daughter Melusine so that she became a serpent from the waist down every Saturday. Hans Christian Andersen’s sad story ‘‘The Little Mermaid’’ echoes folk tales in its theme of a mermaid who falls in love with a prince in a passing ship; the mermaid takes on human form in order to gain a human soul and be close to the prince, but although constantly near him, she cannot speak. When the prince marries a human princess, the mermaid’s heart is broken. There is a similar haunting pathos in Matthew Arnold’s poem ‘‘The Forsaken Merman.’’ In Curious Myths of the Middle Ages (1884) folklorist S. BaringGould suggests that mermaid and merman stories originated from the half-fish half-human gods and goddesses of early religions. The Chaldean Oannes and the Philistine Dagon are typical deities of this kind, and a representation of Oannes with a human body down to the waist and a fish tail has been found on sculpture at Khorsabad. Such goddesses as Derceto (Atergatis) and Semiramis have been represented in mermaid form. The classic Venus, goddess of love, was born out of the sea foam, it is told, and was propitiated by barren couples who desired children. The Mexican Coxcox or Teocipactli was a fish god, as were some Peruvian deities. North American Indians have a legend that they were led from Asia by a man-fish. In classical mythology the Tritons and Sirens are represented as half-fish, half-human. In addition to legends of mythology and folklore, however, there are many claimed accounts of sightings and contact with actual mermaids and mermen throughout history. The twelfthcentury Speculum Regale of Iceland describes a mermaid called the Margygr found near Greenland: ‘‘This creature appears like a woman as far down as her waist, with breast and bosom like a woman, long hands, and soft hair, the neck and head in all respects like those of a human being. From the waist downwards, this monster resembles a fish, with scales, tail, and fins. This prodigy is believed to show itself especially before heavy storms.’’ In 1187 a merman was caught off the coast of Suffolk in England; it closely resembled a man but was not able to speak, so the story goes. The Landnama or Icelandic doomsday book tells of a merman caught off the island of Grimsey, and the annals of the country describe such creatures as appearing off the coast in 1305 and 1329. In 1430 in Holland violent storms broke the dykes near Edam, West Friesland. Some girls from Edam had to take a boat to milk their cows, and saw a mermaid floundering in shallow muddy water. They brought her home, dressed her in women’s clothing and taught her to weave and spin and show reverence for a crucifix, but she could never learn to speak, says the tale. In 1492 Christopher Columbus claimed to have seen three such creatures leaping out of the sea. In 1560 some fishermen near the island of Mandar off the west coast of Ceylon caught seven mermen and mermaids, an incident claimed to have been witnessed by several Jesuit fathers and M. Bosquez, physician to the viceroy of Goa. The physician made a careful examination of the ‘‘mer-people,’’ dissected them, and pronounced that their internal and exter-

Mermaids and Mermen nal structure resembled that of human beings. There is a wellauthenticated case of a merman seen near a rock off the coast of Martinique. Several individuals affirmed that they saw it wipe its hands over its face and even blow its nose; their accounts were attested before a notary. A merman captured in the Baltic Sea in 1531 was sent as a present to Sigismund, king of Poland, and seen by all his court; the creature lived for three days. In 1608 the British navigator Henry Hudson (discoverer of Hudson Bay) reported the discovery of a mermaid: ‘‘This morning, one of our company looking overboard saw a mermaid; and calling up some of the company to see her, one more came up, and by that time she was come close to the ship’s side, looking earnestly at the men. A little after, a sea came and overturned her. From the navel upward, her back and breasts were like a woman’s, as they say that saw her; her body as big as one of us, her skin very white and long hair hanging down behind, of colour black. In her going down they saw her tail, which was like the tail of a porpoise, speckled like a mackerel. Their names that saw her were Thomas Hilles and Robert Rayner.’’ In 1755 Erik Pontoppidan, bishop of Bergen, published his New Natural History of Norway (2 vols.), in which there is an account of a merman observed by three sailors on a ship off the coast of Denmark, near Landscrona; the witnesses made a deposition on oath. In another book, Poissons, écrevisses et crabes de diverses couleurs et figures extraordinaires, que l’on trouve autour des Isles Moluques (published in 1717 by Louis Renard, Amsterdam), there is an illustration of a mermaid with the following description: ‘‘See-wyf. A monster resembling a Siren, caught near the island of Borné, or Boeren, in the Department of Amboine. It was 59 inches long, and in proportion as an eel. It lived on land, in a vat full of water, during four days seven hours. From time to time it uttered little cries like those of a mouse. It would not eat, though it was offered small fish, shells, crabs, lobsters, etc. After its death, some excrement was discovered in the vat, like the secretion of a cat.’’ In 1857 two fishermen from Scotland, where numerous reports of mermaids have surfaced, made the following declaration, recorded in the Shipping Gazette: ‘‘We, the undersigned, do declare, that on Thursday last, the 4th June 1857, when on our way to the fishing station, Lochindale, in a boat, and when about four miles S.W. from the village of Port Charlotte, being then about 6 p.m., we distinctly saw an object about six yards distant from us in the shape of a woman, with full breast, dark complexion, comely face, and fine hair hanging in ringlets over the neck and shoulders. It was about the surface of the water to about the middle, gazing at us and shaking its head. The weather being fine, we had a full view of it and that for three or four minutes. —John Williamson, John Cameron.’’ Several more mundane and conventional explanations of reports of mermaids and mermen exist. It is known, for example, that some were the result of hoaxes. As early as the 1820s, for example, Robert S. Hawker, before to his years as a minister, had been known to put on a merman costume and sit on the rocks and sing in the evening to the awe of the local villagers. Japanese fishermen used to manufacture mermaids to supplement their income and P. T. Barnum exhibited similar creatures in his museum. Many reports have been attributed to misidentifications or romantic viewings of a marine mammal called a dugong (Halicore), of the order Sirenia, which also includes the manatee or sea cow. Such creatures suckle their young at the breast and have a vaguely human appearance. They used to be hunted for their oil, used as a substitute for cod-liver oil, and are now rare. It is possible that the dugong known as Rhytina gigas, or Steller’s sea cow, long believed extinct, may survive in the Bering Sea, near the Aleutian Islands. Vitus Bering, after whom the sea is named, was a Danish navigator who was shipwrecked on the 1025

Merrell-Wolff, Franklin desert island of Avacha (now known as Bering Island) in 1741. His party included naturalist George W. Steller, who made copious notes while the party was dying of starvation. Steller observed large herds of Sirenia a short distance from the shore. The creatures were mammals about 25 to 35 feet long and grazed off the kelp like cows on a pasture. They were unafraid of humans, and it was easy to harpoon them, drag them ashore and eat the flesh, which sustained the party. The top half of the creature resembled a seal, and the bottom half a dolphin. It had small flippers, and the females had mammary glands like a woman, suckling their young at the breast. Even courtship habits seemed human, as well as other behavior. When one creature was harpooned, the others would gather around it and try to comfort it, and even swim across the rope and try to dislodge the hook, Steller observed. Sirenia bear only a very vague resemblance to historic accounts of mermaids, however, especially those brought ashore and kept in captivity before they died. These also have no connection with the stuffed ‘‘mermaids’’ displayed in showmen’s booths in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, which were invariably clever fakes assembled by Japanese craftsmen. Contemporary cryptozoologists have included mermen in their area of concern. Gwen Benwell, Arthur Waugh, and Bernard Heuvelmans, who studied the accounts extensively, have suggested that only some type of yet-unrecognized species of dugong or sea cow, or even an undesignated variety of marine primate could account for all of the excellent and detailed reports of mer-hominoids in recent centuries. However, since the habitat of such a creature is in relatively shallow water near shorelines, it is unlikely that some would not at some point have been washed ashore and discovered. Others, primarily folklorists, consider mermaids the products of hallucinatory or visionary experiences. Unfortunately, no extensive scientific expeditions have been launched to either confirm or discover the cause of the widespread reports of mermaid sightings. (See also Lorelei; Sirens) Sources: Bassett, F. S. Legends and Traditions of the Sea and of Sailors. Chicago: Belford, Clarke, 1885. Benwell, Gwen, and Arthur Waugh. Sea Enchantress: The Tale of the Mermaid and Her Kin. London: Hutchinson, 1961. Clark, Jerome. Encyclopedia of Strange and Unexplained Phenomena. Detroit: Gale Research, 1993. Hutchins, Jane. Discovering Mermaids and Monsters. Shire Publications, 1968. Rappoport, Angelo S. Superstitions of Sailors. London: Stanley Paul, 1928. Reprint, Ann Arbor, Mich.: Gryphon Books, 1971.

Merrell-Wolff, Franklin (ca. 1887) American teacher of a system of higher consciousness deriving from Hindu yoga and related philosophies. Born in the late 1880s, Merrell-Wolff was the son of a Christian clergyman but felt himself drawn beyond religious orthodoxy. He graduated Phi Beta Kappa from Stanford University in 1911 with a major in mathematics and minors in both philosophy and psychology. He did graduate work at Stanford and Harvard. Merrell-Wolff joined the faculty as a lecturer in mathematics at Stanford but soon withdrew from academic life to seek metaphysical knowledge beyond sense perception and conception. After 24 years he claimed to have attained a state of higher consciousness, described in his several books. Although then in his late eighties, Merrell-Wolff continued teaching students at a community in California, originally designated The Assembly of Man and now known as Friends of the Wisdom Religion, located at the Wolff residence, near Lone Pine, California, U.S. Highway 395, about halfway between Reno and Los Angeles. Meetings, at which Merrell-Wolff’s tape-recorded lectures are played, take place at the home of 1026

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. Mrs. James A. Briggs, 4648 East Lafayette Blvd., Phoenix, AZ 85018. Sources: Merrell-Wolff, Franklin. Experience and Philosophy: A Personal Record of Transformation and a Discussion of Transcendental Consciousness. New York: State University of New York Press, 1994. ———. Pathways through to Space: A Personal Record of Transformation in Consciousness. New York: Warner Books, 1976. ———. The Philosophy of Consciousness without an Object. New York: Julian Press, 1973.

Mesmer, Franz Anton (1733–1815) Famous Austrian doctor and originator of the technique that bore his name, Mesmerism, forerunner of hypnotism. He was born at Weil, near Constance, May 23, 1733. In 1766 he took a degree in medicine at Vienna, the subject of his inaugural thesis being De planetarum Influxu (De l’influence des Planettes sur le corps humain). Mesmer identified the influence of the planets with magnetism and developed the idea that stroking diseased bodies with magnets would be curative. On seeing the remarkable cures of J. J. Gassner in Switzerland, he concluded that magnetic force must also reside in the human body, and thereupon Mesmer dispensed with magnets. In 1778 he went to Paris where he was very favorably received—by the public, that is; the medical authorities there, as elsewhere, refused to countenance him. His curative technique was to seat his patients around a large circular vat, or baquet, in which various substances were mixed. Each patient held one end of an iron rod, the other end of which was in the baquet. In due time the crisis ensued. Violent convulsions, cries, laughter, and various physical symptoms followed, these being in turn superseded by lethargy. Many claimed to have been healed by this method. In 1784 the government appointed a commission of members of the Faculty of Medicine, the Societé Royale de Médecine, and the Academy of Sciences, the commissioners from the latter body including Benjamin Franklin, astronomer Jean Sylvain Bailly, and chemist Antoine Lavoisier. The committee reported that there was no such thing as animal magnetism, and referred the facts of the crisis to the imagination of the patient. This had the effect of quenching public interest in mesmerism, as animal magnetism was called at the time. Mesmer’s ideas were kept alive by a few of his students and reemerged in force during the next century. Mesmer lived quietly for the rest of his life and died at Meersburg, Switzerland, March 5, 1815. Sources: Eden, Jerome, trans. Memoir of F. A. Mesmer, Doctor of Medicine, on His Discoveries, 1799. Mount Vernon, N.Y.: Eden Press, 1957. Goldsmith, Margaret L. Franz Anton Mesmer: The History of an Idea. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1934. Reprint, London: Arthur Barker, 1934. Wyckoff, James. Franz Anton Mesmer. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1975. Wydenbruck, Nora. Doctor Mesmer. London: John Westhouse, 1947.

Mesmerism A system of healing, founded by Franz Anton Mesmer (1733–1815), an Austrian doctor who received his degree at Vienna in 1766 and expounded the main principles of his discovery of animal magnetism in De Planetarum Influxu, his inaugural thesis in which he summarized his position in a series of statements: ‘‘There is a mutual influence between the celestial bodies, the earth and animated bodies.

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. ‘‘The means of this influence is a fluid which is universal and so continuous that it cannot suffer void, subtle beyond comparison and susceptible to receive, propagate and communicate every impression of movement. ‘‘This reciprocal action is subject to as yet unknown mechanical laws. ‘‘The result of this action consists of alternating effects which may be considered fluxes and refluxes. ‘‘It is by this operation (the most universal in nature) that the active relations are exercised between the heavenly bodies, the earth and its constituent particles. ‘‘It particularly manifests itself in the human body with properties analogous to the magnet; there are poles, diverse and opposed, which can be communicated, changed, destroyed and reinforced; the phenomenon of inclination is also observable. ‘‘This property of the animal body which renders it susceptible to the influence of celestial bodies and to the reciprocal action of the environing ones I felt prompted to name, from its analogy to the magnet, animal magnetism. ‘‘It acts from a distance without the intermediary of other bodies. ‘‘Similarly to light it is augmented and reflected by the mirror. ‘‘It is communicated, propagated and augmented by the voice.’’ By applying magnetic plates to the patient’s limbs, Mesmer effected his first cures in 1773. The arousal of public attention was due to a bitter controversy between Mesmer and a Jesuit priest Maximilian Hell, professor of astronomy at the University of Vienna, who claimed priority of discovery. Mesmer won. In 1778, after a bitter public controversy over the cure of a blind girl, Mesmer went to Paris. In a short time he became famous. His first convert was Charles d’Eslon, medical adviser to Count d’Artois. In September 1780 d’Eslon asked the Faculty of Medicine to investigate Mesmer’s ideas and practices. The proposal was rejected, and d’Eslon was told that his name would be struck off the rolls at the end of the year if he did not recant. In the meantime public enthusiasm grew to such a high pitch that in March 1781 Minister de Maurepas offered Mesmer, on behalf of the king, 20,000 livres (francs) and a further annuity of 10,000 livres if he established a school and divulged the secret of his treatment. Mesmer refused, but two years later accepted a subscription of 340,000 livres for lectures to pupils. In 1784 the French government charged the Faculty of Medicine and the Societé Royale de Médicine to examine animal magnetism. Nine commissioners convened under the presidency of Benjamin Franklin, including Jean Sylvain Bailly and J. K. Lavater; four more commissioners were added from the Royal Society of Medicine. The delegates restricted their activity to the search for evidence of a new physical force that was claimed as the agent of the cure. As part of their investigation, they observed Mesmer’s use of the famous baquet. This baquet was a large circular tub filled with bottles that dipped into the water. The baquet was covered, and iron rods projected from the lid through holes therein. The rods were bent and could be applied to any part of the body by the patients who sat in rows. The patients were tied together by a cord that passed around the circle. Sometimes they held hands in a chain. There was music. The operator, with an iron rod in his hands, walked around and touched the patients; they fell into convulsions, sweated, vomited, cried—and were supposedly cured. The committees, in their verdict, stated that they found no evidence of a magnetic fluid, and the cures might be due to vivid imagination. De Jussieu was the only member who dissented. He claimed to have discovered something—animal heat—that radiated from the human body and could be directed and intensified by willpower. Later magnetists adopted the

Mesmerism theory. It marked the discovery of the human element in animal magnetism. The next important development is attached to the name of Marquis de Puységur. He began his cures at Busancy in the same year that animal magnetism was officially turned down. He did not employ the baquet. He ‘‘magnetized’’ a tree, which he fastened cords around and invited the sufferers to tie themselves to it. One of his invalid patients, a 23-year-old peasant named Victor, fell asleep in the operator’s arms. He began to talk, and on waking he remembered nothing. De Puységur’s observation of Victor led to his discovery of the somnambulic stage. Puységur and the earlier magnetizers attributed many curious phenomena to the state of rapport, and they insisted on the theory of a magnetic effluence. Their patients claimed they could see it radiating as a brilliant shaft of light from the operator, from trees, and from other substances. Some substances could conduct it, others not. Water and milk could retain it and work cures. Tardy de Montravel discovered the transposition of the senses. His somnambule not only walked in the town with her eyes fast closed but could see with the pit of her stomach (see also eyeless sight). J. H. Desire Pétetin, a doctor at Lyons, enlarged upon these observations. He changed the theory of Mesmer to ‘‘animal electricity’’ and cited many experiments to prove that the phenomena were of an electrical nature. J. P. F. Deleuze objected, insisted on the magnetic fluid theory, and pointed out its analogies with nerve-force. He explained the phenomena of the transposition of the senses by the idea that it was the magnetic fluid that conveyed the impressions from without. He offered a similar theory to explain medical diagnoses that the patients gave of others and themselves. Every phenomenon was, however, attributed to physiological causes. Thought-reading and clairvoyance as transcendental faculties were rejected. The phenomena of traveling clairvoyance were yet very rare. Tardy de Montravel was alone in his supposition of a sixth sense as an explanatory theory. A new approach to Mesmerism was inaugurated by a nonmedical man, Abbé Faria. In 1813 he ascribed the magnetic phenomena to the power of imagination. General Noizet and Alexandre Bertrand adopted his view. Bertrand’s Traité du somnambulisme was published in 1823. It definitely established a new departure. Bertrand denied the existence of the magnetic fluid and pointed out the preternormal sensitivity of the subject to the least suggestion, whether by word, look, gesture, or thought. Yet he admitted the supernormal phenomena of trance. Marvelous stories were agitating the country. Professional clairvoyants arose. They gave medical diagnosis and treatment. Billot discovered most of the phenomena of Spiritualism. From Germany and Russia came rumors of a wide recognition of magnetic treatment. The Royal Academy of Medicine could not long ignore the stir. On December 13, 1825, the proposal of P. Foissac that another investigation should be ordered was, after a bitter struggle, carried. The report of the committee was not submitted until five and a half years later. It stated that the alleged phenomena were genuine and that the existence of somnambulism was well authenticated. They found evidence of clairvoyance and successful medical diagnosis in the state of rapport. They also established that the will of the operator could produce the magnetic state without the subject’s knowledge, even from another room. In the meantime, developments in Germany proceeded. Animal magnetism ceased to be a science of healing. Under the influence of Jung-Stilling (see Johann Heinrich Jung), it soon developed into a ‘‘spiritual’’ science. While Gmelin, Wienholt, Fischer, Kluge, Kieser, and Weserman observed all the reported properties of the magnetic fluid and insisted on its essential importance, the practice of holding intercourse with the spirits 1027

Mesmerism through entranced somnambules soon gained popularity and increasing trust. In the United States the students of Mesmerism believed they had discovered a new science—phreno-mesmerism. J. Rhodes Buchanan, R. H. Collyer, and Rev. La Roy Sunderland contended for the honor of the first discovery. Buchanan mapped out an entirely new distribution of the phrenological organs in 1843 and developed the theory of ‘‘nerve-aura’’ as a connecting link between will and consciousness. The title page of Collyer’s Psychography; or, The Embodiment of Thought (Philadelphia, 1843) represented two persons looking into a bowl, illustrating, in Collyer’s words, that ‘‘when the angle of incidence from my brain was equal to the angle of reflection from her brain she distinctly saw the image of my thought at the point of coincidence.’’ Sunderland discovered no less than 150 new phrenologic organs by means of mesmeric experiments. Professor J. S. Grime substituted the magnetic fluid with ‘‘etherium,’’ Rev. J. Bovee Dods with ‘‘vital electricity.’’ Andrew Jackson Davis was started on his career of seership by mesmeric experiments for medical purposes. He became the herald of Spiritualism, and from the believers of phrenomesmerism and Mesmerism, Davis gained many believers of the new faith. In England the beginnings were slow. Not until John Elliotson was converted by Baron Du Potet’s visit in 1837 did Mesmerism assume the proportions of a widespread movement. For propaganda it relied on the journal the Zoist and the shortlived Phreno-Magnet. Three main classes of phenomena were thus distinguished: the physical effluence; phreno-mesmerism; and community of sensation, including clairvoyance.

From Animal Magnetism to Hypnotism The controversy between official medical science and Mesmerism raged bitterly. The evolution of animal magnetism into hypnotism was due to James Braid. But James Esdaile’s name also occupies an important place. While Elliotson practically introduced curative magnetism into England, Esdaile proved the reality of mesmeric trance by performing operations under mesmeric anaesthesia. As early as 1841, Braid read an address before the British Association in which he expounded his discovery of hypnotism. He described it as a special condition of the nervous system, characterized by an abnormal exaltation of suggestibility, which can be brought about automatically by the mere fixation of the eyes on bright objects with an inward and upward squint. His address was published in 1843 under the title Neurypnology. This work was followed three years later by his Power of the Mind over the Body, in which he pointed out that the Mesmerists were not on their guard against suggestion and hyperaesthesia. He produced all the characteristic results of Mesmerism without a magnet and claimed that the sensitives could not see flames at the poles of the most powerful magnets until warned to look at them. If warned, they saw flames issuing from any object. The influence of Braid’s discoveries on the Mesmerists themselves was very slight, and strangely enough, official science took little notice. The main attraction of Mesmerism was its therapeutic value. It was the discovery in 1846–47 of the anaesthetic properties of ether and chloroform that deprived mesmeric trance of its most obvious utility. The conquest by Spiritualism soon began, and the leading Mesmerists were absorbed into the ranks of the Spiritualists. No further advance was registered in England until 1883, when Edmund Gurney made his first experiments in hypnotism. He pointed out that in the hypnotic stage, the formerly numerous cases of rapport became extremely rare. He and F. W. H. Myers reverted to the earlier theory and declared that hypnotism and Mesmerism appeared to be two different states. Official recognition was first granted to hypnotism in 1893 by a committee of the British Medical Association, which re1028

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. ported to have found the hypnotic state genuine and of value in relieving pain and alleviating functional ailments. Mesmerism remained a controversial subject. In France a great revival began in 1875. A. A. Liébeault published his work on hypnotism in 1866. He sided with Bertrand. In 1875 Charles Richet came to the fore. In 1879 Jean Martin Charcot began his work in the Salpetrière. Paris, Bordeaux, Nancy, and Toulon became centers of hypnotic activity. The school of Paris, of which Charcot was the chief, adopted and completed the explanation of Braid. Charcot contended that the hypnotic conditions could only be provoked with neuropaths or with hysterical subjects. The school of Nancy accepted hypnotic sleep but considered suggestion its potent cause. In 1886 in Professor Bernheim’s famous work Suggestion and Its Application to Therapeutics, he went so far as to declare: ‘‘Suggestion is the key of all hypnotic phenomena. There is no such thing as hypnotism, there is only suggestion.’’ The views of Liébeault and Bernheim prevailed almost everywhere over those of Charcot. But animal magnetism was difficult to kill. Boirac was right in saying that ‘‘Animal magnetism is a new America which has been alternately lost and found every twenty or thirty years.’’ In 1887 Dr. Baréty published Le Magnetisme animal etudié sous le nom de force neurique, in which he boldly set out to prove the reality of animal magnetism. Pierre Janet, reviewing Baréty’s work, admitted that certain phenomena of attraction, anaesthesia, etc., produced on subjects apart from all apparent suggestion, by contact alone or the mere presence of the operators, had often struck him as particularly suggestive of the socalled magnetic chain. Emil Boirac supported this position. He pointed out that although hypnotism and suggestion exist, it does not follow that animal magnetism has no existence. It may be that the effects attributed to hypnotism and suggestion are caused by a third factor. Experiments with several subjects convinced him of the truth of his theory. ‘‘We are not prevented from hoping,’’ he wrote in Psychic Science (1918), ‘‘that we shall one day succeed in discovering the natural unity of these three orders of phenomena [Mesmerism or animal magnetism, suggestion, and Braidic hypnotism] as we begin to discover the natural unity of heat, light and electricity. They too much resemble each other’s path not to betray a secret relationship. They are perhaps the effects of one and the same cause, but these effects are assuredly produced under different conditions and according to different laws.’’ The claim was further supported in 1921 by Dr. Sydney Alrutz, lecturer on psychology at the University of Upsala. He claimed to have proved experimentally the existence of a nervous effluence. Professor Farny of the Zurich Polytechnicum showed by electrical tests an emission from the fingers and called it ‘‘anthropoflux.’’ His results verified the previous investigations of E. K. Muller, an engineer in Zurich and director of the Salus Institute. Eventually the phenomena of animal magnetism merged with the developing Spiritualist movement, while hypnotism became established as a valid medical technique. In 1838 Phineas P. Quimby began to practice Mesmerism and later developed from it his own concepts of mental healing. One of Quimby’s students, Mary Baker Eddy, developed her own idealistic approach to healing in the 1870s, embodied in Christian Science. Then in the 1880s some of Eddy’s students—much to her consternation—began to develop variations on her teachings. One by one they broke away and founded independent movements, which gradually aligned into what became known as Mind Cure and then in the 1890s as New Thought. Sources: Bernheim, H. Hypnosis and Suggestion in Psychotherapy. Reprint, New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1964. Bertrand, Alexandre. Traité du somnambulisme. Paris, 1824.

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. Binet, Alfred, and Charles Féré. Animal Magnetism. London: Kegan Paul, 1887. Braid, James. Magic, Witchcraft, Animal Magnetism, Hypnotism, and Electro-Biology. London: John Churchill, 1852. Bramwell, J. Milne. Hypnotism and Treatment by Suggestion. London: Cassell, 1909. Deleuze, J. P. F. Practical Instruction in Animal Magnetism. New York: Samuel R. Wells, 1879. Franklin, Benjamin, and others. Animal Magnetism: Report of Dr. Franklin and Other Commissioners. Philadelphia: H. Perkins, 1837. Goldsmith, Margaret. Franz Anton Mesmer: The History of an Idea. London: Arthur Barker, 1934. Gregory, William. Animal Magnetism; or, Mesmerism and Its Phenomena. London: Nichols, 1884. Ince, R. B. Franz Anton Mesmer. London: William Rider, 1920. Liébeault, A. A. Du sommeil et des etats analogues. Paris, 1886. Mesmer, F. A. Mesmerism by Doctor Mesmer (1779), Being the First Translation of Mesmer’s Historic ‘‘Memoire sur la découverte du Magnétism Animal’’ to Appear in English. London: Macdonald, 1948. Podmore, Frank. Mesmerism and Christian Science. London: Methuen, 1909. Sunderland, La Roy. Pathetism: Man Considered in Relation to His Form, Life, Sensation; An Essay Towards a Correct Theory of Mind. Boston, 1847.

The Messenger The Messenger, subtitled ‘‘A Guide to Life’s Adventures. . .,’’ is a post-New Age tabloid that serves Southern California, with a particular focus on those counties immediately east of Los Angeles, popularly referred to as the Inland Empire, and on Sedona, Arizona, a small community looked upon by many as the center of the New Age community in North America. Each issue of the monthly newspaper is distributed freely throughout its target area since the initial appearance of The Messenger in July of 1997. The Messenger is built around a set of short feature articles, the great majority of which are written by New Age leaders and practitioners who operate in Southern California. They cover the spectrum of New Age spiritual and New Thought metaphysical topics, from metaphysical approaches to business to neurolinguistic programming and various forms of spiritual healing. In addition, there are a large number of monthly columns covering such topics as astrology, numerology, and palmistry. The Messenger also carries the monthly column by popular New Thought writer Louise Hay, and a special section focusing upon events in Sedona. As with most New Age periodicals, advertising is an important part of each issue’s content. There is a relatively brief onepage resource guide, with most of the ads that inform readers of the range of services available to them concentrated in display ads. A monthly book review column carries notices of recent publications, with text drawn primarily from covers and dust jackets of the reviewed items. The Messenger may be contacted at P.O. Box 1971, Glendora, CA 91740. It has an Internet presence at http:// www.themessenger.cc/. Sources: The Messenger. Glendora, Calif., n.d. The Messenger. http://www.themessenger.cc/. May 5, 2000.

Metagnome Term used by French psychic researchers for a gifted percipient of paranormal knowledge or extrasensory perception. The term avoids the Spiritualist associations of ‘‘medium’’ but

Metal Bending is now generally superseded by the term ‘‘psychic,’’ indicating an individual with extrasensory perception. (See also metagnomy)

Metagnomy Term used by French psychic researchers to indicate knowledge acquired through cryptesthesia, i.e., without the use of our five senses. Although this term was used by French psychic researcher Eugèn Osty, it appears to have been originally coined by researcher Emile Boirac (1851–1917) in his book L’Avenir des sciences psychiques (Paris, 1917) and was so ascribed in Osty’s book Supernormal Faculties in Man (London, 1923). The term derives from the Greek words meta (after) and gnomon (knower) and designates the phenomenon of supernormal cognition, now generally called extrasensory perception by parapsychologists.

Metagraphology Term indicating psychometric power on the basis of scripts. It has nothing to do with graphology (interpretation of personality traits indicated in handwriting), as the reading of the present, past, and future of the subject is not effected by the study of the writing. The script simply serves as an influence, as does any given object in psychometry. The sole justification of the term ‘‘metagraphology’’ is the fact that some graphologists developed their remarkably sensitive powers from the study of scripts. Raphael Schermann was the most notable among the metagraphologists. Similar powers were discovered in Otto Reimann of Prague, a bank clerk born in 1903 who, by simply touching a script, would offer a psychometric reading and also imitate the writing. He was studied by Professor Fischer of Prague.

Metal Bending One of the very few new directions in claimed psychic phenomena in modern times. It was first publicized in the mid1970s by Uri Geller, an Israeli psychic, when he apparently demonstrated paranormal deformation of metal keys and spoons. When these objects were gently stroked or subjected to passes of his hand without actual contact, they tended to bend and often actually break, allegedly by some unknown force directed by the psychic’s mind. The phenomenon became known as ‘‘the Geller effect,’’ but is now generally classified by parapsychologists as ‘‘Psychokinetic Metal Bending’’ or ‘‘PKMB.’’ In spite of many demonstrations by Geller and hundreds of laboratory experiments with him and other subjects by parapsychologists, the phenomenon remains highly controversial. However, some of the evidence is impressive. Metal samples sealed inside glass tubes appear to have been bent. Some samples have been bent when held by someone other than the psychic, while bends have been shown in alloys that normally break rather than bend when stressed. Videotape records appear to show paranormal bending of samples not held by the psychic concerned, but it must be said that other videotapes taken secretly have revealed fraud by some metal-benders, notably children, who have become known as ‘‘mini-Gellers.’’ Parapsychologists believed for a time that they had found a new Geller in the person of a young Japanese psychic, Masuaki Kiyota. However, in 1984 he admitted to having accomplished his feats of metal bending by fraud. The British scientist John Taylor spent three years studying the phenomenon, which he endorsed in his book Superminds (1975). Then three years later he retracted his endorsement and announced a position of complete skepticism. However, John Hasted, another British scientist who tested Geller and other claimed metal-benders, continues to support the reality of PKMB. For a detailed study of his experiments and conclusions, see his book The Metal Benders (1981). 1029

Metals The stage magician James Randi has demonstrated various methods of apparent metal bending and also has caused much confusion by planting fake metal benders in parapsychology laboratory tests, to show that scientists may be deceived. One of the most common methods of faking metal bending in tests with spoons is for the operator to surreptitiously weaken the spoon by prior bending, which can be achieved easily with the aid of a strong belt buckle. Metal bending is a particulalrly spectacular form of psychokinesis. In spite of the revelation of fraud in some cases, defense of the ability by some continues among parapsychologists. (See also movement; psychic force) Sources: Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House, 1991. Hasted, John. The Metal-Benders. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1981. Panati, Charles, ed. The Geller Papers: Scientific Observations on the Paranormal Powers of Uri Geller. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1976. Randi, James. The Truth about Uri Geller. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1982. Taylor, John. Science and the Supernatural. London: Temple Smith, 1980. ———. Superminds: A Scientist Looks at the Paranormal. New York: Viking Press, 1975.

Metals (in Animal Magnetism) It was claimed by the practitioners of animal magnetism that various metals exercised a characteristic influence on their patients. Physical sensations of heat and cold, numbness, drowsiness, and so on were experienced by the somnambules on contact with metals, or even when metals were secretly introduced into the room. John Elliotson, especially, gave much prominence to the alleged power of metal to transmit the hypothesized magnetic fluid. Gold, silver, platinum, and nickel were said to be good conductors, although the magnetism conveyed by the latter was of a highly dangerous character. Copper, tin, pewter, and zinc were poor conductors. Elliotson found that a magnetized sovereign (British gold coin) would throw into trance his sensitives, the O’Key sisters, and that although iron would neutralize the magnetic properties of the sovereign, no other metal would do so. When Baron Karl von Reichenbach propounded his theory of odic force, his sensitives claimed to see a luminous emanation proceed from metals—silver and gold shone white; lead, blue; and nickel, red. Opponents of Reichenbach’s theories ascribed such phenomena to suggestion. Sources: Elliotson, John. Human Physiology. London, 1840. Reichenbach, Karl von. Letters on Od and Magnetism. London: Hutchinson, 1926. Reprinted as The Odic Force. New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1968.

Metaphysical Digest (Journal) See Neometaphysical Digest (Journal) Metapsichica (Journal) Semiannual Italian-language publication of the Associazoine Italiana Scientifica di Metapsichica (Italian Metaphysical Association). Address: Via S. Vittore 19, 20123 Milano, Italy. 1030

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Metapsychics The term proposed by Charles Richet in 1905 (when he was elected president of the Society for Psychical Research, London) for phenomena and experiments in psychical research. In his inaugural address he defined metapsychics as ‘‘a science dealing with mechanical or psychological phenomena due to forces which seem to be intelligent, or to unknown powers, latent in human intelligence.’’ He divided it into objective and subjective metapsychics, the first dealing with material, external facts; the second with psychic, internal, nonmaterial facts. The term was not generally accepted on the Continent. In Germany, the word ‘‘parapsychic’’ was suggested instead, proposed by Emile Boirac. Richet’s colleague Theodore Flournoy preferred ‘‘parapsychics,’’ suggesting that Richet’s term should be limited to phenomena definitely proved to be supernormal in character. All three terms have been supplanted by ‘‘parapsychology.’’

MetaScience Foundation A nonprofit organization that pursued scientific information in the field of parapsychology and related areas. Originally called the Occult Studies Foundation, the new name reflected reservations about the contemporary connotations of the word ‘‘occult.’’ The foundation followed an interdisciplinary approach to paranormal phenomena and endeavored to maintain a high standard of academic and professional responsibility in their investigations. It published MetaScience Annual and Journal of Occult Studies from its headquarters in Kingston, Rhode Island. It was active for a short period in the 1970s. Website: http://www.metascience.com/.

Metempiric Term proposed in the 1970s to denote unexplained phenomena such as UFOs, ghosts, alien creatures, mysterious fires, and unusual falls from the sky, usually classified as Fortean phenomena after the writer Charles Hoy Fort, who pioneered the study of such things. The term never became popular and largely passed out of use in favor of ‘‘anomalistics.’’ (See also Occidental Society of Metempiric Analysis)

Metempsychosis (or Transmigration of Souls) From the Greek meta, ‘‘after,’’ and empsychos, ‘‘to animate,’’ the belief that after death, the soul passes into another body, either human or animal. In ancient Greece it was roughly equivalent to the idea of reincarnation. The idea seems to have originated in Egypt but to have first been advocated by Pythagoras around 455 B.C.E. Diogenes Laertius noted that Pythagoras once recognized the soul of a departed friend in a dog that was being beaten. Plato picked up on the idea and expounded it in several of his Dialogues, most notably the Phaedo and Republic. According to the vision of truth that one attains, one will be born in the next life in a body suitable to that attainment, Plato said. The most enlightened will be reborn as a philosopher, musician, artist, or lover. At the lowest level, he placed tyrants. Once a soul has beheld true being, it will pass from animal into human form, he said. Plato also put forth the idea that a person chooses his next life, the very choice being a sign of his character. The idea of metempsychosis was also held by some of the Gnostics, and it became a source of disagreement between them and the leaders of the Christian church. Irenaeus, the second century bishop of Lyons, wrote at length against the Gnostics in his pacesetting Contra Heresies and singled out metempsychosis as an idea that was incompatible with Christianity. The church has essentially followed Irenaeus’s lead in its con-

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. sideration of metempsychosis and reincarnation. Origen, a Christian theologian of the third century with a platonic background, tried to defend some aspects of the metempsychosis doctrine, primarily the prior existence of the soul, but soon gave up, having found the idea contrary to the New Testament teachings. Metempsychosis found its last great philosophical defender in Plotinus (205–270 C.E.), the Neoplatonic philosopher. He saw repeated births of the soul as a means for its education. By being in the body, the soul learns how desirable is the nonphysical existence, Plotinus taught. The idea of reincarnation lingered in the West, passing through a succession of Gnostic groups, but experienced a rebirth in the twentieth century. It’s current spread, however, has a basis in Indian and Oriental ideas of reincarnation, usually attached to the additional notion of karma. Sources: Crombie, I. M. Plato: The Midwife’s Apprentice. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1964. Ducasse, C. J. A Critical Examination of the Belief in a Life after Death. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1961.

Meteormancy A branch of aeromancy (divination through aerial phenomena such as thunder and lightning), concerned with divination from the appearance and movements of meteors and shooting stars.

Methetherial A term coined by F. W. H. Myers meaning beyond the ether, the transcendental world in which spirits exist.

Metopomancy Metopomancy is a form of divination character analysis based upon the reading of the wrinkle lines of an individual’s forehead. The use of the forehead wrinkles would appear to be but another one of the many items assigned some divinatory significance in the ancient world, and in fact it was one aspect of the ancient art of face reading or physiognomy in China. However, early in the sixteenth century, renowned mathematician, physician, and astrologer Gerolomo Cardano (1501–1576) proposed metopomancy as a new art. In his book, Metoposcopia, he covered some 800 wrinkle configurations and related each wrinkle on the forehead to a particular astrological sign. By this method, he claimed to be able, for example, to identify adulterous women and thieves. Cardano divided the area of the forehead into seven positions, each assigned to one of the then-known heavenly bodies. Beginning at the top, the areas were assigned in order to Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, the Sun, Venus, Mercury, and the Moon. The assignment allows the forehead reading to be aligned with the horoscope. Reading the forehead began with an assessment of the length, depth, and prominence of the lines. Long unbroken lines indicate an honest person while x-shaped lines indicate a deceptive personality. A slight curve in the lines indicate a balanced personality, while wavy lines suggest that the person likes to travel (physically and/or mentally). A diagonal line that reaches downward to the eyebrow indicates that obstacles, possibly misfortune, lie in the person’s future. Cardano’s book was republished on several occasions, but his ideas never caught on and he is basically remembered as an odd figure in occult history, seemingly the victim of suicide. He starved himself to death so as to confirm his horoscope reading.

Metzger, Herman Joseph Sources: Shaw, Eva. Divining the Future: Prognostication from Astrology to Zoomancy. New York: Facts on File, 1995.

Metoposcopy The art of interpreting character and destiny through the lines in the human forehead (Greek metopon). It was developed by the celebrated physician, mathematician, and astrologer Jerome Cardan (1501–1576). His work, including some 800 illustrations of faces, was published in an edition edited by C. M. Laurenderio, titled Metoposcopia, libris tredecim, et octingentis Faciei humanae Eiconibus complexa: Cui accessis Melampodia de Navis Corporis Tractatus Graece et Latine nunc primum editus (Lutetiae Parisorum, 1658). Although his interpretations were confined to lines in the forehead (coupled with astrology), his ideas were a forerunner of the physiognomy of J. K. Lavater (1741–1801).

Metratton According to Jewish rabbinical legend, the angel Metratton is one of the agents by whom God the Father works. He receives the pure and simple essence of the divinity and bestows the gift of life upon all. He dwells in one of the angelic hierarchies.

Metropolitan Spiritual Churches of Christ The Metropolitan Spiritual Churches of Christ was a Spiritualist church operating in the African American community in the United States. Spiritualism moved into the black community in strength early in the twentieth century, but black people were not welcomed in many Spiritualist congregations. As independent movements began to form around talented individual mediums, they tended to adopt the forms dominant in the pentecostal and holiness churches and retain a central emphasis upon the Bible. They also took the name ‘‘spiritual,’’ a reference to the teachings concerning spiritual gifts mentioned in several places in the epistles of St. Paul. The Metropolitan Spiritual Churches of Christ were founded in Kansas City in 1925 by Bishop William Frank Taylor (formerly a minister in the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church) and Elder Leviticus Boswell (of the Church of God in Christ). It grew quickly and soon had congregations across the Midwest and one in California. In 1942, shortly before Taylor’s death, the Metropolitan Churches merged with the Spiritual Churches of the Southwest to create the United Spiritual Churches of Christ. However, soon after Taylor died, a split occurred between Bishop Clarence Cobbs of Chicago, who believed himself Taylor’s rightful successor, and Bishop Thomas Watson, who had headed the former Spiritual Churches of the Southwest. Two factions developed, the largest one accepting the leadership of Cobbs, pastor of the First Church of Deliverance. Under Cobbs’s leadership, a revived Metropolitan Spiritual Churches of Christ expanded to encompass close to 100 congregations in the 1960s. It also expanded to West Africa, making it the largest spiritual association operating in the United States. Last known address: 4329 Park Heights Ave., Baltimore, MD 21215. Sources: Murphy, Larry G., J. Gordon Melton, and Gary L. Ward. Encyclopedia of African American Religions. New York: Garland Publishing, 1993.

Metzger, Herman Joseph (1919–1990) Herman Joseph Metzger, the outer head of the Ordo Templi Orientis (OTO) in Switzerland, was born in Zezikon, Switzerland, on June 20, 1919. Little is known of his youth. He con1031

MEXICO AND CENTRAL AMERICA sidered the priesthood at one time but eventually became a Marxist. He emerged out of obscurity in 1939 when he moved from Lugano (in Italian-speaking Switzerland) to Zürich. During World War II (1939–45), under the stage name Peter Mano, he worked as a stage magician. He also was an astrologer. In 1947, he inherited a small publishing firm, Psychosophische Gesellschaft, whose owner, F. L. Pinkus, had died. Over the next decades, Metzger’s activities would be underwritten by a wealthy friend, Annemarie Aeschbach. After the war, Metzger founded a lodge of the Ordo Templi Orientis, the initiatory magical group then led internationally by Karl Johannes Germer (1885–1962). He also joined the World League of the Illuminati, an organization that had attempted to revive the eighteenth-century German Illuminati. In 1955, the leader of the Swiss chapter of the World League died and left the small organization to Metzger. In 1957 he was consecrated as a bishop in the Gnostic Catholic Church, one of several small ecclesiastical bodies that traced its apostolic succession to the mystical consecration of French bishop JulesBenoit Doniel (1842–1894). Then in 1960 Metzger became the new patriarch of the church. In 1963, after hearing of the death of Germer, he called the German-speaking leadership of the OTO together and had himself elected the new international outer head of the order (though those in the Spanish- and English-speaking countries did not recognize him). By this time Metzger was already putting together a new organization that would unite the teachings and practices of the several organizations he had inherited. His headquarters was established in Appenzell in northeast Switzerland. A variety of cottage industries emerged, from a bakery to a movie theater. There was also a chapel for the gatherings of the Gnostic Catholic Church. Metzger led the group until he fell ill toward the end of the 1980s. He died on July 14, 1990. His ashes are kept enshrined at the chapel at Appenzell. Sources: Koenig, Peter R. ‘‘Herman Joseph Metzger—OHO of the O.T.O. and Patriarch of the Gnostic Catholic Church.’’ http:// www.cyberlink.ch/~koenig/bishops.htm. April 23, 2000.

MEXICO AND CENTRAL AMERICA Sorcerers and Astrologers Occult science among the ancient Mexicans could be represented as a middle ground derived between the tribal medicine men and the magical practices of the medieval sorcerer. The sources of information are limited, chiefly gleaned either from the works of the early missionaries to the country, or from the legends and myths of the people themselves. Writing about the sorcerers of Mexico, Bernardino de Sahagun, an early Spanish priest, stated that the naualli or magician was one who enchanted men and sucked the blood of infants during the night, a reference to the vampire-like characteristics of Central American magical practitioners. He observed that the magician was ignorant of nothing that appertained to sorcery, and possessed great craft. Magicians hired themselves out to people to work evil upon their enemies, and to cause madness and maladies. He added: ‘‘The necromancer is a person who has made pact with a demon, and who is capable of transforming himself into various animal shapes. Such people appear to be tired of life and await death with complaisance. The astrologer practices among the people as a diviner, and has a thorough knowledge of the various signs of the calendar, from which he is able to prognosticate the fortunes of those who employ him. This he accomplishes by weighing the power of one planet against that of another, and thus discovering the resultant applies it to the case in point. These men were called into consultation at births and deaths, as well as upon public occasions, and would dispute with much nicety on their art.’’ 1032

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. Astrology among the Mexicans was, like their calendar, intricate and advanced. (The reader is referred to Lewis Spence’s The Civilization of Ancient Mexico (1911), Bernardino de Sahagun’s Historia de la Conquista de Mexico (1829), and Bulletin 28 of the United States Bureau of Ethnology.) In connection with the astrological science of the Aztecs, it is noteworthy that the seventh calendric sign was the one under which necromancers, sorcerers, and evil-doers were usually born. Bernardino de Sahagun noted that: ‘‘These work their enchantments in obscurity for four nights running, when they choose a certain evil sign. They then betake themselves in the night to the houses where they desire to work their evil deeds and sorceries. . .For the rest these sorcerers never know contentment, for all their days they live evilly and know no peace.’’ The myths of the Mexicans give a good working idea of the status of the enchanter or sorcerer in Aztec society. For example, the Toltec god Quetzalcoatl who, in early times was regarded as a culture-hero, was bewitched by the god of the incoming and rival race, Tezcatlipoca, who disguised himself as a physician and prescribed for an illness of his enemy’s an enchanted draught that made him long for the country of his origin—that is, the home of the rains. This would indicate that potions or philters were in vogue among Mexican sorcerers. In their efforts to rid themselves of the entire Toltec race, the traditional aborigines of Mexico, the incoming race’s god Tezcatlipoca was pictured as performing upon a magical drum in such a manner as to cause frenzy among the Toltecs, who leaped by thousands into a deep ravine by their city. Wonderful stories were told of the feats of the Huaxteca, a people of Maya race dwelling on the Gulf of Mexico. Sahagun related that they could produce from space a spring with fishes, burn and restore a hut, and dismember and resurrect themselves. The Ocuiltec of the Toluca Valley also possessed a widespread reputation as enchanters and magicians.

Divination and Augury Although divination was practiced among the Aztecs by means of astrology, there were other less intricate methods in use. A College of Augurs existed, corresponding in purpose to the Auspices of Ancient Rome, the members of which occupied themselves with observing the flight and listening to the songs of birds, from which they drew their conclusions. The calmecac, or training college of the priests, had a department where divination was taught in all its branches. A typical example of augury from birds may be found in the account of the manner in which the Mexicans fixed upon the spot for the foundation of their city. Halting after years of wandering in the vicinity of the Lake of Tezcuco, they observed a great eagle with wings outspread perched on the stump of a cactus, and holding in its talons a live serpent. Their augurs interpreted this as a good omen, since it had been previously announced by an oracle, and upon the spot where the bird had alighted they drove the first piles upon which they built the city of Mexico—the legend of the foundation of which is still commemorated in the heraldic arms of modern Mexico. Dreams and visions also played a great part in Mexican divination, and a special caste of augurs called Teopixqui, or Teotecuhtli (masters or guardians of divine things) were set apart for the purpose of interpreting dreams and of divining through dreams and visions, which was regarded as the chief route between man and the supernatural. The senses were quickened and sharpened by the use of drugs, and the ecstatic condition was induced by lack of sleep, fixing of the mind upon one subject, swallowing or inhaling cerebral intoxicants such as tobacco, the maguey, coca, the snakeplant or ololiuhqui, and similar substances. Some tribes of Native Americans believed that visions came to the prophet or seer pictorially, or that acts were performed before them as in a play. They also believed that the soul trav-

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. eled through space and was able to visit those places of which it desired to have knowledge. It was likely that the seers hypnotized themselves by gazing at certain small, highly-polished pieces of sandstone, or that they employed these in a manner similar to the crystal-gazing practices found around the globe. The goddess Tozi was the patron of those who used grains of maize or red beans in divination. On such native group, the Cuna people indigenous to Panama, believed that the Avisua, sang songs of magic that have curative powers—whether it was the healing of the sick, change atmospheric conditions, or inspire a person to act in some oppositive way. The witch doctors, or Neles, claimed powers of extrasensory perception using them to heal, or see into the past, present or future. The main source of those powers was dreams, as well. From 1968 until 1972, Robert Van De Castle conducted ESP tests among Cuna children, both boys and girls. The results were inconclusive, with the girls scoring higher than the boys. Whether or not any of these children were Neles, was also not determined. If that is so, the powers of the witch doctors, remain untested.

Charms and Amulets The amulet was regarded in Mexico as a personal fetish. The Tepitoton, or diminutive household deities of the Mexicans, were also fetishistic. It is probable that most of the Mexican amulets were modeled on the various ornaments of the gods. Thus the traveler’s staff, carved in the shape of a serpent like that of Quetzalcoatl, was undoubtedly of this nature, and to it occasionally sacrifices would be made. The frog was a favorite model for an amulet. As elsewhere, the thunderbolts thrown by the gods were supposed to be flint stones, and were cherished as amulets and as symbols of the life-giving rains.

Vampirism Vampirism was an important part of Mexican folk belief and there are various vampire deities. The notion of the vampire that most permeated the life of average people is found in connection with the ciupipiltin, or ghosts of women who have died in childbirth. These haunted the crossroads, crying and wailing for the little ones they have left behind them. But as in many other countries, notably in Burma, they are malevolent—their evil tendencies probably being caused by jealousy of the happiness of the living. In order that they do not enter their houses and injure their children, the Mexicans at certain times of the year stopped up every possible hole and crevice. The appearance of these ghosts (Sahagun described them as ‘‘goddesses’’) at crossroads is highly significant, for we know that the burial of criminals at such junctions was merely a survival of a similar disposal of the corpse of the vampire, whose head was cut off and laid at his side, and entombed at a crossroads for the purpose of confusing him as to his whereabouts.

The Cult of Nagualism Both in Mexico and Central America a religio-magical system called nagualism existed, the purpose of which was to bring occult influence against the European conquerors for their destruction. The rites of this practice usually took place in caverns and other deserted localities, and were naturally derived to a large extent from those of the suppressed native religion. Each worshiper possessed a magical or animal spiritguide, with which he or she was endowed early in life. This system flourished as lately as the last quarter of the nineteenth century.

Central America Information on magic and sorcery amongst the Maya, Kiche, and other Central American peoples is even rarer than that relating to Mexico, and there is little but local legend to guide research in these areas. The great storehouse of Central

MEXICO AND CENTRAL AMERICA American legend is the Popol Vuh, an early study published by Lewis Spence (1908), with some having appeared in more recent years. This fascinating work of mythological history states that some of the elder gods were regarded as magicians, and the hero-twins, Xblanque and Hun-ahpu, whom they sent to earth to rid it of the Titan Vukubcakix, were undoubtedly possessed of magical powers. As boys, the twins were equipped with magical tools that enabled them to get through an enormous amount of work in a single day. When they descended into Xibalba (the Kiché Hades) for the purpose of avenging their father and uncle, they took full advantage of their magical propensities in combating the inhabitants of that drear abode. Xibalba itself possessed sorcerers, for within its borders were Xulu and Pacaw, who assisted the hero-gods in many of their necromantic practices. Regarding divination, the Maya possessed a caste of augurs, called Cocomes, or the listeners, while prophecy appears to have been periodically practiced by their priests. In the books of Chilan Balam, which are native compilations of events occurring in Central America previous to the Spanish Conquest, certain prophecies appear that seem to foretell many events, including the coming of the Spaniards. These appear to have been given forth by a priest who bore the title (not the name) of ‘‘Chilan Balam,’’ whose offices were those of divination and astrology. These pronouncements were apparently colored at a later date by Christian thought, and not of a genuine aboriginal character. For example, certain astrological formulas in the books exist that are simply borrowed from European almanacs of the century between 1550 and 1650. Amulets were in great vogue among the Maya, and they had the same fear of the last five days of the year as had the Mexicans, who regarded them as nemontemi or unlucky, and did no work of any description upon them. These days the Maya called uyayayab, and they believed that a demon entered their towns and villages at the beginning of this period. To avert evil influence they carried an image of him through the village in the hopes that he might afterwards avoid it. In his book Atlantis in America (1925), Lewis Spence, who published several books on the folklore of Mexico and Central America, believed that there was some evidence for the influence of the civilization of an Atlantis in what he found.

Death Day Beginning in the days of the Spanish conquests, the original Indian culture, religion, and superstitions have become inextricably interwoven with Christian beliefs and customs, creating a complex synthesis. With the modern history of war, revolts, and revolution extending into the twentieth century, it is not surprising that death has a special place in the symbolism and folklore of the Mexican people. This is vividly illustrated in the traditional celebration of All Soul’s Day on November 2nd, when toys, cakes, and candies in the form of skulls are on sale in the streets, with carnival style costumes and plays depicting skeletons. Although All Soul’s Day is an imported Christian feast, it has blended with the Mexican Indian beliefs in which skulls and death goddesses are typical of pre-Columbian art, with the death orientation of the Spanish monastic orders, and the Christian memento mori tradition, as well as the memory of wars and revolutions. The extraordinary profusion of death images is well illustrated by the work of the Mexican printmaker José Guadalupe Posada (1852–1913), famous for his calaveras (skeletons) that ate, drank, made merry, rode bicycles and horses, brandished swords and daggers, or were humble workers and revolutionaries. Something of the extraordinarily complex history and beliefs of Mexico is captured on film by the great Soviet director S. M. Eisenstein in his uncompleted epic Que Viva Mexico of 1932. His vast footage remained in limbo, or was carved into short films by other hands during Eisenstein’s lifetime. Political 1033

Meyer, Gustav and ideological complications of the time prevented Eisenstein from completing the film as planned; but a 60-minute version titled Time in the Sun was completed by Marie Seton in 1940, and a longer reconstruction by G. Alexandrov (Eisenstein’s assistant) and N. Orlov titled Que Viva Mexico was completed in the U.S.S.R. in 1979. Both are available on videocassette, but the former was released in Britain on the PAL system. The Alexandrov and Orlov film is available on NTSC video from Ifex Films, 201 W. 52nd St., New York, NY 10019. Both versions illustrate the Death Day feast, as well as the history and folklore of Mexico. An earlier short, ‘‘Death Day,’’ made from Eisenstein’s material was released in cinemas in 1934. Until his death in 1950, Enrique O. Aragon, a Mexian physician, and dean of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, set out to investigate claims of paranormal activities, including those of poltergeists. He worked not only to clarify the phenomena, but also to expose fraud. Organizations dedicated to the study of parapsychology and the paranormal are limited throughout Mexico and Central America. Those in Mexico are: Sociedad Mexicana de Parapsicologia, at Apartado 12-699, 03000 Mexico, D.F., Mexico; the Instituto Latinoamericano de Psicologia Paranormal, at Apartado Postal 156, San Juan del Rio, 768000 Querataro; and the Fundacion Interncional Subdud (International Subdud Foundation), located at Plutarco Elias Calles No. 702, Col. Club de Golf, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62030, Mexico. The latter is a branch of the international organization, and was established in 1982 as a charitable organization. The foundation works with the University of Zacatecas and the Instituto Politecnico Nacional to help physically and mentally challenged adults and children in Mexico’s rural areas. As therapy, the staff works with the patients using energized gems, acupuncture, and Kirlian photography as a diagnostic tool to determine the psychological health of the children while they are in treatment. Panama’s Instituto de Estudios Parapsicologicos, located at Apartado 8000, Panama 7, Panama, and the Sociedad Hispano-Americano para la Investigaticion Filosofica y Metafisica, operating from the same location, also publishes, Boletin Informativo. Courses in parapsychology were present from 1982–85, but were suspended at the National University during the time of political unrest. A Spanish-language website for the Parapsychology Institute in Mexico is available through http://www.aliensonearth.com. Sources: Berdecio, R., and S. Appelbaum, eds. Posada’s Popular Mexican Prints. New York: Dover, 1972. Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House, 1991. Recinos, Adriàn, Delia Goetz, and Sylvanus G. Morley, trans. and eds. Popul Vuh: The Sacred Book of the Ancient Quiché Maya. London: William Hodge, 1951. Sahagun, Bernardino de. Historia de la Conquista de Mexico. Mexico, 1829. Spence, Lewis. Atlantis in America. London: Ernest Benn, 1925. Reprint, Detroit: Singing Tree Press, 1972. ———. The Civilization of Ancient Mexico. London, 1911. ———. The Gods of Mexico. London: Fisher, Unwin, 1913. ———. The Magic and Mysteries of Mexico. London: Rider, 1930. ———. The Myths of Mexico and Peru. London: Harrap, 1913. ———. The Popul Vuh: The Mythic & Heroic Sagas of the Kichés of Central America. London: David Nutt, 1908.

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Meyer, Jean (d. 1931) French industrialist, a fervent adherent of the Spiritist doctrines of Allan Kardec, founder of the Maison des Spirites (8 Rue Copernic, Paris), which aimed, under his personal supervision, at the diffusion of this knowledge. He was also a founder of the Institut Métapsychique International, which pursued psychical research and was recognized as of public utility by the French government in 1919. He endowed the institution with a portion of his fortune, took a personal interest in its work, and presented it, shortly before his death, with an infrared installation at a cost of 200,000 francs. The following story indicates the fair-mindedness of Jean Meyer in sponsoring both Spiritualism and scientific research. After the death of Gustav Geley, director of the Institut Métapsychique, Meyer desired to appoint Eugèn Osty as his successor. Osty pointed out that the institute would require complete scientific liberty, and asked, ‘‘What would you say, if from the laboratory of the Institut there were to issue some day studies of fact which would suggest that the teaching of the Maison des Spirites is in whole or in part illusory interpretation of facts produced exclusively by the innate powers of man as yet unknown?’’ With courageous confidence in both Spiritualism and science, Meyer replied: ‘‘Yes, I accept the risk. I know you for a sincere researcher. That is enough for me.’’

Meyrink, Gustav (1868–1932) Pseudonym of German novelist Gustav Meyer, famous for his occult fiction. He was also actively concerned with occult and theosophical groups in Europe before and during World War I. Meyrink was born June 19, 1868 in Vienna but was later taken by his family to Prague, Czechoslovakia, where his mother’s family owned a bank. As a young man Meyrink worked in the bank, but he was attracted to occult teachings. By 1891 he joined the Theosophical Lodge of the Blue Star, whose members practiced various occult disciplines. Meyrink translated Nature’s Finer Forces by Rama Prasad, one of the first works to introduce tantra to a popular audience in the West. In 1903 he published his first collection of short stories. Many of his writings have themes of fantasy or occultism, with echoes of E. T. A. Hoffmann, Edgar Allan Poe, and Franz Kafka. His best-known novel was Der Golem (1915; translated by M. Pemberton as The Golem, 1928). This is a brilliant and strangely disturbing book concerned with the Kabala and the occult, based on Prague legends of the Golem, a mysterious manmonster said to have been created from clay by Rabbi Judah Loew of Prague in the seventeenth century. The book had added power in relating to the real-life background of Golem legends, which remained popular in the Prague ghetto, the site of Rabbi Loew’s grave. A German silent film The Golem, directed and scripted by Paul Wegener, was produced in 1920, adapted very loosely from Meyrink’s novel. Meyrink converted from Protestantism to Buddhism and spent many years in occult investigations, including experiments in alchemy. He was present at some of the séances of Baron Albert von Schrenck-Notzing in Munich with the medium ‘‘Eva C.’’ Meyrink also practiced yoga and claimed to have achieved telepathic contact with the famous South Indian holy man Sri Ramana Maharshi, guru of Paul Brunton. After a rich and varied life, Meyrink died in December 1932 in Starnberg, Germany.

Meyer, Gustav (1868–1932)


Famous German occultist and novelist who wrote under the name Gustav Meyrink.

Frank, Eduard. Gustav Meyrink. Budingen-Gettenbach, Germany: Avalun Verlag, 1957.


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Michelsen, Neil Franklin

The Mezazoth

Michael Teachings

A traditional Jewish schedule that, when fastened on the doorpost, possessed talismanic qualities. It is said in the Talmud that whoever has the mezazoth fixed on his door, and is provided with certain personal charms, is protected from sin.

Michael, a spirit entity, supposedly first manifest during a dinner party in the home of Walter and Jessica Lessing, a couple living in the San Francisco Bay area. The couple were playing with a Ouija board when reportedly a simple message appeared: ‘‘We are here with you tonight.’’ When asked who ‘‘we’’ were, an entity replied, ‘‘The last name a fragment of this entity used was Michael’’ and added, ‘‘Each soul is a part of a larger body, an entity. Each entity is made up of about one thousand souls, each of which enters the physical plane as many times as necessary is to experience all aspects of Life and achieve human understanding. At the end of the cycles on the physical plane, the fragments once again reunite as we have reunited.’’ ‘‘Michael’’ indicated that the fragments comprised an ancient entity that comes to those who ask and teaches some understanding of human evolution. They hope to redirect people to their personal life plans and show them that which is wrong so they can come to a personal acceptance of truth. Understanding is achieved when the student can go on to agape, a nonsexual and selfless love, the goal toward which all should aspire. The Lessings and their guests, Craig and Emily Wright, stayed at the board for the next five hours. In the days ahead they were joined by Lucy North (who became the group’s typist) and Leah and Arnold Harris. After about six months of intensive reception of material, the small group began to grow until it numbered about thirty. Then in 1978 writer Chelsea Quinn Yarbro was introduced to the teachings and given access to the messages that had accumulated over the eight years since Michael first appeared. Her book Messages from Michael (1979) brought attention to the Michael teachings, expanded his audience, especially in the San Francisco area, and has led to the publication of much of the material. The teachings are set within a familiar Gnostic/theosophical universe that divides existence into seven planes, which Michael calls the physical, astral, causal, akashic, mental, messianic, and buddhaic. Michael resides on the causal.

Mhorag (or Morag) A Loch Ness-type monster observed and photographed in Loch Morar, West Inverness, Scotland. Accounts of sightings go back to the late nineteenth century, but attracted attention only in the wake of the better-known Loch Ness monster. In 1970 members of the Loch Ness Investigation Bureau formed a Loch Morar Survey to begin study of the possible creature in the lake, which is 12 miles long, up to 2 miles wide, and 1,017 feet deep. Investigators Elizabeth Montgomery Campbell and R. Macdonald Robertson collected and published stories of Mhorag over the next several years. Their work was stimulated by a 1969 sighting by two fishermen, Duncan McDonell and William Simpson, which was one of the few sightings reported worldwide. The magazine Fortean Times (no. 22, summer 1977) reproduced a photograph taken by Hazel Jackson (of Wakefield, England), who stayed at Morar with her husband on a touring holiday. The Jacksons, who are skeptical about monsters, took two photographs of their sheepdog by the side of the loch, and both pictures showed what appeared to be the head of a monster in the loch. Two other photographs reproduced in the same issue of Fortean Times were taken by an M. Lindsay of Musselburgh, and these were also somewhat ambiguous. A Loch Morar Expedition headed by Adrian Shine tested underwater surveillance equipment, including a spherical submersible designed by Shine. There are hopes that such equipment may identify the Mhorag monster, since the waters of the loch are crystal clear. But as of the mid-1990s, no clear evidence of Mhorag has been produced. Sources: Campbell, Elizabeth Montgomery, and David Solomon. The Search for Morag. London: Tom Stacey, 1972. Clark, Jerome. Encyclopedia of Strange and Unexplained Phenomena. Detroit: Gale Research, 1993. Robertson, R. Macdonald. Selected Highland Folktales. North Pomfret, Vt.: David and Charles, 1977.

Michael An archangel whose Hebrew name means ‘‘He who is equal to God.’’ He is mentioned in the book of Daniel as a character in Daniel’s visions who is a prince of Persia contending for the Hebrew people. After the Hebrews returned to Palestine from their exile, they began to develop their doctrine of angels. Seven archangels, including Michael and Gabriel, emerged into prominence. In one of the uncanonical Jewish writings, the Assumption of Moses, Michael disputes with Satan for the body of Moses, a belief picked up and mentioned in the Christian New Testament (Jude 9). The most important quote concerning Michael is found in Revelation 12:7: ‘‘There was war in heaven. Michael and his angels fought against the dragon.’’ From this it is deduced that Michael is the leader of the celestial hierarchy against Lucifer, the head of the disobedient angels. His design, according to genealogist Randle Holme, is a banner hanging on a cross, and he is represented as victory with a dart in one hand and a cross on his forehead. Bishop Horsley and others considered Michael as only another name for the Son of God. In one of the Jewish rabbinical legends, he is the ruler of Mercury, to which sphere he ‘‘imparts benignity, motion and intelligence, with elegance and consonance of speech.’’

Sources: Baumbach, Emily. Michael’s Cast of Characters. Orinda, Calif.: Affinity Press, 1989. Pope, Joya. The World According to Michael. San Mateo, Calif.: Sage Publications, 1987. Stevens, Jose, and Simon Warwick-Smith. Essence and Personality: The Michael Handbook. Orinda, Calif.: Warwick Press, 1987. Yarbro, Chelsea Quinn. Messages from Michael. Chicago: Playboy Press, 1979. ———. Michael’s People. New York: Berkeley Books, 1988. ———. More Messages from Michael. New York: Berkeley Books, 1986.

Michelsen, Neil Franklin (1931–1990) Neil Franklin Michelsen, an astrologer and founder of Astro Communications Services, was born on May 11, 1931, in Chicago, Illinois. He attended the University of Miami (from which he graduated magnum cum laude in mathematics) and in 1959 went to work for IBM as a systems engineer. Through the 1960s he developed an interest in astrology and in 1971, with a primitive computer set up in his home, he began to create the databases of information from which horoscopes could be constructed. In 1973 he incorporated Astro Computing Services, then headquartered in his home in White Plains, New York. Michelsen resigned from IBM in 1976 to devote full time to his emerging business. That same year the first of what were to become essential reference books for professional astrologers appeared, a computer-generated ephemeris (charts of the daily position of planets) and table of houses (charts showing the lo1035

Michigan Canadian Bigfoot Information Center cations of the astrological houses). As these were expanded through the 1980s and revised by others in the 1990s, they remain popular items in the astrologer’s library. In 1979 Michelsen moved to San Diego and three years later reorganized the company as a California corporation, Astro Communications Services, with ACS Publications as its publication arm. As his work became known, he became the chairman of the National Council for Geocosmic Research and gained international recognition for his service to the astrological community, including his generosity with the profits of ACS to the development of the astrological community as a whole. Following his death on May 15, 1990, the National Council created the Neil Michelsen Memorial Fund to continue a set of projects he had previously funded. Sources: Astro Communications Services. http://www.astrocom.com/. May 23, 2000. Michelsen, Neil F. American Ephemeris for the 20th Century: 1900 to 2000 at Midnight. Rev. ed., San Diego: ASC Publications, 1990. ———. American Ephemeris for the 21st Century. Revised by Rique Pottenger. San Diego: ASC Publications, 1997.

Michigan Canadian Bigfoot Information Center Founded in 1970, covering the northern and midwestern United States and eastern Canada, to assist persons having a sincere desire for knowledge about the ‘‘Sasquatch’’ or ‘‘Bigfoot’’ (large, hairy, homonoid creature reputedly inhabiting various regions of North America), and to obtain a Sasquatch specimen. The center conducts all-night vigils in classified areas and receives cooperative assistance from anthropologists, wildlife pathologists, and Department of Natural Resources affiliates. It maintains transcript and tape collections as well as a file and indexing system, compiles statistics, and maintains a research program and database. Address: 152 West Sherman, Caro, MI 48723. (See also Bigfoot Information Center; Monsters; Sasquatch Investigations of Mid-America)

The Microcosm From the Greek Micros, small; and Kosmos, a world. The ‘‘little world’’ of the human being, as distinct from the macrocosm, or great world, of the universe. The relationship between microcosm and macrocosm has preoccupied philosophers for many centuries, with the macrocosm believed to be symbolized in the microcosm. According to some occultists, the microcosm was itself symbolized by the pentagram, or pentacle,—a fivepointed star believed to represent humanity and the summation of the occult forces. Paracelsus held that this sign had a marvelous magical power over spirits and that all magic figures and kabalistic signs could be reduced to two—the microcosm and the macrocosm. (See also magical diagrams)

Micro-PK Term used to denote psychokinetic (paranormal movement) effects that are weak or minute, thus requiring statistical analysis or special methods of detection. In contrast, macro-PK effects are paranormal movements sufficiently large or impressive to be observed by the naked eye.

The Microprosopus One of the four magical elements in the Kabala, probably representing one of the four simple elements—air, water, earth, or fire. The word means ‘‘creator of the little world.’’ 1036

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Mictlan The Mexican Hades. (See also Hell; Mexico and Central America)

Midday Demons It was the belief of ancient peoples that certain demons became visible especially toward midday to those with whom they had a pact. They appeared in the form of men or of beasts, and would allow themselves be enclosed in a symbolic character, a figure, a vial, or in the interior of a hollow ring. (See also demonology)

The Midiwiwin A secret society or exclusive association of the Ojibway Indians of North America. The myth of the foundation of this society is as follows: ‘‘Michabo, the Creator, looking down to earth saw that the forefathers of the Ojibway were very helpless. . . . Espying a black object floating on the surface of a lake he drew near to it and saw that it was an otter [now one of the sacred animals of the Midiwiwin]. He instructed it in the mysteries of that caste, and provided it with a sacred rattle, a sacred drum, and tobacco. He built a Midiwigan, or Sacred House of Midi, to which he took the otter and confided to it the mysteries of the Midiwiwin.’’ The society was one of the ‘‘medicine’’ or magical associations so common among the North American Indians (see America, United States of). When a candidate was admitted to a grade and prepared to pass on to the next, he gave three feasts and sang three prayers to the Bear Spirit in order to be permitted to enter that grade. His progress through the various grades was assisted by several snake-spirits. At a later stage, by the power of certain prayers or invocations, a larger snake appeared and raised its body, thus forming an arch under which the candidate made his way to the higher grade. When the Indian achieved the second grade, he was supposed to receive supernatural power to be able to see into the future, to hear what came from far off, to touch friends and foes no matter how far away, and so on. In higher grades he could assume the form of any animal. The third grade conferred the ability to perform extraordinary exploits and have power over the entire invisible world. The fourth was still more exalted. When an Indian was ready to undergo initiation, he erected a wigwam in which he took steambaths for four days, one on each day. On the evening of the day before initiation he visited his teachers in order to obtain from them instructions for the following day. Next morning the priests approached with the candidate at their head, entered the Midiwigan, and the proceedings commenced. The publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology contain several good accounts of the ritual of this society.

Midwest Psychic News Former monthly publication covering psychic events in Illinois and other states. It flourished for several years in the 1970s.

Milk-Drinking Statues On the morning of September 21 (the fall equinox), 1995, a priest of a Hindu temple in New Delhi awakened from a dream in which the deity Genesha asked for a drink of milk. He soon left for a nearby temple dedicated to Genesha and offered the statue a spoonful of milk. To his surprise, the statue drank (absorbed?) the milk. News of the occurrence spread through the neighborhood and across New Delhi within hours. Devo-

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. tees flocked to the temple to offer Genesha milk and as lines formed, people soon discovered that statues at other temples (almost all of which have a Genesha statue, in the shape of an elephant and located near the door) were also drinking up the milk. By evening, accounts of the event (and the accompanying milk shortage in the Indian capital) were on the news. Phone and e-mail messages went to Indian expatriate communities. By the next day, reports of statues at temples around India drinking milk began to appear, and on the 23rd they were joined by reports from North America, England, and Southeast Asia. Television coverage of the statues showed some of the offerings in which the milk actually disappeared. On the 22nd in Toronto, more than 100 people lined up to feed the statue. The leaders at the temple indicated that the massive feeding frenzy was the sign that a great soul was being born somewhere in the world. They also indicated that the phenomena would cease in some 48 hours. The Indian government became concerned about the event and sent scientists from its Department of Science and Technology to investigate the situation. They suggested that the small amounts being offered to the statutes were being absorbed by the porous material out of which they were constructed and were coating the surface with a thin film. Other scientists reported similar findings at other locations. Puddles of milk soon appeared around all of the drinking statues. By the end of the day on the 22nd, most of the frenzy had died down, and reports of further drinking by the statues dropped perceptively, and disappeared altogether soon afterwards. Many Hindus consider the events of September 21–22 to have been a miracle. Skeptics have dismissed it as a hysteric reaction to a very mundane occurrence. Many government officials saw it as a move by political conservatives to spread Hindu nationalism. An archive of e-mail messages and wire service reports has been preserved by the Australian government’s Distributed Services Technology Centre in Bribane on an Internet file, ‘‘Genesha Is Drinking Milk!!!’’ at http://archive.dstc.edu.au/ TU/staff/timbomb/buddha/ganesha.html. Sources: Genesha Is Drinking Milk!!!. http://archive.dstc.edu.au/TU/ staff/timbomb/buddha/ganesha.html. March 4, 2000.

Miller, Charles Victor (d. 1943) Materialization medium of San Francisco, born in Nancy, France. By profession he was a dealer in old pictures and Japanese art. Author Willie Reichel claimed to have witnessed many of Miller’s performances. For example, Miller did not go into trance as a séance started. He stood outside the cabinet from which a procession of phantoms issued. Miller took them by the hand, asked their names, and introduced them to the sitters. Later he went into the cabinet, where he was seen with as many as six white robed figures. They came out one by one, spoke to the sitters, and usually dematerialized in front of the cabinet, sinking through the floor. Although the materialization of figures suggests fraud and accomplices rather than genuine psychic phenomena, the variety of Miller’s phenomena, the certainty of the witnesses, and the lack of a competent observer leaves the question somewhat open. On one occasion Reichel’s nephew disappeared by floating upward through the ceiling. Miller was normally under the control of the spirits ‘‘Betsy’’ and ‘‘Dr. Benton.’’ The highest number of materialized spirits Reichel claimed to have seen in a séance was 12. The medium was conscious and kept talking. The phantoms spoke in various languages and many were recognized by the sitters. Once, in Reichel’s own house, a materialized spirit walked out into the hall, a distance of 35 feet from the medium. In the journal Psychische Studien (February 1904), Reichel described a séance at which a deceased friend of his materialized eight times, very near to him, at a distance of over three

Miller, Charles Victor yards from the medium. Reichel stated: ‘‘He drew near me like a floating flame, which lowered itself, and in the space of about a minute and a half developed and stood before me quite formed. He held long conversations with me; then, retiring to the curtain, where I followed him, he dematerialised, speaking up to the moment when his head disappeared.’’ Reichel also witnessed rotating white and blue flames from which voices spoke to him, giving their complete names. In one séance the medium was completely dematerialized and transported to the first floor. Miller made two visits to Europe. When he first arrived in 1906, much criticism was directed against him because he mostly sat with Spiritists (see Spiritism) and avoided researchers such as Eugene Rochas, with whom he had corresponded, and a circle of scientists who had arranged to test him scientifically. However, psychic researcher Gabriel Delanne concluded that the apparitions were genuine. Gaston Méry, chief editor of the Libre Parole and director of the Echo du Merveilleux (which was not a Spiritist journal) admitted that it was highly probable that the phenomena he witnessed were genuine but ‘‘until there is fuller information we must be satisfied with not comprehending.’’ The séance took place in Méry’s house in a room Miller did not enter before the proceedings. Moreover, he was completely undressed in the presence of three doctors and donned Méry’s own garments. Gérard Encausse (‘‘Papus’’) also attended a séance and stated in L’Initiation that his expectation was fully satisfied and that Miller displayed ‘‘mediumistic faculties more extraordinary than he had hitherto encountered.’’ From Paris, Miller went on to Germany and gave many test séances in Munich at private residences. The accounts appear to corroborate Reichel’s observations. The materialized form was often seen to develop from luminous globes and clouds that first appeared near the ceiling. If several forms were materialized at the same time, they were transparent. It often happened that at the end of the séance Miller was violently thrown out of the cabinet, yet he suffered no injury. On his way back to the United States, Miller again visited Paris and gave a few more séances. According to Charles Richet, he would not accept the conditions imposed. Four of his séances were reported in the Annals of Psychic Science (vol. 4, 1906). Psychic researcher Count Cesar de Vesme, who attended the last séance, objected to not having been given an adequate opportunity to form a well-founded judgment and noted: ‘‘A white ball, as of gas, about a quarter of a yard in diameter appeared in the air at the upper extremity of the curtains. Finally it came down, rested on the floor, and in less than a minute, changing into a long shape, was transformed into a draped human form, which subsequently spoke’’ (Annals of Psychic Science, vol. 4, no. 21, 1906). The séance, however, was not sufficient to enable de Vesme to arrive at a definite opinion as to the genuineness of the manifestations. In 1908 Miller paid another visit to Paris. On June 25, in the presence of 40 persons, a very successful séance was held at the house of a Mrs. Noeggerath under test conditions. The control committee consisted of one Mr. Benezech, Gaston Méry, Cesar de Vesme, and Charles Blech, secretary of the Theosophical Society. The medium was disrobed, medically examined, and put into black garments that were furnished by the committee and had neither lining nor pockets. Numerous phantom shapes evolved and disappeared. Cesar de Vesme, however, remained unconvinced. In the Annals of Psychic Science (vol. 7, 1908), he complained that in the series of séances he attended in almost complete darkness, Miller never allowed the control of his right hand. Sitting on the left side of the cabinet, he could have used his right hand to introduce a white drapery, which he could have manipulated as a small phantom in the course of materialization. He had only been searched in a single séance when 40 people were present. There was no telling whether the drapery might not have been 1037

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passed to him by one of the sitters. Leon Denis, Baron de Watteville, Charles Blech, de Fremery (director of the Het Toekomstig Leven, The Hague), Paul Leymarie (director of the Reuve Spirite), M. W. Bormann (director of Die Übersinnliche Welt), and Joseph Maxwell shared de Vesme’s opinion. Of Miller’s public séances no more was heard after this Paris series. Miller died on November 1, 1943 in New York. Sources: Reichel, Willie. Occult Experiences. N.p., 1906.

Miller, Ellora Fogle (Mrs. R. DeWitt Miller) (1913–1982) Writer in the fields of publicity and psychical research. She was born June 8, 1913, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and studied at the University of Southern California (M.A., 1945). She was a staff member of the publicity department of Young & Rubicam, Hollywood, California, and national editor of the Baton (the publication of Phi Beta Fraternity) (1953–56), and afterward director of honors for the Phi Beta Fraternity. In 1937 she married R. DeWitt Miller (1910–1958), with whom she collaborated on two books and several articles concerned with psychical research. Ellora Miller died in October 1982. Sources: Miller, R. DeWitt, and Ellora F. Miller. Forgotten Mysteries. Chicago: Cloud Inc., 1947. ———. You Do Take It with You. New York: Citadel Press, 1955.

Miller, R(ichard) DeWitt (1910–1958) Writer on psychical research and parapsychology. Born January 22, 1910, in Los Angeles, California, he was educated at the University of Southern California (B.A., 1933). In 1937 he married Ellora Fogle Miller. A freelance writer, Miller contributed many articles to Coronet, Esquire, Pageant, Popular Mechanics, Popular Science, Tomorrow, and Life. Many of his writings were concerned with paranormal topics, and he contributed the regular features ‘‘Your Other Life,’’ ‘‘Forgotten Mysteries,’’ and ‘‘Not of Our Species’’ to Coronet magazine. He contributed to the anthology Beyond the Five Senses, edited by Eileen J. Garrett (1957). He wrote two books and several articles with his wife. He died June 3, 1958. Sources: Miller, R. Dewitt. The Man Who Lived Forever. N.p., 1956. ———. Reincarnation. N.p., 1956. Miller, R. Dewitt, and Ellora F. Miller. Forgotten Mysteries. N.p., 1947. ———. You Do Take It with You. New York: Citadel Press, 1955.

Miller, Robin (1950–


Robin Miller is a poet, songwriter, and musician residing in Sedona, Arizona, who during the 1980s found the answer to much of his searching in New Age metaphysics. Then in 1987, he began to channel music. The term channeling has frequently been applied to the inspiration to which gifted musicians have attributed as the source of their musical innovations. The product of these channelings was released as a series of albums including Paradise View, Magical Spheres, Celestial Bridge, and From the Heart, each of which reached a popular audience in the post-New Age community. Then on January 23, 1991, shortly before Miller and his family moved to Sedona, an unembodied entity named Jonathon manifested early in the morning immediately after an intense dream in which Miller 1038

felt he was being taught about the future direction of his life. As he awoke he found himself repeating some thoughts aloud. He sat down to remember and put the thoughts to paper. At that point he found himself tapping into thoughts that did not appear to be his own. He began to record these thoughts by automatic writing. Miller found that he was frequently called upon to write, and he allowed his bonding with the entity who was communicating through him to become stronger. Accompanying the process of communicating, Miller also found that he was transforming into a more loving being. Jonathon described himself as a seventh ray being and speaker for the Council of the Brotherhood of Light, described as a group of seven beings amid the many organizations and entities in the spiritual realm who are working to reawaken humanity to its true God-self connection. The brotherhood thus works beside the many groups spoken of by other channelers such as the Great White Brotherhood, the Celestial Hierarchy of Light, and the Ashtar Command, groups of evolved beings who guide humanity in its overall evolution and spiritual life. Jonathon described himself as someone who had been incarnated on various occasions, on the most recent occasion as a Christian monk in the thirteenth century in eastern France. He was also known as Jonathon in that incarnation. He had led a contemplative life and had an awakening in his 46th year. He died three years later. In returning to speak through Miller, Jonathon explained he is taking part in a coordinated effort from the spiritual realm to push humanity toward enlightenment. As a result, Earth will be transformed into a paradise. The awakening of humanity at this time is the fulfillment of the promise of the Second Coming of Christ. In 1993 Miller published the initial messages from Jonathon as Talks with Jonathon, the first of five proposed volumes. Sources: Miller, Robin. Talks with Jonathon, Book I: A Guide to Transformation. Needham, Mass.: Channel One Communications, 1993.

Millesimo Castle Located in Italy in the province of Savona. It was the property of the Marquis Carlo Centurione Scotto and the scene of important psychic investigations (1927–28) and later on the phenomena of direct voice, apports, levitation, and materialization.

Mind-Body-Spirit Festival International festival coordinating and presenting occult, mystical, psychic, astrological, New Age, human potential, and holistic organizations and individuals. Founded in April 1977 in England by new consciousness entrepreneur Graham Wilson, the festival has since been presented annually in London and Australia and occasionally in the United States. The festival provides an annual stage for contemporary alternative lifestyles in a wide spectrum of mystical, holistic, and ecological areas, where traditional philosophies and activities rub shoulders with newer cults. It offers lectures, demonstrations, and workshops as well as exhibits and stands promoting individuals, organizations, and publications concerned with psychic phenomena, healing, yoga, astrology, health, physical fitness, dance, UFOs, meditation, organic gardening, mystical arts and crafts, and alternative technologies. Address: UK New Life Promotions Ltd., Arnica House, 170 Campden Hill Rd., London W8 7AS, England. Australia Mind Body Spirit Sydney Festival Party ltd., Locked Bag 19, Pyrmont, NSW 2009.

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Mind Cure The name loosely applied to various systems of alternative healing in the late nineteenth century. The name was first applied to the healing system developed by Phineas Parkhurst Quimby (1802–66) out of his reflections on mesmerism and hypnotism. Quimby, a clockmaker who became a professional mesmerist, observed the power of suggestion on his subjects. Quimby turned his attention from mesmerist power to focus on the idea of mind. He posited that illness comes from holding delusions or false opinions in the mind (such as those put out by the church or the average physician) and the mind will reproduce in the body the false idea. His healing work consisted of presenting wisdom or truth to the patient, who accepted it and then became well. He operated informally out of Portland, Maine, through the years of the Civil War. He died in 1866 having never published any of his writings. His work was carried on by his various pupils. The most famous of Quimby’s students was Mary Baker Eddy, who in the months after Quimby’s death pushed his system in an idealistic direction. She concluded that God was the only reality and that healing was to be found in accepting that reality. From that insight, which differed radically from that of Quimby, she built the Church of Christ, Scientist, the organizational center of the Christian Science movement. Christian Science has four fundamental propositions: (1) God is all in all; (2) God is Good. Good is Mind; (3) God, Spirit, being all, nothing is matter; and (4) Life, God, omnipotent good, deny death, evil, sin, disease. The new church was a phenomenal success and controversy swarmed around it and its founder. Two of Quimby’s students, Julius and Annette Dresser, seemingly unaware of how Eddy’s system was uniquely her own, challenged Eddy for not giving Quimby the proper credit for originating Christian Science. Meanwhile, another Quimby student, former Methodist minister turned Swedenborgian, Warren Felt Evans, established a healing practice in Salisbury, Massachusetts, and developed his own healing system as an integral part of his Swedenborgian thought. Ultimately a pantheist, he wrote a number of books. As the movement developed, a number of students separated from Eddy and began to operate as independent Christian Science healers. One of them, Joseph Addams, began the Mind Cure Journal in Chicago in the mid 1880s. Other healers with no connection to Eddy, other than possibly having read her books, also appeared on the scene. Those students most attached to Eddy’s thought founded what has been a continuing independent Christian Science movement, while the more autonomous thinkers became the founders of what would in the 1890s become known as New Thought. New Thought has been perpetuated through such organizations as the Unity School of Christianity, the Divine Science Association, the Church of Religious Science, and the International New Thought Association. It produced a number of best-selling authors, such as Ralph Waldo Trine, Prentice Mulford, Elizabeth Towne, and Orison Swett Marden. The term mind cure had largely passed from the scene by the beginning of the twentieth century, but the basic movements, Christian Science, independent Christian Science, and New Thought, have continued. New Thought entered into mainline Christian thought through the efforts of Norman Vincent Peale and more recently Robert Schuler, both ministers in the Reformed Church in America. Sources: Braden, Charles S. Spirits in Rebellion. Dallas, Tex.: Southern Methodist University Press, 1963. Judah, J. Stillson. The History and Philosophy of the Metaphysical Movements in America. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1967.

Mines, Haunted Melton, J. Gordon. New Thought: A Reader. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Institute for the Study of American Religion, 1990.

Mind Development and Control Association Organization founded to develop and promote interest in various facets of paranormal and psychic research and to foster awareness and understanding of the forces that influence and shape human existence. The association sponsored research in the fields of healing and bioenergy and provided monthly correspondence lessons in psychic arts and sciences and classes in psychic development and ESP skills. It maintained a hauntedhouse investigation group, energy and healing group, and other associated groups. It sponsored the U.S. Psi Squad as a nonprofit project that offers assistance to police and law enforcement departments when consulted in cases such as homicide and missing persons. It published Doorways to the Mind, a monthly magazine. Last known address: P.O. Box 29396, Sappington, MO 63126.

M’Indoe, John B. (ca. 1936) A prominent Scottish Spiritualist. He served a tenure as president of the Spiritualists’ National Union in Britain and was a trustee and advisory committee member of the Edinburgh Psychic College and Library. He made a long-term study of spirit photography and also reported on the controversial mediumship of Helen Duncan.

Mind Science Network Organization concerned with nontraditional religions, holistic healing, psychic development, and related subjects. Published the quarterly magazine Mind Science Journal, which included a calendar of holy days, events, and contacts. Last known address: P.O. Box 1302, Mill Valley, CA 94941.

Mines, Haunted The belief that mines are haunted is an ancient and universal one, probably arising from the many eerie sounds and echoes that are heard in them and the perpetual gloom, which stimulates belief in apparitions. Sometimes the haunting specters are gigantic creatures with frightful fiery eyes. Such was the German ‘‘Bergmönch, a terrible figure in the garb of a monk, who could, however, appear in ordinary human shape to those towards whom he was well-disposed.’’ Frequently weird knockings were heard in mines. In Germany these were attributed to the Kobolds, small black beings of a malicious disposition. White hares or rabbits were also seen at times. The continual dangers attending work underground have been productive of many supernatural ‘‘warnings,’’ which generally take the form of mysterious voices. In the midland counties of England, the ‘‘Seven Whistlers’’ were well known, and miners paid solemn attention to their warnings. A light blue flame settling on a full coaltub was called ‘‘Bluecap,’’ and his work was to move the coaltub toward the trolleyway. Bluecap did not give his services for nothing. Every two weeks his wages were left in a corner of the mine and were duly appropriated. A more mischievous elf was ‘‘Cutty Soames,’’ who would cut the ‘‘soams’’ or traces yoking an assistant putter to the tub. Basilisks, fearsome monsters whose terrible eyes would strike the miner dead, were another source of dread to the worker underground. These, as well as other mysterious foes who dealt fatal blows, may be traced to the dreaded, but by no means ghostly, fire-damp or perhaps to underground lizards. Mines of precious metals were believed to be even more jealously guarded by supernatural beings. Gnomes, the creatures of the earth element, were the special guardians of subterra1039

Minnesota Zen Meditation Center nean treasure, and they were anxious to defend their province. Mines containing precious stones were equally well looked after. The Indians of Peru declared that evil spirits haunted the emerald mines, while a mine in the neighborhood of Los Esmeraldos was said to be guarded by a frightful dragon. It has also been believed that the poisonous fumes and gases that often destroy the lives of miners were baleful influences radiated by evil spirits. Other stories of haunted mines are linked to legends of secret underground temples of occultists. (See subterranean crypts and temples)

Minnesota Zen Meditation Center This center stemmed from the 1960s, when a group of individuals in Minneapolis met together to practice zazen (Zen meditation). One of the students was Sekijun Karen Sunna, the center’s current head priest. They soon developed an association with the San Francisco Zen Center, and its assistant priest Dainin Katagiri Roshi visited them on several occasions. In 1972, the group invited Katagiri Roshi to become leader of their new Zen Center. He accepted, and the Minnesota Zen Center was formed in January 1973. Dainin Katagiri Roshi was born in Japan in 1928 and became a Zen monk in 1946. He trained at Eiheji Monastery, the original center of the Soto Shu sect. He came to the United States in 1963 to work with the North American Zen Buddhist Church, the Japanese-American Soto group, and was assigned to their Los Angeles temple. Five months later he was sent to San Francisco to assist Shunryu Suzuki Roshi at both the San Francisco temple (Sokoji) and the independent San Francisco Zen Center. While there he assisted in the opening of the Tassajara Zen Mountain Center. Since coming to Minneapolis, Katagiri Roshi has attracted students from across the Midwest and has visited various groups interested in Zen. Groups affiliated with the Minnesota Center have been established in Manhattan, Kansas; Iowa City, Iowa; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; and Omaha, Nebraska. In 1978 the center purchased 280 acres near Houston, Minnesota, which offers meditation, classes and lectures as well as retreats. Since Katagiri Roshi’s death in 1990, Sekijun Karen Sunna has acted as head priest. Address: 3343 E. Calhoun Pkwy., Minneapolis, MN 55408. Website: http:// www.mnzenctr.com/. Sources: Minnesota Zen Center. http://www.mnzenctr.com/. March 8, 2000.

Miñoza, Aurora (1923–


Psychologist who has written on parapsychology. She was born January 4, 1923, in Cebu City, Philippines, and studied at the University of Michigan (B.S. English, 1947; M.A. psychology, 1953) and the University of the Philippines (Ph.D. educational psychology, 1957). An abstract of her master’s thesis, A Study of Extrasensory Perception, was published in the Educational Quarterly, University of the Philippines (vol. 1, no. 1, September 1953). After graduation she joined the faculty of the Graduate College of Education, University of the Philippines. She attended the first Parapsychology Workshop at Duke University in June 1957. She has special interests in telepathy, clairvoyance, and psychokinesis, and has experimented with the effect of thought on plant growth. She began a long tenure as president of the Parapsychological Research Society, Philippines, in 1959. She was also a member of the Parapsychological Association. Sources: Pleasants, Helene, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Parapsychology. New York: Helix Press, 1964. 1040

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed.

Mirabelli, (Carmine) Carlos (1889–1951) South American physical medium born on January 2, 1889, in Botucatu, S˜ao Paulo, Brazil, of Italian immigrant parents. Mirabelli was a Spiritist of the school of Allan Kardec, which had become popular in Brazil after its importation from Europe. Such extraordinary accounts of his phenomena spread through psychical research circles in England and the United States that, if they could have been proved to the satisfaction of psychical researchers, he would have had to be ranked as the greatest medium of all time. Such phenomena included automatic writing in more than thirty different languages, materialization of persons and objects, levitation, impressions of spirit hands, and paranormal musical performances. He also normally produced phenomena in the light of day. The first description of Mirabelli’s feats was published in a booklet, O Medium Mirabelli, written anonymously by R. H. Mikilasch, general secretary of the Academia de Estudos Psychicos de Cesar Lombroso. Mirabelli had applied to the academy for experiments in trance speaking, automatic writing, and physical phenomena. The booklet was published in 1926. It reported 392 sittings in broad daylight or in a room illuminated by electric light. In 349 cases the sittings were held in the rooms of the academy and were attended by a total of 555 people. The summary was as follows: ‘‘The committee carried out with the first group (trance speaking) 189 positive experiments; with the second group (automatic writing) 85 positive and 8 negative; with the third group (physical phenomena) 63 positive and 47 negative experiments. The medium spoke 26 languages including 7 dialects, wrote in 28 languages, among them 3 dead languages, namely Latin, Chaldaic and Hieroglyphics. Of the 63 physical experiments 40 were made in daylight, 23 in bright artificial light.’’ A second report, based on the first, appeared in a publication of the Academia de Germany, the Zeitschrift für Parapsychologie, in August 1929. Fearing a hoax, the German periodical made inquiries first from the Brazilian consul at Munich as to the standing and reputation of Mirabelli’s witnesses and supporters. The information was verified, and the consul added that 14 persons on the submitted list were his personal acquaintances, to whose veracity he would testify. He said he had no reason to question the statements of other people on the list, known to him not only as scientists but also as men of character. Thereupon the Zeitschrift für Parapsychologie published a summary of the case. (It was later discovered that the Academia de Estudios Psychicos de Cesar Lombroso, named for the famed Italian psychical researcher, was founded and headed by Mirabelli, and hence the objectivity of its report is very much in question.) The newspapers picked up the story. They wrote of telekinetic movement, of apports, of a miraculous teleportation of the medium from the railroad station of Da Luz to S˜ao Vicenti—90 kilometers distance in two minutes; of his levitation in the street two meters high for three minutes; of how he caused a skull to float toward an apothecary; of making an invisible hand turn the leaves of a book in the home of Dr. Alberto Seabra in the presence of many scientists; of making glasses and bottles at a banquet play a military march without human touch; of causing the hat of Antonio Canterello to fly off and float ten meters along a public square; of making and quelling fire by will in the home of Alves Lima; of making a cue play billiards without touching it; and finally of having the picture of Christ impressed on plaster in the presence of Dr. Caluby, director of police. A conjuring magician imitated some of Mirabelli’s phenomena, but this did not lessen his reputation as a wonder-worker. Owing to the heated controversy that grew up around him, an arbitration board was instituted for the investigation of the medium. Among the members were Dr. Ganymed de Souza, presi-

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. dent of the Republic; a Dr. Brant of the Institute of Technology; and 18 other men of high position and learning. After the investigation and the testimony of witnesses, the board established that the majority of the manifestations occurred in daylight, that they occurred spontaneously and in public places, that the manifold intellectual phenomena could not easily be based on trickery, and that the statements of persons whose integrity was reputed could not easily be doubted. Mirabelli’s automatic writing was reportedly inspired by the spirits of historical figures. Fifteenth-century reformer John Huss influenced Mirabelli to write a treatise of nine pages on the independence of Czechoslovakia in 20 minutes; French psychical researcher Camille Flammarion inspired him to write about inhabited planets—14 pages in 19 minutes in French. ‘‘Muri Ka Ksi’’ delivered 5 pages in 12 minutes on the Russo-Japanese War in Japanese. ‘‘Moses’’ wrote in Hebrew on slandering; ‘‘Harun el Raschid’’ made Mirabelli write 15 pages in Syrian, and an untranslatable writing of three pages came in hieroglyphics in 32 minutes. The phenomena of materialization were astounding, if real. The figures were not only complete, and photographed, but medical men made minute examinations that lasted for sometimes as long as 15 minutes and stated that the newly constituted human beings had perfect anatomical structure. After the examination was completed, one figure began to dissolve from the feet up, the bust and arms floating in the air. One of the doctors exclaimed, ‘‘But this is too much!’’ He rushed forward and seized the remaining half of the body. The next moment he uttered a shrill cry and sank unconscious to the ground. On returning to consciousness, he only remembered that when he had seized the phantom it had felt as if his fingers were pressing a spongy, flaccid mass. Then, he said, he received a shock and lost consciousness. Reportedly, for 36 minutes in broad daylight the materialization of the young daughter of Dr. Souza, who died of influenza, was visible to all the sitters. She appeared in her burial clothes. Her pulse was tested. Father and child were photographed. Then the phantom raised itself and floated in the air. At the third sitting, supposedly a skull inside the closet began to beat the doors, came out, and slowly grew to a full skeleton. In another sitting Mirabelli announced that he saw the body of Bishop Dr. Jose de Carmago Barros, who had lost his life in a shipwreck: ‘‘A sweet smell as of roses filled the room. The medium went into trance. A fine mist was seen in the circle. The mist, glowing as if of gold, parted and the bishop materialized, with all the robes and insignia of office. He called his own name. Dr. de Souza stepped to him. He palpated the body, touched his teeth, tested the saliva, listened to the heart-beat, investigated the working of the intestines, nails and eyes, without finding anything amiss. Then the other attending persons convinced themselves of the reality of the apparition. The Bishop smilingly bent over Mirabelli and looked at him silently. Then he slowly dematerialized.’’ At the sixth sitting, Mirabelli, tied and sealed, disappeared from the room and was found in another room still in trance. All seals on doors and windows were found in order, as well as the seals on Mirabelli himself. Once, among 14 investigators, his arms dematerialized. On the photograph only a slight shadow is visible. In 1930 the British psychical researcher Eric J. Dingwall reviewed and summarized the original Portuguese documents, and stated, ‘‘I must confess that, on a lengthy examination of the documents concerning Mirabelli, I find myself totally at a loss to come to any decision whatever on the case.’’ However, as early as the November 1930 issue of Psychic Research, Hans Driesch threw cold water on all such marvels on the basis of a personal investigation in S˜ao Paulo in 1928. He saw no materializations, no transportation, and heard only Italian and Esthonian, which Mirabelli may have normally known. But he admitted seeing some remarkable telekinetic phenome-

Miracles na that he could not explain, involving the movement of a small vase and the folding of doors in daylight without any visible cause. In 1934 Theodore Besterman, a researcher with the Society for Psychical Research in London attended some of Mirabelli’s séances in Brazil. Upon his return he wrote a brief, private report claiming that Mirabelli was a fraud, but that report was never published. In his published report, he stated only that he had seen nothing extraordinary. More recent examination of a picture of Mirabelli levitating that the medium gave to Besterman has been shown to be a fraud. Reports of mediumistic phenomena continued throughout Mirabelli’s life. Given the general opinion today that apports and materializations do not occur except as magic tricks, it is difficult to believe that Mirabelli can escape broad charges of practicing legerdemain, however extraordinary some of his mental feats may have seemed. Unfortunately, all of the positive reports came from people closely associated with him. Possibly because of the negative nature of the early reports, especially that of Besterman, no conclusive study was ever made. Mirabelli died April 30, 1951, in an auto accident. For a modern discussion of Mirabelli see Gordon Stein’s insightful article from Fate and the chapter ‘‘Mirabelli!!’’ in Guy Playfair’s study. The former had the opportunity to examine the Mirabelli records in England, and the latter met and interviewed individuals who had known Mirabelli, including living relatives. Sources: Playfair, Guy Leon. The Unknown Power. Reprinted as The Flying Cow. New York: Pocket Books, 1975. Stein, Gordon. ‘‘The Amazing Medium Mirabelli.’’ Fate 44, 3 (March 1991): 86–95.

‘‘Mirabilis Liber’’ A collection of predictions concerning the saints and the sibyls, attributed to Saint Césaire (470–542 C.E.). The work has appeared in various editions. In the edition of 1522 there is found a prophecy of the French Revolution, including the expulsion and abolition of the nobility, the violent death of the king and queen, the persecution of the clergy, and the suppression of convents. It was followed by a further prophecy that the eagle coming from distant lands would reestablish order in France.

Miracles Miracles, in the biblical sense are signs and wonders, the extraordinary events that inspire awe and open the world of the divine. By the Middle Ages the differentiation between the natural and supernatural had been made and miracles were redefined as the invasion of the supernatural into the world of the natural. As the concept of natural law and an orderly universe developed, the word miracle gradually took on the meaning it has had for the last three centuries—an event that occurs outside the laws of nature as we know them. Christian theologians tended to view a miracle as an event caused by God laying aside one of his own laws out of his concern for humanity. David Hume (1711–76), the great Scottish philosopher, defined a miracle as ‘‘a violation of the laws of nature.’’ The idea that nature follows certain laws and the consideration of whether or not those laws can be violated set the issues of a modern debate. Alfred Russel Wallace, prominent nineteenth-century scientist, in his book On Miracles and Modern Spiritualism (1881), assumes the existence of natural law and objects to Hume’s skepticism by arguing that since we do not know all the laws of nature we cannot rule out the possibility of an unknown law overcoming a known one. He suggests that a miracle is ‘‘any act or event necessarily implying the existence and agency of superhuman intelligences.’’ 1041

Miraculous Medal Contemporary observers of the progress of science have developed a different approach to the question of miracles. They note that the idea of natural law is a concept imposed upon nature by scientists, who have observed its regularities. A miracle, they say, is a religious affirmation in the face of an extraordinary event that affects the individual positively. Calling an event a miracle is but one evaluation among several (e.g., coincidence, trickery) that can be made about the occurrence. According to Hume, no amount of human testimony can prove a miracle. Hume’s philosophy created a scientific environment in which the evaluation of an anomalous extraordinary event could only be explained as a phenomenon already understood. It is on this basis that, in spite of a popular belief in the paranormal, many scientists generally refuse to investigate the nature and evidence of so-called miracles. This resistance is odd since the history of human progress demonstrates that, as Charles Richet stated, ‘‘the improbabilities of today are the elementary truths of to-morrow.’’ The truth of his statement was amply demonstrated in the lives of great scientists, many of whom had to fight an entrenched scientific community for recognition of their discoveries in an era in which the process of accepting new facts was very slow. Galileo (1564–1642) was persecuted and declared ‘‘ignorant of his ignorance;’’ the evidence of his telescope was rejected without examination; Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727), born the year Galileo died, had to fight for so long for recognition of his theory of gravitation that he nearly resolved to publish nothing more and said; ‘‘I see that a man must either resolve to put out nothing new, or become a slave to defend it.’’ Modern science is replete with stories of people who were ridiculed by their contemporaries for their extraordinary ideas and discoveries and otherwise outstanding scientists who thought the ideas of their younger colleagues to be mere ridiculous flights of fancy. Belief in the reality of miracles has always been a cornerstone of religion. In former times it was sufficient to have faith that the divine power that created the universe of matter could also transcend its laws either directly or through the agency of particular humans. However, the religious skepticism of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries—built in large part by the emergence of science and later sustained by its obvious success in changing the world through technology—threw doubt on the reality of all miracles, sacred or secular. Part of the present-day opposition to claims of the paranormal is based on the brilliant achievements arising from applied scientific laws, reinforcing confidence in the logic of the material world. From this viewpoint, many agnostics and atheists deny the possibility of either religious miracles or secular paranormal happenings, claiming that both are the result of malobservation, superstition, or fraud. Meanwhile many religious authorities have upheld the validity of biblical miracles as indicating God’s omnipotence and intervention in human affairs. For example, Vatican Council I (1870–71) denied that miracles are impossible. However, many theologians, responding positively to the world of natural science, have taken the view that miracles are no longer necessary in modern times as evidence for religious faith. Even the Roman Catholic church, informed by its own experience as much as by modern scientific worldviews, champions the idea of caution in evaluating apparent miracles in modern times, since it would be foolish to ignore the possibility of misunderstanding or deception. Ever since the claimed miraculous healings associated with pilgrim centers like Lourdes, the church has been careful to insist on satisfactory scientific and medical evidence over a prolonged period of time before placing official confirmation on any claimed miracle. Through the twentieth century a spectrum of approaches to the question of miracles have been put forth. Older supernatural worldviews have survived and are still championed by conservative Christians. Paranormal events are judged to be either godly miracles (within the context of the Christian community) or devilish deceptions (occurring elsewhere). More liberal 1042

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. Christian leaders have suggested that while miracles are possible, they are rare, and tend to occur spontaneously. A growing body of believers, members of metaphysical, Spiritualist, ancient wisdom, and other occult religious groups—as well as many parapsychologists—tend to accept the existence of genuine paranormal events, but define them as purely natural events that science is slow in defining. Some would accept basic ESP, but not take the additional step and offer a positive evaluation of evidence for spirit communication or human survival. Of course, a small but vocal group deny the existence of all paranormal or supernatural events. The problem of the distinction between religious and secular ‘‘miracles’’ remains a matter of polemics between conservative Christians and other religionists. Parapsychologists, Spiritualists and liberal Christians may point to the many reported miraculous events in the Bible as descriptions of paranormal events that also occur in modern times. Conservative believers accept as miraculous only those events with a clearly established religious purpose and reject all other claimed paranormal happenings. Some conservative Christians claim that all psychic phenomena are mere simulacrum of the miraculous—the work of devils or deceptive spirits counterfeiting real miracles. Of course, non-Christians resent such accusations. Extraordinary events—miracles to the believer—are the common property of all religious traditions and the nonreligious alike. Every religious community can produce accounts of extraordinary occurrences to strenthen the faith of their believers. Most religious traditions also de-emphazize miracles as secondary to the development of a mature relationship to the transcendent and the performance of spiritual, moral, and social duties within the human community. In such a context, miraculous events may be helpful signposts or motivators at some point, but they do not take the place of spiritual development. In fact, too much attention to the miraculous (or long-term focus on psychic events) may actually be a hindrance to spiritual progress. Sources: Ebon, Martin, ed. Miracles. New York: New American Library, 1981. Gopi Krishna. The Secret of Yoga. New York: Harper & Row, 1972. Hill, J. Arthur. Spiritualism: Its History, Phenomena, and Doctrine. London: Cassell, 1918. LeShan, Lawrence. The Medium, the Mystic, and the Physicist. New York: Viking Press, 1974. Nickell, Joe. Looking for a Miracle: Weeping Icons, Relics, Stigmata, Visions & Healing Cures. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Press, 1998. Réginald-Omez, Fr. O. P. Psychical Phenomena. London: Burns & Oates, 1959. Rogo, D. Scott. Miracles: A Parascientific Inquiry Into Wondrous Phenomena. New York: Dial Press, 1982. Stemman, Roy. One Hundred Years of Spiritualism. London: Spiritualist Association of Great Britain, 1972. Thurston, Herbert, S. J. The Physical Phenomena of Mysticism. London: Burns & Oates, 1952. Reprint, Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1953. West, Donald J. Eleven Lourdes Miracles. London: Duckworth, 1957.

Miraculous Medal At the beginning of the nineteenth century, a young nun was privy to several apparitions of the Virgin Mary. In the second one she was told to create a medal, the use of which has since become one of the most popular among the many approved practices available to members of the Roman Catholic Church. The story of the Miraculous Medal begins with the arrival of Catherine Labouré (1806–1876) at the Convent of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul in Paris, France, in 1830. Just

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. four days after her arrival, she had the first of a series of visions, though not of Mary. On the evening of July 18, she went to bed praying for a vision of the Virgin. She was awakened around 11 P.M. and instructed by a child dressed in white to go to the chapel. There Sister Catherine had her first encounter with the Virgin, in which she was told that she was being given a mission that would entail much suffering on her part. She was also instructed to tell no one but her confessor. The Virgin had predicted some hard times in the immediate future for the Parisian clergy, but noted that the convent would not be disturbed. In fact, within a few days revolution broke out in Paris. The archbishop was forced into hiding. She also predicted that in some 40 years, the ruler would be forced off the throne and the thenArchbishop of Paris killed. These events occurred during the Franco-Prussian War. On November 27, the second vision of the Virgin occurred, also in the sanctuary. Mary appeared dressed in white and standing on a globe. A smaller globe held in her hands was raised and then disappeared. Mary then dropped her hands to her side and extended them forward with the palms forward as if offering a blessing to the world. Rays of light flowed from her hands and she told the young visionary that they represented the graces she would bestow on all who but asked. Then, an oval of golden letters appeared around the Virgin spelling out a brief prayer. Then the vision changed and she saw a large M surmounted by a cross. Below were the Sacred Hearts of Mary and Jesus. She was given the instruction to have a medal struck after the fashion of what she had just seen. Graces would come to those who wear the medal. This vision was repeated in December, and in the following March, but Sister Catherine’s confessor was somewhat cold to the idea. Finally, after the vision reappeared in September, he conferred with the archbishop of Paris, who ordered the medal struck. The first of the Miraculous Medals, as they came to be known, appeared in 1832, and the first ‘‘miracle’’ attached to them concerned the former archbishop of Malines, who had fallen from his faith and was dying. The archbishop of Paris presented him with one of the new medals, and shortly thereafter the archbishop recanted his errors and died reconciled to the church. As stories of other miracles arrived at his office, the archbishop became its enthusiastic backer. Meanwhile, Sister Catherine was sent to a hospice outside of Paris where she worked with the poor for the next 46 years. No one but her confessor ever heard the story of her visitations from Mary. She was not called to testify at the formal inquiry made in 1936. She did write her account of what occurred in 1856 and added to it shortly before her death. In 1875, she also made known the events to her very surprised Mother Superior and added that Mary had requested a statue of her with the globe in hand be placed in the convent chapel. Sister Catherine became Saint Catherine in 1947. The church instituted recognition of the apparition in which the Miraculous Medal first appeared for November 27. Millions of the Miraculous Medal have been distributed, and many copies of the statue at the convent in Paris can now be found in Catholic churches around the world. Sources: Dirvin, Joseph I. St. Catherine Labouré of the Miraculous Medal. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday Echo Book, 1965. Englebert, Omer. Catherine Labouré and the Modern Apparitions of Our Lady. New York: P. J. Kennedy & Sons, 1958. Sharkey, Don. The Woman Shall Conquer. Kenosha, Wis.: Franciscan Marytown Press, 1976.

The Mishna A compilation of Jewish oral traditions containing the religious legal decisions relating to Old Testament laws, gathered together at about the end of the second century by Rabbi

Mitchell, Edgar D. Judah, grandson of Gamaliel II. Its doctrines are said to be of great antiquity. It forms the framework of the Talmud.

The Miss Lucy Westenra Society of the Undead Vampire interest organization named for one of the characters in the novel Dracula, the first person Dracula turned into a vampire upon his arrival in England. The society published a newsletter and assisted penpals in locating each other. Last known address: 125 Taylor St., Jackson, IN 38302.

‘‘Miss X’’ Pseudonym of psychic researcher Ada Goodrich-Freer, used for her early writings on psychic subjects.

Mitchell, Edgar D. (1930–


American astronaut with an active interest in parapsychology. Born September 17, 1930, at Hereford, Texas, he was educated at the Carnegie Institute of Technology. He entered the U.S. Navy in 1952 and was commissioned a year later. After flight training, he was assigned to Patrol Squadron 29 in Okinawa and flew aircraft on carrier duty and with a heavy attack squadron. He studied for his doctorate in aeronautics and astronautics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and became chief of the project management division of the Navy Field Office for Manned Orbiting Laboratory (1964). He later attended Air Force Aerospace Research Pilot School. He was selected by NASA as an astronaut in April 1966 and was lunar module pilot of Apollo 14, which landed on the moon February 5, 1971. His interest in parapsychology dated from 1967, soon after his arrival at the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston. He was dissatisfied with orthodox theology and began to investigate areas of psychic phenomena and mysticism. In December 1969 Mitchell became friendly with medium Arthur Ford, who suggested an interesting ESP test from a man in a rocket to a contact on earth. Mitchell planned a rocket-to-earth ESP test for the Apollo 14 mission, although Ford died January 4, 1971, 27 days before the mission launch (to which he had been invited as Mitchell’s guest). NASA had rejected a telepathy experiment planned by the American Society for Psychical Research in 1970, so Mitchell’s test was a private affair in his own rest periods. The tests involved the transmission of symbols associated with a range of chosen numbers. Eminent parapsychologists J. B. Rhine of the Foundation for Research on the Nature of Man and Karlis Osis of the ASPR offered cooperation in evaluating the test. The results of the test were ambiguous. After being the sixth man to walk on the moon, Mitchell was a member of the backup crew of further lunar probes. He retired from NASA and the navy in 1972. His second wife, Anita, whom Mitchell married in 1973 after a divorce, shared his interest in parapsychology. In the same year Mitchell founded the Institute of Noetic Sciences for the study of human consciousness and mind/body relationships. He has headed the institute ever since. Among the projects supported by the institute were the efforts of Andrija Puharich to test Uri Geller, and supervised experiments with Geller at Stanford Research Institute. Sources: Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House, 1991. Mitchell, E. D., ed. Psychic Exploration: A Challenge for Science. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1974. 1043

Mitchell, T(homas) W(alker)

Mitchell, T(homas) W(alker) (1869–1944) British physician, psychologist, and psychic researcher. He was born January 18, 1869, in Avock, Ross-shire, Scotland, and attended the University of Edinburgh (M.B., C.M., 1890; M.D., 1906). He wrote several books and was the editor of the British Journal of Medical Psychology (1920–35). His favorite topics in psychic research related to hypnosis and multiple personality. He played a prominent part in the Society for Psychical Research (SPR), London, and was its president in 1921, the first physician so selected. He was a longterm member of its council (1909–44) and was secretary of the medical section (1911–18). His paper ‘‘Phenomena of Mediumistic Trance’’ was read to the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 1927. Sources: Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House, 1991. Mitchell, T. W. ‘‘The Appreciation of Time by Somnambules.’’ Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research (1908–09). ———. The Psychology of Medicine. New York: R. M. McBride, 1922. ———. Psychology and the Sciences. Edited by William Brown. London: A & C Black Ltd., 1924. ———. ‘‘Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis.’’ Proceedings of the Society for Psychial Research (1912–13). ———. ‘‘A Study in Hysteria and Multiple Personality.’’ Proceedings of the Society for Psychial Research (1912–13). Pleasants, Helene, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Parapsychology. New York: Helix Press, 1964.

Modern Times, The Socialist Community of A community founded in 1851 on Long Island that numbered among its members a good many Spiritualists. It was founded by Josiah Warren, formerly associated with the New Harmony community of Robert Dale Owen. The versatile Warren was an orchestral leader, an inventor, and a master of printing processes. As distinct from other utopian socialistic communities of nineteenth-century America, Modern Times was nearer to an anarchist society, with principles of complete toleration and without a central government. It suffered hardship in the general slump of 1857, and ceased to be practicable in the turmoil of the Civil War. Warren died in 1874. (See also Hopedale Community) Sources: Lawson, Donna. Brothers and Sisters All Over This Land: America’s First Communes. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1972. Oved, Yaacov. Two Hundred Years of American Communes. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1993.

Moghrebi Arab sorcerer. (See Semites)

Mohanes Shamans, or medicine men, of the Indians of the Peruvian Andes. Joseph Skinner described them at the beginning of the nineteenth century: ‘‘These admit an evil being, the inhabitant of the centre of the earth, whom they consider as the author of their misfortunes, and at the mention of whose name they tremble. The most shrewd among them take advantage of this belief, to obtain respect; and represent themselves as his delegates. Under the denomination of Mohanes, or Agoreros, they are consulted even on the most trivial occasions. They preside 1044

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. over the intrigues of love, the health of the community, and the taking of the field. Whatever repeatedly occurs to defeat their prognostics, falls on themselves; and they are wont to pay their deceptions very dearly. They chew a species of vegetable called puripiri, and throw it into the air, accompanying this act by certain recitals and incantations, to injure some, to benefit others, to procure rain, and the inundation of the rivers, or, on the other hand, to occasion settled weather, and a plentiful store of agricultural productions. Any such result having been casually verified on a single occasion, suffices to confirm the Indians in their faith, although they may have been cheated a thousand times. Fully persuaded that they cannot resist the influence of the puripiri, as soon as they know that they have been solicited by its means, they fix their eyes on the impassioned object, and discover a thousand amiable traits, either real or fanciful, which indifference had before concealed from their view. ‘‘But the principal power, efficacy, and, it may be said misfortune, of the Mohanes, consist in the cure of the sick. Every malady is ascribed to their enchantments, and means are instantly taken to ascertain by whom the mischief may have been wrought. For this purpose the nearest relative takes a quantity of the juice of floripondium, and suddenly falls, intoxicated by the violence of the plant. He is placed in a fit posture to prevent suffocation, and on his coming to himself, at the end of three days, the Mohan who has the greatest resemblance to the sorcerer he saw in his visions, is to undertake the cure, or if, in the interim, the sick man has perished, it is customary to subject him to the same fate. When not any sorcerer occurs in the visions, the first Mohan they encounter has the misfortune to represent his image.’’ It seems that by practice and tradition, the Mohanes acquired a profound knowledge of many plants and poisons, with which they effected surprising cures on the one hand, and did some harm on the other. They also made use of charms and superstitions. One method of cure was to place two hammocks close to each other, either in the dwelling, or in the open air. In one of them the patient laid extended, and in the other laid the Mohan, or Agorero. The latter, in contact with the sick man, began by rocking himself, and then proceeded in falsetto voice to call on the birds, quadrupeds, and fishes to give health to the patient. From time to time he rose on his seat, and made extravagant gestures over the sick man, to whom he applied his powders and herbs, or sucked the wounded or diseased parts. Having been joined by many of the people, the Agoreros chanted a short hymn, addressed to the soul of the patient, with this refrain: ‘‘Thou must not go, thou must not go.’’ In repeating this he was joined by the people and augmented as the sick man became fainter so that it might reach his ears. Sources: Skinner, Joseph. State of Peru. London, 1805.

Moleoscopy A system of interpretation of moles or birthmarks on various parts of the body (usually classed medically as a benign form of nevus, and not normally requiring surgery). Moles were considered to have special occult significance in ancient times, and their systematic interpretation as indicative of character and destiny was popularized during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The positions of the moles were linked with astrological signs.

Moles (Animal) Many superstitions grew up around moles. It was a common error to believe that moles were blind, whereas in fact their eyes are small and often hidden in the hair. As late as Shakepeare’s time, moles were popularly believed to be blind, as indicated

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. in the dramatist’s play The Tempest: ‘‘Pray you tread softly, that the blind mole may not hear a footfall.’’ Other popular beliefs were that if moles came into a meadow it was a sign of fair weather, that if a mole dug his hole very deep, you could expect a very severe winter, and that if a mole threw up earth during a frost, the frost would disappear in two days. Some Gypsies believed that moles never touched earth that had been stained with blood. In Britain, farm laborers used to wear the forelegs and a hind leg of a mole in a bag around the neck to protect against toothache. It was also believed that if you pulled molehills up on St. Sylvester’s Day (December 31), the moles would not throw up earth again.

Moles (Birthmarks) Birthmarks on the human face or body, usually classed medically as a benign form of nevus. Many superstitions exist about moles, and moleoscopy arose as a system of divination based on the position, character, and astrological connections of these markings. In folk belief, a mole on the throat was said to be a sign of good luck, but unlucky if located on the left side of the forehead near the hair. A mole on the chin, ear, or neck was said to indicate riches, but on the breast to signify poverty. The position of moles on the various parts of the body had various meanings: On the feet and hands of a woman—many children; on the right arm and shoulder of a man or woman— great lechery; on the ankles or feet—modesty in men and courage in women; on or about the knees—riches and virtue; on a woman’s left knee—many children; on the thighs—great poverty and unhappiness. An old folk rhyme from Nottinghamshire, England, indicated the belief that the position of a mole could affect rank in later life:

Monck, Rev. Francis Ward Although the precise place is not known, it is supposed to have been in the remains of abbeys and monasteries. When the Monaciello appeared to mortals, it was always at the dead of night, and then only to the most desperate—those who had done all that mortals could do to prevent or alleviate their distress, and after all human aid had failed. At such times the Monk occasionally appeared, mutely beckoned them to follow, and led them to a secret treasure. He stipulated no conditions for its expenditure, demanded no promise of repayment, and exacted no duty or service in return. It is not clear whether it was actual treasure that he gave, or whether it merely appeared so to the external senses, to be changed into leaves or stones when the day and the occasion of its requirement had passed. In Germany, the wood-spirit ‘‘Rubezahl’’ performed similar acts of kindness to poor and deserving persons; it is said that the money he gave always passed for the current coin of the realm. In Ireland, the O’Donoghue, who lived beneath the waters of an inland lake and rode over its surface on a steed white as the foam of its waves, was said to distribute treasures that proved genuine to the good but were spurious to the undeserving.

Monad (in Theosophy)

Mompesson, John (ca. 1662)

Theosophical term that literally means a unit (Greek monas). The Monad is frequently described as a ‘‘divine spark,’’ which is an appropriate expression, for it is a part of the logos, the divine fire. The Logos has three aspects—will, wisdom, and activity, and since the Monad is part of the logos, it also has these three aspects. It abides continually in its appropriate world, the monadic, but in order that the divine evolutionary purposes may be carried out, its ray is borne downward through the various spheres of matter when the outpouring of the third of the three life waves takes place. It first passes into the spiritual sphere by clothing itself with an atom of spiritual matter and thus manifests itself in an atomic body, as a spirit possessing three aspects. When it passes into the next sphere, the intuitional, it leaves its aspect of will behind, and in the intuitional sphere appears in an intuitional body as a spirit possessing the aspects of wisdom and activity. On passing in turn from this sphere to the next, the higher mental, it leaves the aspect of wisdom behind and appears in a casual body as a spirit possessing the aspect of activity. To put this somewhat abstruse doctrine in another form, the monad has, at this stage, manifested itself in three spheres. In the spiritual it has transfused spirit with will; in the intuitional it has transfused spirit with wisdom; and in the higher mental it has transfused spirit with activity or intellect; and it is now a human ego, corresponding approximately to the common term ‘‘soul,’’ an ego which, despite all changes, remains the same until eventually the evolutionary purpose is fulfilled and it is received back again into the logos. From the higher mental sphere, the monad descends to the lower mental sphere and appears in a mental body as possessing mind; then betakes itself to the astral sphere and appears in the astral body as possessing emotions; and finally to the physical sphere and appears in a physical body as possessing vitality. These three lower bodies—the mental, the astral, and the physical— constitute the human personality, which dies at death and is renewed when the monad in fulfillment of the process of reincarnation, again manifests itself in these bodies.

Magistrate at Tedworth, Wiltshire, England, in 1661 whose home was disturbed by poltergeist phenomena. (See Drummer of Tedworth)

Monck, Rev. Francis Ward (ca. 1878–

‘‘I have a mole above my right eye, And shall be a lady before I die.’’ Another belief was that hairs growing out of moles portended good luck. During the great witchcraft manias of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, such birthmarks as moles, as well as warts, were considered ‘‘devil’s marks’’ if they did not bleed when pricked. Professional witch finders like the infamous Matthew Hopkins (died 1647) used pricking on suspected witches. Moles, warts, scars, or other birthmarks were pricked with a long pin; if there was no pain or bleeding, the suspect was claimed to be a witch. Special pricking tools like thin daggers were developed, and some enthusiastic witch prickers (who claimed a substantial fee for each convicted witch) even used trick pricking tools with a hollow shaft and retractable blade, to make sure that the suspect would feel no pain and there would be no bleeding.

Molybdomancy A system of divination based on the shapes produced by dropping melted lead or tin into water. Interpretations depended upon the psychic ability of the diviner, much as in tasseography (divination by tea leaves). A related system of divination was ceroscopy (or ceromancy), in which molten wax was dripped into water and interpreted in a similar way.

The Monaciello The Monaciello, or ‘‘Little Monk,’’ was a spirit who seems to have lived exclusively in and around Naples in southern Italy.


British clergyman who started his career as minister of the Baptist Chapel at Earls Barton, England, and gave up his ecclesiastical vocation for professional mediumship. His adhesion to Spiritualism was first announced in 1873. He claimed great mediumistic powers, toured the British Isles, and healed the 1045

Monen sick in Ireland. As a result he was called ‘‘Dr.’’ Monck by many people, although he was not a physician. In London he convinced Alfred Russel Wallace, William Stainton Moses, and Hensleigh Wedgwood (brother-in-law of Charles Darwin) of his genuine psychic gifts by giving a remarkable materialization séance in bright daylight. He also excelled in slatewriting. An account by Wallace of a puzzling slate-writing demonstration was certified by Edward T. Bennett, then assistant secretary to the Society for Psychical Research, London. He convinced Judge Dailey, an American, that the dead returned through his body. Monck’s reputation was high. Disaster struck Monck in 1876 shortly after the trial of fellow medium Henry Slade. At a Huddersfield séance on November 3, a conjurer named H. B. Lodge suddenly demanded a search of the medium. Monck ran for safety, locked himself into his room upstairs, and escaped through the window. As a further evidence of his guilt, a pair of stuffed gloves was found in his room. In the medium’s luggage were found ‘‘spirit lamps,’’ a ‘‘spirit bird,’’ cheesecloth, and reaching rods, as well as some obscene correspondence from women. There were other cases in which Monck was caught in flagrant fraud. Sir William Barrett wrote of ‘‘a piece of white muslin on a wire frame with a black thread attached being used by the medium to simulate a partially materialised spirit.’’ The trial that followed the Huddersfield exposure was a great sensation. Wallace appeared as a witness for the defense and deposed that ‘‘he had seen Dr. Monck in the trance state, when there appeared a faint white patch on the left side of his coat, which increased in density and spread till it reached his shoulder; then there was a space gradually widening to six feet between it and his body, it became very distinct and had the outline of a woman in flowing white drapery. I was absolutely certain that it could not be produced by any possible trick.’’ In spite of the eminent scientist’s vote of confidence, the court found Monck guilty and sentenced him to three months’ imprisonment. The blow was a stunning one, but some friends never lost their faith in Monck. There was no greater believer in his powers than Archdeacon Thomas Colley, who reported the most inexplicable and astounding experiences with Monck. Colley was in India at the time of the Huddersfield incident. After his return, he stoutly maintained that a dreadful miscarriage of justice must have taken place, and he published this account of a séance held on September 25, 1877: ‘‘Dr. Monck, under control of Samuel, was by the light of the lamp—the writer not being a yard away from him—seen by all to be the living gate for the extrusion of spirit forms from the realm of mind into this world of matter; for standing forth thus plainly before us, the psychic or spirit form was seen to grow out of his left side. First, several faces one after another, of great beauty appeared, and in amazement we saw—and as I was standing close up to the medium, even touching him, I saw most plainly— several times, a perfect face and form of exquisite womanhood partially issue from Dr. Monck, about the region of the heart. Then after several attempts a full formed figure, in a nebulous condition at first, but growing more solid as it issued from the medium, left Dr. Monck, and stood a separate individuality, two or three feet off, bound to him by a slender attachment as of gossamer, which at my request Samuel, the control, severed with the medium’s left hand, and there stood embodied a spirit form of unutterable loveliness.’’ Colley was so sure of his own powers of observation that he challenged stage magician John Nevil Maskelyne and offered him 1,000 pounds if he could duplicate Monck’s materialization performance. Maskelyne attempted the feat, and when Colley declared his performance to be a travesty of what had really taken place in Monck’s presence, Maskelyne sued for the money. Mainly on the evidence of Wallace on behalf of Monck, judgment was entered against Maskelyne. In his materialization séances, Monck rarely used a cabinet. He stood in full view of the sitters. Sometimes he was quite con1046

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. scious. He had two chief controls: ‘‘Samuel’’ and ‘‘Mahedi.’’ For a year their individual characters were deeply studied by Stainton Moses and Hensleigh Wedgwood who, with two other men interested in psychic research, secured exclusive rights to Monck’s services for a modest salary. Enduring evidence of Monck’s phantasmal appearances was obtained by William Oxley in 1876 in Manchester in the form of excellent paraffin molds of hands and feet of the materialized forms (see plastics). Oxley described his psychic experiences in Modern Messiahs and Wonder Workers (1889). Oxley’s experiences tend to put aside the hallucination theory that psychic researcher Frank Podmore proposed in view of Colley’s astounding experiences. In his lecture before the Church Congress at Weymouth in 1903, Colley said: ‘‘Often when I have been sleeping in the same bedroom with him, for the near observation of casual phenomena during the night and, specially, that came through the dark I, on such occasions, would hold my hand over his mouth, and he would now and again be startled into wakefulness not unmixed with fear. For he could see the phantoms which I could not, when I had quietly put out the night-light— for he would not sleep in the dark, which made him apprehensive of phenomena, physically powerful to an extraordinary degree.’’ Colley claimed to have witnessed astonishing marvels with Monck. He said he saw the birth and dissolution of numbers of full-sized solid forms. He saw a child appear, move about, be kissed by those present and then return to the medium and gradually melt into his body. He seized a materialized form and was flung with great force toward the medium and suddenly found himself clasping him. In 1905, when he published his experiences, he wrote: ‘‘I publish these things for the first time, having meditated over them in silence for twenty-eight years, giving my word as clergyman for things which imperil my ecclesiastical position and my future advancement.’’ One of the most astonishing psychic feats ascribed to Monck was his teleportation from Bristol to Swindon, a distance of 42 miles. This claimed miraculous feat in 1871 was described in the Spiritualist (1875, p. 55). In his later years, Monck concentrated on healing. The closing period of his life was spent in New York. Sources: Oxley, William. Modern Messiahs and Wonder Workers. London: Trubner, 1889.

Monen A term from the Kabala, referring to that branch of magic that deals with the reading of the future by the computation of time and observance of the heavenly bodies. It thus includes astrology.

Money (in Occult Tradition) Money that comes from a pact with the devil is of poor quality, and such wealth, like the fairy-money, generally turns to earth, or to lead, toads, or anything else worthless or repulsive. St. Gregory of Tours (d. 594 C.E.) told a illustrative story: ‘‘A youth received a piece of folded paper from a stranger, who told him that he could get from it as much money as he wished, so long as he did not unfold it. The youth drew many gold pieces from the papers, but at length curiosity overcame him, he unfolded it and discovered within the claws of a cat and a bear, the feet of a toad and other repulsive fragments, while at the same moment his wealth disappeared.’’ It is said that an Irishman outsmarted the devil. In his book Irish Witchcraft and Demonology (1913; 1973), St. John D. Seymour told the amusing story of Joseph Damer of Tipperary County, who made a bargain with the devil to sell his soul for

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. a top-boot full of gold. On the appointed day, the devil was ushered into the living room, where a top-boot stood in the center of the floor. The devil poured gold into it, but to his surprise, it remained empty. He hastened away for more gold, but the top-boot would not fill, even after repeated efforts. At length, in sheer disgust, the devil departed. Afterward it was claimed that the shrewd Irishman had taken the sole off the boot and fastened it over a hole in the floor. Underneath was a series of large cellars, where men waited with shovels to remove each shower of gold as it came down. In popular superstition it is supposed that if a person hears the cuckoo for the first time with money in his pocket, he will have some all the year, while if he greets the new moon for the first time in the same fortunate condition, he will not lack money throughout the month.

Monition Supernormal warning. In the wider sense of the definition of psychic researcher Charles Richet, it is the revelation of some past or present event by other than the normal senses. The Proceedings of the American Society for Psychical Research (1907, p. 487) published the instance of Mr. McCready, editor of the Daily Telegraph, who was in church on a Sunday morning when he heard a voice calling ‘‘Go back to the office.’’ He ran and found a petroleum lamp blazing in his room. It threw out such clouds of smoke that everything was covered with soot. Monitions may range from trifling events to warnings of death. They occur accidentally and are verifiable as true. All the monitive phenomena lie within the field of nonexperimental telepathy and clairvoyance and include apparitions of the dead and of the living, provided that they are message-bearing. It is characteristic of monitions that they deeply impress the mind of the percipients and permit an accurate remembrance even after the lapse of many years. They may come in the waking state or in dreams, which sometimes repeat themselves. The borderland between waking and sleeping is usually the most favorable for their reception. They may be visual or auditory—seeing apparitions, or hearing voices, and they often take a symbolical form, for instance, the idea of death being presented by a coffin, as seen by Lord Beresford in his cabin while steaming between Gibraltar and Marseilles. The coffin contained the body of his father. On arriving at Marseilles he found that his father had died six days before and was buried on the day he saw the vision (see Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, vol. 5, p. 461). As regards perception, monitions may be collective yet nonsimultaneous and non-identical, or simultaneous and collective. The former is well illustrated by Mrs. Hunter’s case, cited by Ernesto Bozzano in the Annals of Psychical Science (vol. 6, no. 34, 1907, p. 248). Mrs. Hunter saw, in the waking state and in daytime, a large coffin on the bed and a tall, stout woman at the foot of the bed looking at it. That evening the governess saw a phantom woman in the same dress in the sitting room where there was nothing visible and cried: ‘‘Go away, go away, naughty ugly old woman.’’ To quote another instance: ‘‘During the winter of 1899, Richet was at home while his wife and daughter were at the opera. The professor imagined that the Opera House was on fire. The conviction was so powerful that he wrote on a piece of paper ‘‘Feu! Feu!’’ About midnight, on the return of his family, he immediately asked them if there had been a fire. They were surprised and said that there was no fire, only a false alarm, and they were very much afraid. At the very time Richet made his note, his sister fancied that the professor’s room was on fire.’’ In simultaneous and collective monitions, the phantom or symbol is perceived at the same time by several people. (See also monitions of approach; premonition)

The Monroe Institute

Monitions of Approach Unaccountable ideas of an impending meeting with someone. A person seen in the street, for example, is believed to be an old friend, and the next second the mistake is seen. Soon afterward, the real friend appears. Such occurrences are fairly common, but may happen in a somewhat complicated way. A voice may be heard announcing the person’s arrival while the percipient is in a dreaming or waking state. The voice may be accompanied by a phantom of the approaching individual. Spiritualists said monitions of approach came from the projection of the human double of the person soon to arrive.

Monroe, Robert Allen (1915–1995) American businessman and an exponent of out-of-the body travel. Monroe was born October 30, 1915, and grew up in his native Lexington, Kentucky. Following his graduation from Ohio State University, he went to work in radio and television in New York and then built a successful career in advertising. His numerous journeys out of his body reportedly began in 1958 following a brief illness. After several somewhat frightening experiences in which his body cramped and vibrated, one day he found himself floating near the ceiling and looking down on his sleeping physical body, a common experience of people who spontaneously leave their body. He became fearful that he was either dying or going insane when subsequent experiences occurred, but his fears were allayed when he learned of parapsychology and the frequency of out-of-the-body experiences. Over the next decade he claimed to have experienced precognitive dreams and visited various ‘‘dream worlds’’ that were largely unknown to anyone else. He came to think of them as extra dimensional. He also participated in tests at both the University of Virginia and the Topeka (Kansas) Veterans Administration Hospital in which he tried to produce his out-ofthe-body experience under controlled observation. His primary concern throughout these years was to verify the new realms he had been exploring and to develop techniques by which others could join him in that endeavor. In 1971 he founded The Monroe Institute That same year, an autobiographical volume, Journeys Out of the Body, was published. Scientists were impressed by his ability to objectively report on his experiences and to consider alternative explanations. Monroe went to work developing and improving the methods employed by the institute. By 1975 he claimed to have developed a system to control brain wave emissions and help synchronize the emissions from the right and left hemispheres of the brain. Although Monroe has critics who have complained about the romanticized and exaggerated accounts included in his autobiography, he also has his enthusiastic supporters, including Elizabeth Kübler-Ross, who had an out-of-the-body experience at the institute. Monroe died March 17, 1995. Sources: Monroe, Robert A. Journeys Out of the Body. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1971. ———. Ultimate Journey. New York: Doubleday, 1994. Rogo, D. Scott. Leaving the Body: A Complete Guide to Astral Projection. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1983. Stockton, Bayard. Catapult: The Biography of Robert A. Monroe. Norfolk, Va.: Donning, 1989.

The Monroe Institute Consciousness research facility specializing in non-physical states of consciousness. The institute was founded in 1971 by businessman Robert A. Monroe. For more than a decade Monroe claimed to have had out-of-the-body experiences and was 1047

Monsters tested on several occasions by psychologists attempting to understand the nature of his inner life. He also began to experiment with the use of sound patterns to affect brain wave production. He developed an audio-technology called Hemi-Sync (Hemispheric Synchronization) that facilitates self-directed exploration of focused states of consciousness. The institute offers programs that teach individuals the art of switching perceptual modes from the outer to the inner world of their own consciousness and to fields outside the realm of physical matter (i.e., other dimensions). The Gateway program introduces participants, in a step-by-step manner, to inner exploration, allowing time for adjustment to each new experience and the emotions it might create. In 1981 the institute announced the Discovery program, which offers some of the Gateway techniques for use in-home. After Robert Monroe’s death in 1998, he was succeeded by his daughter Laurie A. Monroe. The institute publishes periodicals that report on its research program. It also distributes numerous tapes and CDs. Address: 62 Roberts Mountain Road, Faber, VA 22938. Website: http://www.monroeinstitute.org/. Sources: Rogo, D. Scott. Leaving the Body: A Complete Guide to Astral Projection. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1983.

Monsters On the borderland between superstition, occultism, and science are the many monsters, human or animal, reported from many parts of the world throughout human history. The word ‘‘monster,’’ from the Latin monstrum, implies a warning or portent. The term is used derogatorily in reference to malformed or misshapen animals and humans, as well as creatures of great size. Because of the awe and horror excited by monstrous births, they were traditionally regarded as an omen or a sign of God’s wrath with a wicked world. Many street ballads of the sixteenth century moralized about monstrous animals or malformed human beings. Today, persons born with bodies outside the social norms—giants, dwarfs, and Siamese twins—are studied under the scientific label of ‘‘teratology.’’ Deformed and limbless children are now known to be caused by rare genetic factors or by the use of such drugs as thalidomide in pregnancy. In modern times, much of the superstitious awe surrounding legendary monsters has passed into the world of fiction, and talented novelists have created images of scientific or technological doom like Godzilla and Frankenstein, the evil from the subconscious like the vampire Dracula, or the product of unrestrained animal-like urges, Dr. Jekyll’s Mr. Hyde. Such literary monsters have been powerfully represented in horror movies, which have presented increasingly terrifying creatures from the edge of civilization and human experience—swamps, ocean depths, and outer space. Such fictional monsters undoubtedly owe their power to the eternal fascination of the clash between good and evil in human affairs and the old theological themes of judgment and damnation. Few stories achieved this metaphysical terror so powerfully as Robert Louis Stevenson’s Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, in which the possibilities of evil inherent in all human beings are released from the kindly Dr. Jekyll in the shape of the demonic Mr. Hyde. Stevenson also varied this theme in his short story Markheim, where a debauched murderer is confronted by an angelic alter ego. Mysterious creatures reported from isolated places, having an existence somewhere between myth and natural history, continue to fascinate and attract while playing on subconscious anxieties. The discovery by Western scientists of the gorilla and the colocynth have given substantive hope to the idea that some of the legends of monsters may refer to actual survivors of an1048

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. cient species. This has generated a new field of research, cryptozoology.

Loch Ness Monster A large, aquatic, dinosaur-like creature is said to inhabit the large area of Loch Ness in Scotland, a lake about 24 miles long and a mile wide with a depth of from 433 to 754 feet. Since a monster was reported in ancient Gaelic legends and in a biography of St. Columba circa 565 C.E., it is supposed that there may be a colony of monsters. Modern interest dates from the 1930s, when a number of witnesses reported sightings. The creature has been photographed repeatedly and even filmed, though some of the more frequently reproduced films have been shown to be frauds. It appears to be about 45 feet long, of which 10 feet is head and neck, 20 feet the body, and 15 feet the tail. The head is small and sometimes lifted out of the water on the neck, high above the body. The skin is rough and dark brown in color, and in movement the creature sometimes appears to contort its body into a series of humps. It can move at speeds of around 13 knots, and in general appearance resembles a prehistoric plesiosaurus. On April 8, 1976, the monster made the front page of the New York Times, which featured records of an underwater camera using a sonar echo technique. Known in Britain affectionately as ‘‘Nessie,’’ in the mid 1970s the creature was given the formal name of Nessiteras rhombopteryx by naturalist Sir Peter Scott in an attempt to secure official protection. A British Act of Parliament requires that any rare species of animal qualifying for conservation must have a scientific name. The Loch Ness Monster is the most famous of a number of reported lake monsters, such as the similar creature reported at Lough Muck in Donegal. In other parts of England and Scotland, reported creatures include Morgawr in the area of Falmouth, Cornwall, and Mhorag (or Morag) in Loch Morar, West Inverness, Scotland. There are numerous reports of sightings, and some photographs. In 1910, a plesiosaurus-type creature was reported in Nahuel Huapi, Patagonia. Interest in the Loch Ness monster was stimulated by reports of the decomposing body of a sea creature caught by the Japanese trawler ‘‘Zuiyo Maru’’ about 30 miles east of Christchurch, New Zealand, on April 25, 1977. The carcass was about 30 feet long, weighed two tons, and was raised from a depth of approximately 900 feet. For a time, it was suspended above the trawler deck by a crane, but the captain feared that the evil-smelling fluid dripping from the carcass would pollute his catch of whiptail fish and ordered the creature to be dumped overboard. Before this was done, Michihiko Yano, an official of the Taiyo Fishery Company aboard the vessel, took four color photographs and made a sketch of the carcass, after taking measurements. He described the creature as like a snake with a turtle’s body and with front and rear flippers and a tail six feet in length. This suggests a creature resembling the plesiosaurus, which flourished from 200 to 100 million years ago. When Taiyo Fisheries executives heard about the unusual catch, they radioed their trawlers around New Zealand, ordering them to try to recover the carcass, but without success. Japanese journalists named the creature ‘‘The New Nessie’’ after Scotland’s famous Loch Ness Monster, and a large Tokyo department store planned to market stuffed dolls of the creature. Fujior Yasuda of the faculty of fisheries at Tokyo University has examined Yano’s photographs and concluded that the creature was definitely not a species of fish, and Toshio Shikama, a Yokohama University paleontologist, was convinced that the creature was not a fish or a mammoth seal. For reports of this incident see the London Daily Telegraph (July 21, 1977), London Times (July 21, 1977), and Fortean Times (no. 22, summer 1977).

Yeti (or Abominable Snowman) The Yeti is a giant humanoid creature that has long been part of the folklore of the high Himalayan region in Asia. The

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. popular name ‘‘Abominable Snowman’’ derives from the Tibetan term Metoh-Kangmi or ‘‘Wild Man of the Snows.’’ Other names in the Himalayan regions of Kashmir and Nepal are Jungli-admi or Sogpa—‘‘Wild Men of the Woods.’’ There are many stories told by Sherpas of the giant Yeti that carried away human children or even adults. In 1951, such stories suddenly attracted scientific interest when a photograph of a large Yeti footprint taken by mountaineer Eric Shipton on an Everest Reconnaissance Expedition appeared. The Abominable Snowman had been reported by westerners as early as 1832 in an article by B. H. Hodgson for the initial volume of the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. The first European to see Yeti footprints was Major L. A. Waddell, who found them in the snows of northeastern Sikkim at 17,000 feet in 1889, but believed them to be tracks of the great yellow snow bear (Ursus isabellinus). Additional reports filtered back to the west through the twentieth century. In 1925, N. A. Tombazi, a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, saw a large humanoid creature walking upright at a distance of 300 yards in Sikkim, and afterward examined footprints in the snow. In February 1942, Slavomir Rawicz escaped from a Siberian prisoner-of-war camp with six companions and crossed the Himalayas to India. In his book The Long Walk (1956), Rawicz claimed that he saw two Yeti-type creatures, eight feet tall, in an area between Bhutan and Sikkim. In the 1950s, various expeditions to track down the Yeti failed to produce any tangible evidence of its existence, but in 1972 a Sherpa named Da Temba saw a 4’6’’ creature, possibly a small Yeti, in Nepal. The cumulative effect of the large number of reports of Yeti sightings from Sherpas reinforces the possibility that there is a large humanoid creature in the Himalayas, but the area is a vast one and the creature could be even more elusive than the Loch Ness monster.

Bigfoot Other creatures of a Yeti type have been reported frequently from different areas of the world, notably isolated regions of the Pacific Northwest. The popular term ‘‘Bigfoot’’ seems to have been a newspaper invention for the creature named ‘‘Sasquatch’’ by the Salish Indians of southwest British Columbia. The Huppa tribe in the Klamath mountains of Northern California use the name Oh-mah-’ah, sometimes shortened to Omah, while the name Seeahtiks is used in Vancouver Island. It is interesting to note that reports of Yeti-type creatures cover a fairly consistent trail through the remote mountainous regions of Asia across to similar regions in Alaska, Canada, and North America, suggesting a rare and elusive species distributed over similar isolated areas. In the Russian areas of Asia, such creatures have been named Almast, Alma or Shezhnyy Chelovek. Bigfoot has been frequently reported in Canadian and North American territories from the early nineteenth century on. In modern times, construction workers in Northern California claimed to have seen a large ape-like creature, eight to ten feet tall, in Bluff Creek in October 1958. It walked upright and left large footprints, which indicated a creature weighing 800 pounds. Investigations were stimulated after the widespread showing of a 16mm color film supposedly of the creature taken by Roger Patterson, a rancher in Bluff Creek, California, on October 7, 1967. This film shows what appears to be an erect ape-like figure at a distance of some 30 feet. Such creatures were systematically investigated by Irish explorer and big-game hunter Peter Byrne, who organized a three-year search in 1971. He traveled many thousands of miles between Nepal, Canada, and the United States, interviewing hundreds of individuals and evaluating claimed sightings of Bigfoot. Byrne visited Patterson before his death in 1972 and found his story and the film convincing. Byrne, like fellow researchers, was repeatedly distracted by the likes of the 1968 prankster in Colville, Washington, who tied 16 inch footshaped plywood boards to his feet and made tracks in the woods. He sent a photograph to Peter Byrne, who dismissed it

Monsters as an obvious fake. Meanwhile an ordinance in Skamania County, Washington, prohibits wanton slaying of apecreatures, with substantial penalties. Further interest in Bigfoot was generated in 1982 by the sighting reported by Paul Freeman, an employee of the U.S. Forest Service. He came face to face with the creature at a distance of no more than 200 feet. Both fled in fear of the other. Interest in Bigfoot continues and over the last generation several research centers such as the Bigfoot Information Center and the now defunct Sasquatch Investigations of MidAmerica were established. While Forteans have kept interest in Bigfoot alive, the dearth of definitive encounters with the creature have caused many to doubt the authenticity of the legends. Sources: Baumann, Elwood David. Bigfoot: America’s Abominable Snowman. New York: Franklin Watts, 1976. Reprint, New York: Dell, 1976. Bord, Janet, and Colin Bord. Alien Animals. Harrisburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 1981. ———. The Bigfoot Casebook. Harrisburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 1982. Byrne, Peter. The Search for Big Foot: Monster, Myth or Man. Washington, DC: Acropolis Books, 1975. Reprint, New York: Pocket Books, 1976. Campbell, Elizabeth M., and David Solomon. The Search for Morag. London: Tom Stacey, 1972. Clark, Jerome. Encyclopedia of Strange and Unexplained Phenomena. Detroit: Gale Research, 1993. Costello, Peter. In Search of Lake Monsters. London: Garnsteon Press; New York: Coward, 1974. Reprint, London: Panther, 1975. Dinsdale, Tim. Loch Ness Monster. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1961. Farson, Daniel, and Angus Hall. Mysterious Monsters. London: Aldus Books, 1978. Florescu, Radu. In Search of Frankenstein. New York: New York Graphic Society, 1975. Gould, Rupert T. The Case for the Sea-Serpent. London: Philip Allan, 1930. Reprint, Detroit: Singing Tree Press, 1969. ———. The Loch Ness Monster and Others. London: Geoffrey Bles; New York: Citadel Press, 1976. Halpin, Marjorie, and Michael M. Ames, eds. Manlike Monsters on Trial: Early Records and Modern Evidence. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press, 1980. Heuvlmans, Bernard. In the Wake of the Sea-Serpents. New York: Hill and Wang, 1868. Reprint, London: Rupert HartDavis, 1968. ———. On the Track of Unknown Animals. New York: Hill and Wang, 1958. Rev. ed. 1965. Reprint, London: Paladin Books, 1970. Hodgson, B. H. ‘‘On the Mammalia of Nepal.’’ Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 1 (1832). Mackal, Roy Paul. The Monster of Loch Ness. Chicago: Swallow Press, 1976. McNally, Raymont T., and Radu Florescu. In Search of Dracula: A True History of Dracula and Vampire Legends. New York: New York Graphic Society, 1972. Rev. ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1994. Meredith, Dennis L. Search at Loch Ness: The Expedition of the New York Times and The Academy of Applied Science. New York: Quadrangle/New York Times Book Co., 1977. Meurger, Michel, with Claude Gagnon. Lake Monster Traditions: A Cross Cultural Analysis. London: Fortean Tomes, 1988. Moon, Mary. Ogopogo: The Okanagan Mystery. London: David & Charles, 1977. Napier, John. Bigfoot: The Sasquatch and Yeti in Myth and Reality. London: Jonathan Cape, 1972. Reprint, New York: E. P. Dutton, 1973. Reprint, London: Abacus, 1976. Price, Vincent, and V. B. Price. Monsters. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1981. 1049

Montgomery, Ruth (Schick) Sanderson, Ivan T. Abominable Snowman: Legend Comes to Life. New York: Chilton, 1961. Scott, Peter. ‘‘Naming the Loch Ness Monster.’’ Nature (December 11, 1975). Shackley, Myra. Wildmen: Yeti, Sasquatch and the Neanderthal Enigma. London: Thames & Hudson, 1983. Thompson, C. J. S. The Mystery and Lore of Monsters. London, 1930. Reprint, New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1968. New York: Citadel Press, 1970. Witchell, Nicholas. The Loch Ness Story. London, 1974. Rev. ed. London: Penguin Books, 1975.

Montgomery, Ruth (Schick) Award-winning journalist with special interest in psychic healing, channeling, and extrasensory perception. She was born in Sumner, Illinois, educated at Baylor University (1930–35) and Purdue University (1934). She married Robert H. Montgomery on December 26, 1935. She began a career in journalism as women’s editor for the Louisville Herald-Post, Kentucky. She later worked as a feature writer for the St. Louis Post-Dispatch and the Indianapolis Star and as a reporter with the Detroit News, Detroit Times, Waco News-Tribune, Chicago Tribune, and the New York Daily News. She moved to Washington, D.C., in 1944 and served as a correspondent for the International News Service through the 1950s, frequently traveling around the world as a foreign correspondent. She won the Pall Mall Journalism Award (1947), the Front Page Award from the Indianapolis Press Club (1957), and the George R. Holmes Journalism Award (1958). In 1958, she became interested in psychic phenomena after writing a series of articles on the occult. Although at first skeptical, she continued her research. She met medium Arthur Ford, who told her that she had the ability to do automatic writing, and has since been influenced by what she calls ‘‘my guides,’’ discarnate spirits that have assisted her writings on such subjects as psychic healing, reincarnation, and psychic faculties. She broke into the spotlight with her biographical presentation of Washington psychic Jeane Dixon in A Gift of Prophecy (1965), which the following year won the Best NonFiction Book of the Year Award from Indiana University. Following the death of Arthur Ford in 1971, Montgomery came forward with a volume of communications, A World Beyond, which she claimed originated in her contact with his spirit. She built a following in the emerging New Age movement and in her 1979 volume Strangers Among Us presented the idea of walk-ins, people who had died but whose bodies had been immediately taken over and life continued by returning spirits. People claiming to be such walk-ins have now emerged as leaders of various New Age groups. In the 1980s she became a popular spokesperson within the New Age movement and an advocate of a more apocalyptic understanding of society’s moving into the New Age through a cataclysmic event, accompanying a pole shift, at the end of the 1990s. In 1986 she released her autobiography, Ruth Montgomery: Herald of the New Age. Sources: Melton, J. Gordon, Jerome Clark, and Aidan Kelly. New Age Encyclopedia. Detroit: Gale Research, 1990. Montgomery, Ruth. Born to Heal. New York: Coward, McCann & Geochegan, 1973. ———. Companions Along the Way. New York: Coward, McCann & Geochegan, 1974. ———. A Gift of Prophecy: The Phenomenal Jeane Dixon. New York: William Morrow, 1965. ———. Here and Hereafter. New York: Coward, McCann & Geochegan, 1966. ———. A Search for the Truth. New York: William Morrow, 1967. ———. Strangers Among Us. New York: Coward, McCann & Geochegan, 1979. 1050

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. ———. The World Before. New York: Coward, McCann & Geochegan, 1976. ———. A World Beyond. New York: Coward, McCann & Geochegan, 1971. ———. The World to Come: The Guide Long-Awaited Predictions for a Dawning Age. New York: Harmony Books, 1999.

Móo, Queen According to the anthropological fancies of Augustus le Plongeon, the Queen of Yucatan. Le Plongeon’s account of Queen Móo became a major building block in the contemporary myth of the lost continent of Lemuria. Sources: Le Plongeon, Augustus. Queen Móo and the Egyptian Sphinx. London, 1896.

Moody, Raymond Avery, Jr. (1944–


Raymond A. Moody, whose 1975 book Life After Life helped launch a new generation of research on life after death, was born on June 30, 1944 in Porterdale, Georgia. He attended the University of Virginia where he successively earned his B.A. (1966), M.A. (1967), and Ph.D. (1969) in philosophy. While pursuing his education, in 1966 he married Louise Lambach. He joined the faculty at East Carolina University in 1969. He left his university post in 1972 to pursue a degree in medicine (his father was a physician), which he completed at Medical College of Georgia in 1976. He completed his residency in psychiatry at the University of Virginia Medical Center. While completing his medical degree, Moody began to collect accounts of people who had either died and come back to life or come close to dying, what he termed near-death experiences. These accounts became the basis of a best-selling book, Life after Life (1975), and along with the work of Elizabeth Kübler-Ross, provided the foundation for a generation of research on survival of death and a new starting point for people engaged in counseling the dying. While accounts of the neardeath experience had been collected for centuries and had become the subject of attention by psychical research, they were virtually unknown to parapsychologists who had largely abandoned research of life-after-death in favor of laboratory research on basic ESP experiences. The success of Moody’s first book freed him to continue his research on near-death experiences and he wrote a best-selling sequel, Reflections on Life after Life, released in 1977. He traveled widely through the 1980s, teaching and lecturing on his work. During the 1990s, his research has taken on a new focus toward those who have lost a loved one. In this regard, he has explored the idea of evoking apparitions of the deceased as a means of resolving unfinished issues in a relationship otherwise ended by the death of one party. To this end he constructed what is known as a psychomanteum, a room especially designed to produce a favorable alteration of consciousness and facilitate the production of apparitions. This work became the subject of his latest book, Reunions: Visionary Encounters with Departed Loved Ones (1994). The psychomanteum was constructed at Moody’s private research center, the John Dee Memorial Theater of the Mind, named for the Elizabethan magician. Here he not only counsels people on concerns about death, but carries on a program of research and education, including periodical conferences for professionals. Both his philosophical training and his research have provided Moody with material for his mature reflections on the afterlife which have appeared in his two books, Coming Back: A Psychiatrist Explores Past Life Journeys (1991) and The Last Laugh (1998). The Theater of the Mind is located in rural Alabama and may be contacted at P. O. Box 1882, Anniston, AL 36202. Moody has a website at http://www.lifeafterlife.com.

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. Sources: Moody, Raymond. Coming Back: A Psychiatrist Explores Past Life Journeys. World Publications, 1991. ———. The Last Laugh. Charlottesville, Va.: Hampton Road Publishing, 1998. ———. Life after Life. New York: Bantam Books, 1975. ———. Reflections on Life After Life. Harrisburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 1977. ———. Reunions: Visionary Encounters With Departed Loved Ones. New York: Ballantine, 1994. Raymond Moody. http://www.lifeafterlife.com. May 20, 2000. June 20, 2000.

Moon The Moon was the subject of widespread folklore in ancient times. While the brightest object in the night sky, it is not so bright that its surface texture is obscured. The patterns on the lunar surface have, like clouds, taken on anthropomorphic characteristics. Some saw the face of a man; others, various animals. The changing phases of the Moon and its seeming disappearance for a day or two each month also led to additional speculations. Modern werewolf lore has the wolf-like side of the person showing itself only during the evenings of the full Moon. The Moon was associated with various gods and goddesses, though primarily the latter. In Hindu astrology, the Moon was associated with the god Nanna, though the more common associations are with the Greek Artemis, the Roman Luna, or the Moonlight-Giving Mother of the Zuni. It was especially associated with females as they identified the lunar cycle with the menstrual cycle. In the contemporary world, the Moon has assumed a central role in the mythology developed by NeoPaganism, especially its feminist element. The most comprehensive system for gathering the many observations about the Moon, attempting to understand its significance and drawing implications for behavior from it, was astrology. The 28-day cycle of the Moon became a convenient way of dividing the solar year into more manageable units we have come to know as months. (Actually the Moon takes only 27.32 days to orbit the earth, but because of the movement around the Sun it takes 29.53 days for it to complete a cycle from full Moon to full Moon. In astrology the Moon represents the inner emotional side of the self, the subconscious mind and psyche. The Moon’s placement in the chart reveals the creative side of the person, where he/she might give birth to new ideas, how his/her nurturing side is expressed, or where great passion is resting. The Moon is paired off with the Sun, related to the overall aspects of one’s outer visible life. Over the years, from folklore and astrology, the Moon was identified with a variety of behavior patterns, most notably mental disorders, or lunacy. The moon has been seen as effecting crime, suicides, accidents, and births, their occurrences believed to rise and fall with the phases of the Moon. It is believed by many still that, for example, the Moon will stimulate pregnant women to give birth, an observation bolstered by the alternating full and empty birth wards nurses have reported at hospitals. These observations have become the subject of research through the twentieth century, though many of these studies have been somewhat buried in various psychological journals. In the 1980s and 1990s psychologists I. W. Kelly and R. Martens were the focus of several studies testing lunar assumptions beginning with a sweep of the literature in 1986 attempting to discover any evidence for a correlation between lunar phases and birthrates. They discovered that studies had been done in various settings in different countries with large samples, but that no data tied a higher rate of spontaneous births to a particular phase of the Moon. A similar negative correlation has been found between the Moon and an upsurge of be-

Moon, Sun Myung havior associated with mental illness or suicide (including number of suicides, attempts at suicides, or threats of suicide). Early in 2000, news reports appeared of a German study that showed a statistical correlation between the Moon phases and alcohol consumption. However, on checking, the report appeared to have garbled the original report written by HansJoachim Mittmeyer of the University of Türbingen and Norbert Filipp of the Health Institute in Reutlingen. The pair of researchers had done a study of arrests for alcohol in Germany over a lunar cycle without finding any statistically significant variations from day to day. While much interesting and suggestive data on astrological relationships have been produced over the twentieth century, especially that associated with Michel Gauquelin, the data on the immediate effects of the Moon on behavior as expressed in popular folklore appears to be negative. While there remain areas that have gone unresearched, enough has been done so that the burden of proof has shifted onto the shoulders of those who now make such claims. Sources: Carrol, Robert Todd. ‘‘Full Moon and Lunar Effects.’’ Skeptic’s Dictionary. http://www.skepdic.com/fullmoon.html. June 11, 2000. Chudler, Eric. ‘‘Moonstruck! Does the Full Moon Influence Behavior.’’ http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/moon.html. June 11, 2000. Kelly, I. W., and R. Martens. ‘‘Lunar Phases and Birthrate: An Update.’’ Psychological Reports 75 (1996): 507–11. ———, James Rotton, and Roger Culver. ‘‘The Moon Was Full and Nothing Happened: A Review of Studies on the Moon and Human Behavior and Human Belief.’’ In J. Nickell, B. Karr, and T. Genoni, eds. The Outer Edge. Amherst, N.Y.: CSICOP, 1996.

Moon, Sun Myung (1920–


Founder of the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity, more popularly referred to as the Unification Church. Moon was born in Korea on January 6, 1920, the son of Presbyterian parents. He later noted that on Easter Day in 1936 he was visited by Jesus and told that God had chosen him to establish the kingdom of heaven on earth. He attended Watseka University. During his early adult years he received revelations on a regular basis, and after World War II he became a full-time independent preacher in North Korea. His activities were curtailed by his arrest by the North Korean government. Released in 1950, he spent three years preaching in Pusan and then moved to Seoul and founded the Unification Church in 1953. Some of his revelations, containing the basic ideas that had been revealed to him, were published in 1957 as The Divine Principle. Moon is seen by his followers as the lord of the second advent, who has come to complete Christ’s unfinished work. His teachings strive to create God-centered families in order to make the world a better place for Christ’s second coming. In 1960 he married his present wife, Hak Ja Han, who has, in bearing 12 children, helped Moon complete his messianic task. Moon hand-selects marriages between his followers which fulfills his vision of God-centered families. For example, a mass wedding was held in New York’s Madison Square Garden to attain this purpose. In 1959 Moon sent his first church leader to the United States. Moon himself came for the first time in 1965. During that visit he had a sitting with Spiritualist medium Arthur A. Ford who spoke glowingly of his work and had his picture taken with President Dwight Eisenhower. He made subsequent visits in 1969, 1971, and 1972, after which he settled in the United States. From that point the church began to grow, but also became an object of controversy as many parents were angered when their sons and daughters dropped out of college 1051

Moonsign Book and careers to become workers in Moon’s organization. The organization also reached out to speak to the influential in a variety of fields, including science, the media, and religion. As the anticult movement formed in the mid-1970s, the Unification Church was singled out as its main target. Moon was criticized from every angle. He was pictured as a power-hungry dictator who turned his followers into mindless zombies. Finally in the early 1980s, in spite of the widespread support of the religious community, Moon was convicted on a tax violation charge and eventually served 13 months in jail (1984–85), but upon his release he immediately resumed leadership of the church. Over the years Moon delivered lectures regularly, which have been gathered into a collected work called The Master Speaks. In prison he wrote a two-volume book, God’s Warning to the World (1985). As the anticult controversy receded in the 1990s, Moon and his small church became a more stable part of a wider religious landscape. Sources: Barker, Eileen. The Making of a Moonie. Oxford, England: Basil Blackwell, 1984. Mickler, Michael L. The Unification Church in America: A Bibliography and Research Guide. New York: Garland, 1987. Moon, Sun Myung. Christianity in Crisis: New Hope. New York: HSA-UWC, 1974. ———. A Prophet Speaks Today. New York: HSA-UWC, 1975.

Moonsign Book Popular publication concerned with influence of the moon on plants and health that has become a key annual publication of Llewellyn Publications, P.O. Box 64383, St. Paul, MN 55164.

Moore, Marcia (1928–1979) Marcia Moore, an astrologer and metaphysical teacher, was born on May 22, 1928, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the daughter of Robert L. Moore, the founder of the chain of Sheraton Hotels. She attended Radcliffe, where she chose astrology as the subject of her senior thesis. The heart of the work reported on the results of a questionnaire she had sent to the subscribers of a popular astrological periodical. The finished work would later be published under the title Astrology Today—A Socio-Psychological Survey (1960). Following graduation in 1960, Moore settled into a career as a teacher and writer. After a brief first marriage, in 1966 she married writer Mark Douglas. That same year, they coauthored the first of several books, Diet, Sex, and Yoga. It was followed by additional titles on yoga, reincarnation, and astrology. Increasingly, through the 1970s, Moore became a well-known leader in the astrological world and she was a leading force in integrating it with a reincarnation perspective. Reincarnation was the subject of her work on the faculty for the 1974 convention of the American Federation of Astrologers. She developed a technique called hypersentience that enabled people to recall their previous incarnations, and through the 1970s edited the Hypersentience Bulletin. Moore and Douglas separated in 1972, and she later married Howard Alltourian, Jr. She was at the height of her career in 1979 when she disappeared. On January 15, Alltourian returned home to find his wife missing. Nothing was heard from her. Two years later a portion of a skull was found that was eventually identified as Moore’s, though the exact circumstances of her death are unknown. It was known that during her final years she had been experimenting with a mind-altering drug to expand her consciousness (the subject of her last book) and had also become involved with an obscure occult group, but the role of either in her death is unknown. 1052

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. Sources: Moore, Marcia. Astrology Today—A Socio-Psychological Survey. New York: Lucis Publishing, 1960. ———. The History of Astrology. York Harbor, Maine: Arcane Publications, 1974. ———, and Mark Douglas. Astrology in Action. York Harbor, Maine: Arcane Publications, 1970. ———, and Mark Douglas. Diet, Sex and Yoga. York Harbor, Maine: Arcane Publications, 1966. ———, with Howard S. Alltourian. Journeys into the Bright World. A Personal Account of the Ketamite Experience. Rockport, Maine: ParaResearch, 1978.

Mopses, Order of the A secret association founded in Germany in the eighteenth century, spreading through Holland, Belgium, and France. It was popularly believed to be a black magic order, replacing the Satanic goat with a dog as an object of worship. However, it seems clear that it was really a somewhat whimsical cryptoMasonic order, founded partially in reaction to the papal bull of Pope Clement XII on April 24, 1738, which condemned Freemasonry. Immediately after their establishment, they departed from Masonic tradition by admitting females to membership and to all the offices, except that of Grand Master, which was for life. They did, however, create a new office of Grand Mistress, elected every six months. The ceremonies were a unique variation on Masonic ritual, which probably gave rise to rumors of its worshipping a dog. The candidate for admission did not knock, but had to scratch at the door, and, being purposely kept waiting, was obliged to bark like a dog. On being admitted into the lodge, he had a collar placed round his neck, to which a chain was attached. He was blindfolded and led nine times round the room, while the Mopses present made as great a din as possible with sticks, swords, chains, shovels, and dismal howlings. The candidate was then questioned as to his intentions, and having replied that he desired to become a ‘‘Mops,’’ was asked by the master whether he was prepared to kiss the most ignoble part of that animal. Of course this raised the candidate’s anger, but in spite of his resistance, the model of a dog, made of wax, wood, or some other material, was pushed against his face. Having taken the oath, he had his eyes unbandaged, and was then taught the secret signs.

Morag See Mhorag Morgan le Fay Sister of King Arthur and wife of King Urien of Gore. Arthur gave into her keeping the scabbard of his sword Excalibur, but she gave it to Sir Accolon whom she loved and had a forged scabbard made. Arthur, however, recovered the real sheath, but was again deceived by her. Morgan le Fay seems to have derived from the Celtic deities Morrigan, Macha, and Modron (a divine mother). She figured as a queen of the Land of Faerie and as such appears in French and Italian romance. She first appeared in the Arthurian legends in Geiffrey of Manmouth’s twelfth-century volume, Vita Merlini. It was she who, on one occasion, threw Excalibur into a lake. She usually presented her favorites with a ring and retained them by her side as did Venus in Tannhäuser. Her myth is a parallel of that of Eos and Tithonus and is possibly derived from a sun and dawn myth. Sources: Lacy, J. Lacy, ed. The Arturian Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing, 1986.

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Morgawr A Loch Ness type monster observed and photographed in the area of Falmouth, Cornwall, England. On November 17, 1976, Morgawr was sighted by Tony ‘‘Doc’’ Shiels and David Clarke (editor of Cornish Life magazine) in the Helford estuary near Falmouth. A photograph taken by Clarke was reproduced in Fortean Times (no. 22, summer 1977). Although the camera had unfortunately jammed, resulting in a superimposition of pictures, the general impression is of the head of a creature similar to that photographed by Shiels (Fortean Times 19) and some photographs taken by Shiels of the Loch Ness Monster May 21, 1977 (best one reproduced in both Cornish Life and the London Daily Mirror for June 9, 1977). Serious charges of fraud have been expressed concerning Shiels’s pictures on the grounds that he is well known in conjuring circles as an exponent of magic simulations of psychic effects. However, he claims to be an avid monster-hunter, and has collected other reports of sightings of Morgawr, as well as publishing his own photographs of the Loch Ness monster. Two photographs of Morgawr taken by Gerry Bennett of Seworgan, Cornwall, from Mawnan beach on January 31, 1977, were also reproduced in Fortean Times 22, together with photographs and reports of Mhorag, another Scottish monster of a Loch Ness type. Sources: Clark, Jerome. Encyclopedia of Strange and Unexplained Phenomena. Detroit: Gale Research, 1993.

Morien (or Morienus) (fl. 12th century


Twelfth-century alchemist. It is commonly supposed that Morien, or Morienus, as he is sometimes styled, was born at Rome, and it is also reported that, like Raymond Lully and several other early practitioners of alchemy, he combined evangelical ardor with his scientific tastes. While still a mere boy, and resident in his native city, Morien became acquainted with the writings of Adfar, the Arabian philosopher, and gradually the youth’s acquaintance with these developed into tense admiration, the result being that he became filled with the desire to make the personal acquaintance of the author in question. Accordingly he left Rome and set out for Alexandria, this being the home of Adfar, and, on reaching his destination, did not have to wait long before gaining his desired end. The learned Arabian accorded him a hearty welcome, and a little while afterward the two were living together on very friendly terms, the elder man daily imparting knowledge to the younger, who showed himself a remarkably apt pupil. For some years this state of affairs continued, but at length Adfar died, and thereupon Morien left Alexandria and went to Palestine, found a retreat in the vicinity of Jerusalem, and began to lead a hermit’s life there. Meanwhile the erudition of the deceased Arabian acquired a wide celebrity, and some of his manuscripts chanced to fall into the hands of Kalid, sultan of Egypt. He was a person of active and enquiring mind, and observing that on the cover of the manuscripts it was stated that the secret of the philosophers’ stone was written within, he naturally grew doubly inquisitive. He found, however, that he himself could not elucidate the precious documents, and therefore he summoned illuminati from far and near to his court at Cairo, offering a large reward to the man who should solve the mystery. Many people presented themselves in consequence, but the majority of them were mere charlatans, and thus the sultan was duped mercilessly. Presently news of these doings reached the ears of Morien. It incensed him to think that his old preceptor’s wisdom and writings were being made a laughingstock, so he decided that he must go to Cairo himself, and not only see justice done to

Morin, Jean-Baptiste Adfar’s memory, but also seize what might prove a favorable opportunity of converting Kalid to Christianity. The sultan was inclined to be cynical when the hermit arrived, nor would he listen to attacks on the Muslim faith, yet he was sufficiently impressed to grant Morien a house wherein to conduct research, and here the alchemist worked for a long time, ultimately perfecting the elixir. However, he did not make any attempt to gain the proper reward, and instead took his leave without the sultan’s awareness, simply leaving the precious fluid in a vase on which he inscribed the suggestive words: ‘‘He who possesses all has no need of others.’’ But Kalid was at a loss to know how to proceed further, and for a long time he made great efforts to find Morien and bring him again to his court. Years went by, and all search for the vanished alchemist proved vain, but once, when the Sultan was hunting in the neighborhood of Jerusalem, one of his servants chanced to hear of a hermit who was able to create gold. Convinced that this must be none other than Morien, Kalid straightway sought him out. Once more the two met, and again the alchemist made strenuous efforts to win the other from Islam. Many discussions took place between the pair, both speaking on behalf of their respective religions, yet Kalid showed no inclination to desert the faith of his fathers. As a result Morien relinquished the quest in despair, but it is said that, on parting with the sultan, he duly instructed him in the mysteries of the transcendent science. Nothing is known about Morien’s subsequent history, and the likelihood is that the rest of his days were spent quietly at his hermitage. He was credited with sundry alchemistic writings, said to have been translated from Arabic, but the ascription rests on the slenderest evidence. One of these works was entitled Liber de Distinctione Mercurii Aquarum, and it is interesting to recall that a manuscript copy of this work belonged to the great chemist Robert Boyle (1627–1691), one of the founders of the Royal Society in London, while another is entitled Liber de Compositione Alchemiae, and this is printed in the first volume of Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa. Better known than either of these, and more likely to be really from Morien’s pen, is a third treatise styled De Re Metallica, Metallorum Transmutatione, et occulta summague Antiquorum Medicine Libellus, which was repeatedly published, the first edition appearing at Paris 1559.

Morin, Jean-Baptiste (1583–1656) Jean-Baptiste Morin, French physician, mathematician and the leading astrologer of the seventeenth century, was born in Villefranche on February 23, 1583. Morin studied at Avignon, where he received his medical degree and began a career as a physician. However, astrology fascinated him, and he secured a position as astrologer to the duke of Luxembourg and later the duke d’Effiat. Then in 1830 the king of France offered him the chair in mathematics at the College of France, and Morin moved to Paris, where he remained for the rest of his life. While formally a professor of mathematics, he also functioned as court astrologer. As such he was present in the group witnessing the birth of Louis XIV in 1638. He served Cardinal Richelieu (who is noted to have disliked Morin personally but was respectful of his knowledge) and Cardinal Mazarin. He would be the last of the outstanding French astrologers prior to the modern era, as astrology was on the wane under the attack of the new science. However, he was able to make a number of contributions to the modernizing of astrology, a necessity to prevent its being completely stamped out. Morin developed a system of division of the astrological houses, now called the Morinean system, based upon the equal division of the equator, which is then projected onto an ecliptic as means of handling the elliptical orbit of the earth. During his life Morin published little. His major work, the Astrologia Gallica, was published in Latin in 1661, five years after his death. It was largely unread except by a few intellectu1053


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als until 1897, when a French translation was finally published. Thus the work informed the pioneers of the French phase of the modern astrological revival. Morin died in Paris on November 6, 1656. Sources: Brau, Jean-Louis, Helen Weaver, and Allan Edmands. Larousse Encyclopedia of Astrology. New York: New American Library, 1977. Morin, Jean-Baptiste. Astrologia Gallica. The Hague, Netherlands, 1661.

Mormons See Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Morphogenetic Fields Term normally used somewhat loosely to indicate the mysterious factors that influence the development of form and characteristics in nature. A special theory of the action of morphogenetic fields, relevant to occult and New Age considerations, was proposed in 1981 by Rupert Sheldrake in his theory concerning what he termed formative causation. This theory also has relevance to such parapsychological phenomena as clairvoyance, telepathy, and reincarnation. Sources: Sheldrake, Rupert. A New Science of Life: The Hypothesis of Formative Causation. London: Blond & Briggs, 1981.

Morris, L(ouis) A(nne) Meurig (1899–


Early twentieth-century British inspirational medium through whom an entity who chose the name ‘‘Power’’ delivered religious and philosophical teachings from the platform in a manner analogous to modern channeling. Some signs of Morris’s psychic gifts were noticeable at an early age, but they were stifled by an orthodox education. However, she began to develop rapidly after a first séance with a direct voice medium in Newton Abbot in 1922. Within six weeks she went under control. ‘‘Sunshine,’’ the spirit of a child, spoke through her, and ‘‘Sister Magdalene,’’ the spirit of a French nun, assumed charge as principal trance control. The prediction came through that Morris would be trained for the delivery of teaching by a spirit called ‘‘Power.’’ Under the control of ‘‘Power,’’ the medium’s soprano voice changed to a ringing baritone, her mannerisms became masculine and priestly, and the teachings disclosed an erudition and sophisticated philosophy that was far above the intellectual capacities of the medium. In 1929, Laurence Cowen, well-known author and playwright, came in contact with Morris. ‘‘Power’’ convinced him of the truth of survival and filled him with a missionary spirit. Hitherto an agnostic, Cowen became a convert to Spiritualism, associated himself with Morris, and arranged a long series of Sunday meetings in the Fortune Theatre in London for the general public. Wide publicity accompanied the sermons for some time in the press. Public attention was further aroused by the provincial tours Cowen arranged at great personal sacrifice. Morris’s rise into the forefront of inspired orators was punctuated with two publicly attested supernormal occurrences. First, an attempt was made by the Columbia Gramophone Company to make a phonograph record of ‘‘Power’s’’ voice. According to the publicly rendered account of company spokesperson C. W. Nixon, at the very commencement of the experiment an incident occurred that by all the rules should have spoiled the first side of the record. Ernest Oaten, president of the International Federation of Spiritualists, was in the chair, and, being unaware that the start 1054

was to be made without the appearance of the usual red light, he whispered loudly to Morris as she stood up: ‘‘Wait for the signal.’’ These words were picked up by the microphone and heard by the engineers in the recording room after the apparatus had been started, and it was believed they must be on the record. Later, when the second side of the record was to be made, there was confusion in starting, and towards the end, as if to make technical failure a certainty, Morris turned and walked several paces away from the microphone. A week before the record was ready for reproduction, Cowen telephoned Nixon and told him that ‘‘Power’’ had asserted that notwithstanding the technical mistakes the record would be a success, that Oaten’s whispered words would not be reproduced, and that the timing and volume of the voice would not be spoiled by the later accidents. This statement was so extraordinary and appeared to be so preposterous in view of technical expectations, that Nixon had it taken down word by word, and sent it in a sealed envelope to Oaten in Manchester with the request that he would keep it unopened until the record was ready, and the truth or otherwise of the prediction could be tested. The record was played in the Fortune Theatre on April 25, 1931. It was found perfect. The letter was opened and read. The prediction was true in every detail. The second strange incident occurred in the studios of the British Movietone Company where a talking film was made of ‘‘Power’s’’ oratory. Seventy people saw the microphones high in the air, held up by new half-inch ropes. The rope suddenly snapped (it was found cut as with a sharp knife) and a terrific crash startled all present. Within half an inch of Morris’s face, the microphone swept across the space and went swaying to and fro. A foreman rushed up and dragged the rope aside to keep it out of sight of the camera. The cameraman never stopped filming. Nor did Morris falter. In spite of the obvious danger to her life she never stirred and went on undisturbed with her trance speech. According to expert opinion the voice registering must have been a failure. Yet it was found that the accident had not the least influence. The record was perfect. According to ‘‘Power’s’’ later revelation, everything was planned. The ropes were supernormally severed so as to prove, by the medium’s demeanor, that she was indeed in trance (which a newspaper questioned) as no human being could have consciously exhibited such self-possession as she did when the accident occurred. Sir Oliver Lodge, in his book Past Years (1931), refers to Morris: ‘‘When the medium’s own vocal organs are obviously being used—as in most cases of trance utterances—the proof of supernormality rests mainly on the substance of what is being said; but, occasionally the manner is surprising. I have spoken above of a characteristically cultured mode of expression, when a scholar is speaking, not easily imitated by an uncultured person; but, in addition to that a loud male voice may emanate from a female larynx and may occasionally attain oratorical proportions. Moreover, the orator may deal with great themes in a style which we cannot associate with the fragile little woman who has gone into trance and is now under control. This is a phenomenon which undoubtedly calls attention to the existence of something supernormal, and can be appealed to as testifying to the reality and activity of a spiritual world. It is, indeed, being used for purposes of such demonstration, and seems well calculated to attract more and more attention from serious and religious people; who would be discouraged and offended by the trivial and barely intelligible abnormalities associated with what are called physical (or physiological) phenomena and would not be encouraged by what is called clairvoyance.’’ In April 1932, Morris sued the Daily Mail for a poster reading ‘‘Trance Medium Found Out,’’ and also for statements made in the article to which the poster referred. The action lasted for 11 days. The summary of Justice McCardie was dra-

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. matically interrupted by the sudden entrancement of Morris and an address of ‘‘Power’’ to the judge. The jury found for the newspaper on the plea of fair comment but added that no allegations of fraud or dishonesty against Morris had been proved. Morris’s appeal, after a hearing of four days before Lord Justices Scrutton, Lawrence, and Greer, was dismissed. The House of Lords, to which the case was afterward carried, agreed with the Court of Appeal.

Morris, Robert Lyle (1942–


Parapsychologist at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. He was born July 9, 1942, in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, and studied at the University of Pittsburgh (B.S., 1963) and Duke University, North Carolina (from which he received a doctorate in biological psychology). After two years of postdoctoral work at the Duke Medical Center and with J. B. Rhine, he became the research coordinator for the Psychical Research Foundation, Durham, North Carolina. Over the years he taught parapsychology and psychology courses as a visiting lecturer at the University of California—Santa Barbara; the University of California—Irvine; the University of Southern California; John F. Kennedy University (Orinda, California); and Syracuse University (New York). He was named Koestler Professor of Parapsychology at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1985. He served on the Council of the American Society for the Advancement of Science (1971–73), the board of the American Society for Psychical Research (1979–83; secretary, 1980–82), the board of the Gardner Murphy Research Institute (1971–83; secretary, 1971–74), and the board of the Society for Scientific Exploration (1985–86; vice president, 1985). He was on the board of the Parapsychological Association for many years, serving additionally as its AAAS representative (1971–77), president (1974 and 1985), vice president (1976 and 1984), secretary (1977), and treasurer (1975). He joined the Society for Psychical Research, London, in 1985, and joined its council in 1986. He has written over a hundred professional conference presentations and publications in the area of parapsychology, and he edited the Arno Press reprint program ‘‘Perspectives in Psychical Research.’’ His main research interests have included biological aspects of psi and anpsi, anomalous interactions between people and equipment, psychic development techniques, the psychology of conjuring, mentalism, and deception. Sources: Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House, 1991. Morris, Robert L. ‘‘Biology and Psychical Research.’’ Edited by Gertrude R. Schmeidler. In Parapsychology: Its Relation to Physics, Biology Psychology, and Psychiatry. N.p., 1976. ———. ‘‘Obtaining Non-Random Entry Points: A Complex Psi Process.’’ In Parapsychology Today. Edited by J. B. Rhine and R. Brier. New York: Citadel Press, 1968. ———. ‘‘PK on a Bio-Electrical System.’’ In Parapsychology Today. Edited by J. B. Rhine and R. Brier. New York: Citadel Press, 1968. ———. ‘‘The Psychobiology of Psi.’’ In Psychic Exploration. Edited by E. D. Mitchell. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1974. ———. ‘‘Some New Techniques in Animal Psi Research.’’ Journal of Parapsychology 31 (December 1967). Roll, W. G., R. L. Morris, and J. D. Morris, eds. Research in Parapsychology 1972. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1973. ———. Research in Parapsychology 1973. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1974. ———. Research in Parapyschology 1974. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1975. ———. Research in Parapsychology 1975. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1976.

Morrison, Richard James Pleasants, Helene, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Parapsychology. New York: Helix Press, 1964. Wiseman, Richard and Robert L. Morris. Guidelines for Testing Psychic Claimants. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1995.

Morris Pratt Institute The Morris Pratt Institute is the primary educational facility serving the National Spiritualist Association of Churches. It dates to the 1890s when popular Spiritualist minister/lecturer Moses Hull envisioned a training school to pass along the teachings of Spiritualism to a new generation, many of the first generation of Spiritualist leaders having already passed from the scene. He opened such a school in Ohio soon after the founding of the National Spiritualist Association (NSA) in 1893, but it survived only a few years. In 1901, Morris Pratt offered the mansion he had constructed at Whitewater, Wisconsin, to the NSA as a place to house a training school like the one Hull had begun. The large mansion seemed ideal; it had one room that could seat 400 people. However, the still-youthful NSA declined the offer, unable to see itself clear financially to manage the property. Pratt went ahead and incorporated the Morris Pratt Institute but died the following year before a school could be organized. Moses Hull picked up the vision in 1903 and organized the new school with himself, his wife and his daughter as the faculty. A few years later, the NSA organized a Bureau of Education. Through the person of Thomas Grimshaw, who succeeded Hull as president of the institute, the two organizations cooperated in the preparation of a course of study consisting of two parts: a general course on the ‘‘History, Philosophy, and Religion of Modern Spiritualism,’’ and an advanced course on ‘‘Spiritualism, Philosophy, Mediumship, and comparative Religion,’’ the latter completed by Victoria Barnes following Grimshaw’s death. The institute had a shaky history through much of the twentieth century. It closed during the Great Depression, reopened in 1935 but soon closed again. In 1946 the Whitewater property was closed and a new building to house the institute constructed in Wauwatosa, a Milwaukee suburb. In 1977 the building went through a complete renovation and rededication. The institute eventually merged into the NSA and is now its Educational Bureau. The institute is currently located at 111811 Waterplank Rd, Milwaukee, WI 53226-3340. Its website is at http://www.morrispratt.org/.

Morrison, Richard James (1795–1874) The contemporary revival of interest in astrology reversed a trend that saw astrology almost disappear from Western culture by the end of the eighteenth century. Astrology began its slow return in a format capable of existing in the scientificallyoriented world due in large part to the efforts of a series of nineteenth century British astrologers, most of whom wrote under pseudonyms. Richard James Morrison was one of the important writers and publishers who kept astrological knowledge alive. Morrison was born on June 15, 1795, in London. He joined the navy at the age of 11 and rose to the rank of lieutenant in 1815 during the Napoleonic wars. He retired in 1817, still a young man. He became interested in astrology through R. C. Smith, better known under his pen name, Raphael. Morrison adopted the pen name Zadkiel and began an astrological almanac, The Herald of Astrology (later Zadkiel’s Almanac), modeled upon Raphel’s The Prophetic Messenger. In 1835 Morrison completed his major literary contribution to the astrological revival, an abridged edition of William Lilly’s Christian Astrology. Zadkiel’s career was punctuated by a series of incidents that began in 1861 when his almanac predicted a bad year for Prince Albert, the popular consort of Queen Victoria. When Albert died unexpectedly at the end of the year, many gave Zad1055

Morrow, Felix kiel credit for an accurate prediction, but Edward Belcher, a writer for the London Daily Telegraph, attacked Morrison for spreading superstition to the gullible. Morrison countered with a libel suit and won, but was awarded only 20 shillings. His real reward was the publicity the case attracted, which substantially increased his sales. Morrison continued to publish his almanac until his death on April 5, 1874, after which it was continued by his students for many years. Sources: Morrison, R. J. An Introduction to Astrology by William Lilly, being the whole of that Celebrated Author’s Rules for the Practice of Horory Astology . . . London, 1835. Reprint, Hollywood, Calif.: Newcastle Publishing, 1972.

Morrow, Felix (1906–1988) American publisher who contributed significantly to the occult boom in the United States in the 1960s through his publishing house University Books and associated Mystic Arts Book Society. Morrow was born on June 3, 1906, in New York City in a Hasidic Jewish family. He grew up in a non-religious atmosphere and became drawn to both Marxism and Freudian teaching. He became a graduate student in philosophy at Columbia University (1929–31), where he researched the history of religions. As editor of the theoretical monthly magazine Fourth International, he wrote a thoughtful article on Marxism and religion. For over a decade (1931–46), he devoted himself to the revolutionary socialist movement and was author of an important study: Revolution and Counter-revolution in Spain (1938; rev. ed. 1974). In 1946, he moved from socialism to capitalism in publishing as executive vice president of Schocken Books, a Jewish publishing house in New York City, and became attracted to the writings of Franz Kafka, Martin Buber, and Gershom Scholen, and through them rediscovered his Hasidic roots. However, from 1948 to 1970, he became immersed in Freudian psychoanalytic training and publishing, though at the same time, his association with Mel Arnold at Beacon Press, and later with University of Notre Dame Press, made him responsive to mysticism. Throughout this period he remained a socialist at heart, this dichotomy creating many personal conflicts for him while broadening his humanist outlook. As executive vice president of British Book Center, he took on American rights of Flying Saucers Have Landed by Desmond Leslie and George Adamski (originally published in England in 1953), and this project launched his research into earlier literature in psychic and occult subjects. In 1954, he incorporated University Books, Inc. in New York, and began publishing important out-of-print books on occultism, mysticism, psychical research, and comparative religion. These included key works such as A. E. Waite’s books on the tarot and ceremonial magic; Lewis Spence’s Encyclopedia of Occultism; Montague Summers’ books on witchcraft and vampires; William James’s Varieties of Religious Experience; R. M. Bucke’s Cosmic Consciousness; F. W. H. Myers’s Human Personality and its Survival of Bodily Death; scholarly works by Charles Guignebert on the origins of Christianity; D. T. Suzuki’s books on Zen; Nandor Fodor’s Encyclopedia of Psychical Research; G. R. S. Mead’s books on Gnosticism; Alexandra David-Neel’s Magic and Mystery in Tibet; and scores of similar books that opened large segments of the tradition to a new generation of modern occultists. Each book carried a new introduction, evaluating the work in a modern context and often supplying original biographical research on the author. Some of these introductions were written by Morrow under the pseudonym ‘John C. Wilson;‘ others were written by such authorities as E. J. Dingwall, Kenneth Rexroth, and Leslie Shepard. University Books also published original works as the occult revival threw up names like Timothy Leary and new causes like the psychedelic revolution. In addition to publishing, the com1056

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. pany marketed chosen titles each month through the Mystic Arts Book Society. A major event of that period was Morrow’s association with William Nyland in distributing the books of Georgei I. Gurdjieff through the society. Morrow eventually became a disciple of Nyland and developed a great respect for the Gurdjieff work. After 15 years of creative and stimulating publishing in the fields of occultism and mysticism, Morrow relinquished the business to Lyle Stuart, who continued the University Books imprint side by side with its own Citadel Press imprint, and moved the operation from New York to Secaucus, New Jersey. In 1973, Morrow launched a second occult series for Causeway Books, an imprint of A. & W. Publishers, Inc., New York. Morrow wrote some of the new introductions for this series under the pseudonym ‘‘Charles Sen.’’ The significant influence of Morrow’s publishing work was recognized by the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Rockefeller Foundation, which initiated an oral history recording project on the advanced literary-intellectual life of New York City between 1925 and 1975. Tape recordings have been made of Morrow and other individuals for deposit in the Oral History division of the Columbia libraries. Morrow extended his psychological studies from Freudianism to Maslow’s humanist psychology and the holistic depth psychology of Ira Progoff. He was in charge of publishing projects in these areas for Dialogue House Library (80 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) prior to resuming independent publishing again with the books of Mantok and Maneewan Chia under the imprint Healing Tao Books, in New York. In his later years he was a regular visitor to the library of the Parapsychology Foundation in New York, where he found excellent facilities for research. He died suddenly on May 28, 1988, in New York.

Morse, J. J. (1848–1919) One of the most prominent trance speakers of the nineteenth century, designated the ‘‘Bishop of Spiritualism’’ by Spiritualist journalist W. T. Stead. Morse had been left an orphan at the age of 10, had very little education, and served as pot-boy in a public house before his mediumship was discovered. The difference between the uneducated waking Morse and the erudite entranced Morse is noted by E. W. Cox in his book What Am I? (1873–74): ‘‘I have heard an uneducated barman, when in a state of trance, maintain a dialogue with a party of philosophers on Reason and Foreknowledge, Will and Fate, and hold his own against them. I have put him the most difficult questions in psychology, and received answers always thoughtful, often full of wisdom, and invariably conveyed in choice and eloquent language. Nevertheless, in a quarter of an hour afterwards, when released from the trance, he was unable to answer the simplest query on a philosophical subject, and was at a loss for sufficient language in which to express a commonplace idea.’’ James Burns, the well-known Spiritualistic editor and publisher, took an interest in Morse and employed him as an assistant in his printing and publishing office. The spirit entity, ‘‘Tien Sien Tie,’’ the Chinese philosopher, who said that he lived on Earth in the reign of the Emperor Kea-Tsing, gave his first addresses through Morse in Burns’s offices in 1869. Of the other spirits associated with Morse’s mediumship the best known was ‘‘The Strolling Player,’’ who supplied the humor and lighter elements in the discourses, which were models of literary grace. Many proofs of spirit identity came through, some of which were years after tabulated and republished by Edward T. Bennett. Morse’s physical mediumship was a powerful one. He could demonstrate the fire test and the phenomenon of elongation of the human body. He visited Australia and New Zealand, edited The Banner of Light in Boston and The Two Worlds of Manchester. The Spiritual Review (1901–1902) was his own foundation. His mediumship and general propaganda activity was an

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. important factor in the spread and growth of British Spiritualism. His daughter, Florence, who was clairvoyant from childhood, also developed her abilities as an inspirational speaker. She travelled extensively, visiting the English-speaking world. Unlike her father, however, she was almost fully conscious in the course of her inspirational addresses. Sources: Morse, J. J. Leaves From My Life: A Narrative of Personal Experiences in the Career of a Servant of the Spirits. N.p., 1877.

Morse Fellowship The Morse Fellowship was a channeling group founded in 1959 by Louise Morse, who channeled an entity she termed the ‘‘Holy Spirit.’’ The organization was named for her husband, Elwood Morse, who had died in 1958. She saw her work as a fulfillment of biblical prophecies of the last days. Through the 1970s the group was headquartered in Richardson, Texas, but nothing has been heard from it in recent years and it is presumed defunct. Sources: Morse, Louise. The Living Water. Richardson, Tex.: Morse Fellowship, 1970.

Morselli, Enrico (1852–1929) Born July 17, 1852, Enrico Morselli was a professor of psychiatry at the University of Turin and after 1889 at Genoa University. He had been a bitter skeptic of psychic phenomena and had published several books including Il magnetismo animale; La fascinazione e gli stati ipnotici (1886) and I fenomei telepatici e le allucinazioni veridiche (1897). However, his encounter with the medium Eusapia Palladino (later revealed to have been falsified) completely convinced him of the reality of Spiritualist phenomena. He held some 30 sittings with Palladino in 1901–2 and 1906–7. He announced his change of thinking in 1907 in the Annals of Psychic Science (vol. 5, 1907, p. 322): ‘‘The question of Spiritism has been discussed for over 50 years; and although no one can at present foresee when it will be settled, all are now agreed in assigning to it great importance among the problems left as a legacy by the nineteenth century to the twentieth. ‘‘If for many years academic science has depreciated the whole category of facts that Spiritism has, for good or ill, rightly or wrongly, absorbed and assimilated, to form the elements of its doctrinal system, so much the worse for science! And worse still for the scientists who have remained deaf and blind before all the affirmations, not of credulous sectarians, but of serious and worthy observers such as Crookes, Lodge and Richet. I am not ashamed to say that I myself, as far as my modest power went, have contributed to this obstinate skepticism, up to the day on which I was enabled to break the chains in which my absolutist preconceptions had bound my judgment.’’ The next year he published an account of his sightings in the book Psicologia e Spiritismo. Here he presented his psychodynamic theory of materialization phenomena as a compromise between psychological orthodoxy and the spirit theory. Morselli died February 18, 1929, in Genoa, Italy. Sources: Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House, 1991. Morselli, Enrico. I fenomei telepatici e le allucinazioni veridiche. N.p., 1897. Pleasants, Helene, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Parapsychology. New York: Helix Press, 1964.

Moses, William Stainton

Morya, Master One of the masters originally contacted by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, cofounder of the Theosophical Society. According to theosophical teachings there exists a spiritual hierarchy composed of individuals who have finished their round of earthly reincarnations and have evolved to the spiritual planes, from which they guide the affairs of humanity. Those members of the hierarchy closest to humanity are the ‘‘lords of the seven rays’’ (of the light spectrum). Each ray represents a particular virtue, which the lord of that ray exemplifies. Master Morya, frequently referred to as simply Master M., is the lord of the first ray and exemplifies will or power. He is one of the two hierarchical founders of the Theosophical Society. Blavatsky claimed a majority of her communications with the masters came from him. He takes as students some members who have been prepared by their past lives and also becomes their guide. He is said to have been a royal personage and appears in the body of an Asian Indian. He reportedly lived in Tibet but was known to travel widely, and many members of the society reported seeing him. Master M. was one of the three main communicators (the others being Djual Khul and Koot Hoomi) of what were compiled as The Mahatma Letters, the ultimate source for many theosophical ideas. As the Theosophical Society fragmented, leaders of many groups whose organization and beliefs derive in large part from Theosophy have claimed contact with him, including Helena Roerich of the Agni Yoga Society, Mark Prophet and Elizabeth Clare Prophet, and Geraldine Innocente (pen name Thomas Printz) of the Bridge to Spiritual Freedom. Sources: Barker, A. Trevor, ed. The Mahatma Letters to A. P. Sennett from the Mahatams M. and K.H. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1923. 3d rev. ed. Adyar, Madras, India: Theosophical Publishing House, 1962. El Morya [through Mark L. Prophet]. Light From Heavenly Lanterns. Colorado Springs, Colo.: Summit Lighthouse, 1973. ———. [through Mark L. Prophet and Elizabeth Clare Prophet]. Morya the Darjeeling Masters Speaks to His Chelas on the Quest for the Holy Grail. Los Angeles: Summit University, 1973. Papish, Mary, and Daniel Papish. We Are Servants of Master M. Ojai, Calif.: Hanuman Publications, 1973. Ransom, Josephine. A Short History of the Theosophical Society. Adyar, Madras, India: Theosophical Publishing House, 1938. [Roerich, Helena]. Leaves of Morya’s Garden. Reprint, New York: Agni Yoga Press, 1952–53.

Moses, William Stainton (1839–1892) Medium and religious teacher who became one of the most prominent late nineteenth-century British Spiritualists. He was born November 5, 1839, at Donnington, Lincolnshire. His father was headmaster of the Grammar School of Donnington. In 1852, the family moved to Bedford to give young William the advantage of an education at Bedford College. In his school days he occasionally walked in his sleep, and on one occasion in this state he went down to the sitting room, wrote an essay on a subject that had worried him on the previous evening, and then returned to bed without waking. It was the best essay of the class. No other incidents of a psychic nature of his early years were recorded. He won a scholarship to Exeter College, Oxford. Owing to a breakdown in his health he interrupted his studies, traveled for some time, and spent six months in a monastery on Mount Athos. When he recovered his health he returned to Oxford, took his M.A., and was ordained as a minister of the Church of England by the renowned Bishop Wilberforce. He began his ministry at Kirk Maughold, near Ramsey, in the Isle of Man, at age 24. There he gained the esteem and love of his parishioners. He was remembered for his activity during an outbreak 1057

Moses, William Stainton of smallpox, when he helped to nurse and bury a man whose malady was so violent that it was very difficult to find anybody who would approach him. His literary activity for Punch and the Saturday Review began at this time. After four years, he exchanged his curacy with that of St. George’s, Douglas, Isle of Man. In 1869 he fell seriously ill. He called in for medical aid Stanhope Templeman Speer. As a convalescent he spent some time in Speer’s house. This was the beginning of a lifelong friendship. In 1870, he took a curacy in Dorsetshire. Illness again interfered with his parish work and he was obliged to abandon it, and for the next seven years he was the tutor of Speer’s son. In 1871, he was offered a mastership in University College School, London. This office he filled until 1889, when failing health made him resign. He lived for three more years, suffering greatly from gout, influenza, and nervous prostration. He died September 5, 1892.

Moses as a Spiritualist The period of his life between 1872 and 1881 was marked by an inflow of transcendental powers and a consequent religious revolution that led him away from the Church of England and his former distrust of Spiritualism. He had considered all its phenomena spurious and had dismissed Lord Adare’s book on D. D. Home as the dreariest twaddle he ever came across. Robert Dale Owen’s Debatable Land (1870) made a deeper impression. On Mrs. Speer’s persuasion, he agreed to have a closer look into the matter and attended his first séance, with Lottie Fowler operating as the medium, on April 2, 1872. After much nonsense he received a striking description of the spirit presence of a friend who had died in the north of England. Charles Williams was the next medium he went to see. A séance with D. D. Home and sittings in many private circles followed. Within about six months, Moses became convinced of the existence of discarnate spirits and of their power to communicate. Soon he himself showed signs of great psychic powers. In 1872, five months after his introduction to Spiritualism, he reported his first experience of levitation. The physical phenomena continued with gradually lessening frequency until 1881. They were of extremely varied nature. The power was often so enormous that it kept the room in constant vibration. E. W. Cox describes in his book What am I? (2 vols., 1873–74) the swaying and rocking in daylight of an old-fashioned, six-foot-wide and nine-foot-long mahogany table that required the strength of two strong men to be moved an inch. The presence of Moses seemed to be responsible for the table’s extraordinary behavior. When Cox and Moses held their hands over the table, it lifted first on one then on the other side. When Moses was levitated for the third time, he was thrown on to the table, and from that position on to an adjacent sofa. In spite of the considerable distance and the magnitude of the force, he was in no way hurt. Objects left in Moses’ bedroom were often found arranged in the shape of a cross. Apports were frequent phenomena. They were usually objects from a different part of the house, invariably small, coming mysteriously through closed doors or walls and thrown upon the table from a direction mostly over Moses’ head. Sometimes their origin was unknown. Ivory crosses, corals, pearls, precious stones, the latter expressly for Moses, were also brought from unknown sources. Psychic lights of greatly varying shapes and intensity were frequently observed. They were most striking when the medium was in trance. They were not always equally seen by all the sitters, never lit up their surroundings, and could pass through solid objects, for instance, rising from the floor through a table. Scents were produced in abundance, the most common being musk, verbena, new mown hay, and one unfamiliar odor, which was said to be spirit scent. Sometimes breezes heavy with perfumes swept around the circle. 1058

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. Without any musical instruments in the room, a great variety of musical sounds contributed to the entertainment of the sitters. There were many instances of direct writing, demonstrations of matter passing through matter and direct voice, and materializations, which, however, did not progress beyond luminous hands or columns of light vaguely suggesting human forms. Moses’ continuing circle was very small. Dr. and Mrs. Speer and F. W. Percival were generally the only witnesses of the phenomena. Sergeant Cox, W. H. Harrison, a Dr. Thompson, a Mrs. Garratt, a Miss Birkett, and Sir William Crookes were occasional sitters. As a rule, the invisible communicators strongly resented the introduction of strangers. The physical phenomena in themselves were of secondary importance. They were produced in evidence of the supernormal power of the communicators to convince Moses and the sitters of the spirits’ claims. Writing in the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research (vol. 9, pt. 25), F. W. H. Myers asserts that: ‘‘. . . they were not produced fraudulently by Dr. Speer or other sitters. . . . I regard as proved both by moral considerations and by the fact that they were constantly reported as occurring when Mr. Moses was alone. That Mr. Moses should have himself fraudulently produced them I regard as both morally and physically incredible. That he should have prepared and produced them in a state of trance I regard both as physically incredible and also as entirely inconsistent with the tenor both of his own reports and those of his friends. I therefore regard the reported phenomena as having actually occurred in a genuinely supernormal manner.’’ Moses’ character and integrity were so well attested that Andrew Lang was forced to warn the advocates of fraud that ‘‘the choice is between a moral and physical miracle.’’ Frank Podmore was almost the only critic to charge Moses with trickery. He suggested that the psychic lights at the séances could have been produced by bottles of phosphorized oil and quoted a report by Moses himself in the Proceedings of the SPR (vol. 11, p. 45) stating: ‘‘Suddenly there arose from below me, apparently under the table, or near the floor, right under my nose, a cloud of luminous smoke, just like phosphorous. . .’’ It seems most improbable that the medium would write such a report if guilty of fraud, and even Podmore himself concluded: ‘‘That Stainton Moses, being apparently of sane mind, should deliberately have entered upon a course of systematic and cunningly concerted trickery, for the mere pleasure of mystifying a small circle of friends, or in the hope of any petty personal advantage, such, for instance, as might be found in the enhanced social importance attaching to a position midway between prestidigator and prophet—this is scarcely credible.’’ Moses’ famous automatic scripts are known from his books Spirit Teachings (1883) and Spirit Identity (1879) and from the full séance accounts he commenced to publish in Light in 1892. The scripts began in 1872 and lasted until 1883, gradually dying out in 1877. They filled 24 notebooks. Except for the third, which was lost, they were preserved by the London Spiritualist Alliance, where both the originals and typed copies were accessible to students. They have been complemented by four books of records of physical phenomena and three books of retrospect and summary. In his will Moses entrusted the manuscripts to two friends—C. C. Massey and Alaric A. Watts. They handed them to F. W. H. Myers, who published an exhaustive analysis in the Proceedings of the SPR (vols. 9 and 11). The automatic messages were almost wholly written by Moses’s own hand while he was in a normal waking state. They are interspersed with a few words of direct writing. The tone of the spirits towards him is habitually courteous and respectful. But occasionally they have some criticism that pierces to the quick. This explains why he was unwilling to allow the inspection of his books during his lifetime. Indeed, there are indications that there may have been a still more private book into which very intimate messages were entered, but if so it did not survive.

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. Moses’ Controls The scripts are in the form of a dialogue. The identity of the communicators was not revealed by Moses in his lifetime. Neither did Myers disclose it. They were made public in a later book The ‘‘Controls’’ of Stainton Moses by A. W. Trethewy. Considering the illustrious biblical and historical names the communicators bore, Stainton Moses’s reluctance was wise. He would have met with scorn. Moreover, for a long time, he himself was skeptical, indeed, at first shocked, and was often reproved for suspicion and want of faith in the scripts. Moses emerged as the medium for an organized band of 49 spirits. Their leader called himself ‘‘Imperator.’’ For some time he manifested through an amanuensis only, and later wrote himself, signing his name with a cross. He spoke directly for the first time on December 19, 1892, but appeared to Moses’s clairvoyant vision at an early stage. He claimed to have influenced the medium’s career during the whole of his lifetime and said that in turn he was directed by ‘‘Preceptor’’ in the background. ‘‘Preceptor’’ himself communed with ‘‘Jesus.’’ The identity of the communicators was only gradually disclosed and Moses was much exercised as to whether the personalities of the band were symbolical or real. They asserted that a missionary effort to uplift the human race was being made in the spirit realms and, as Moses had the rarest mediumistic gifts and his personality furnished extraordinary opportunities, he was selected as the channel of these communications. Like ‘‘Imperator’’ and ‘‘Preceptor’’ every member of the band had an assumed name at first. The biblical characters included the following names, as revealed later: ‘‘Malachias’’ (Imperator), ‘‘Elijah’’ (Preceptor), ‘‘Haggai’’ (The Prophet), ‘‘Daniel’’ (Vates), ‘‘Ezekiel,’’ ‘‘St. John the Baptist’’ (Theologus). The ancient philosophers and sages numbered 14. They were: ‘‘Solon,’’ ‘‘Plato,’’ ‘‘Aristotle,’’ ‘‘Seneca,’’ ‘‘Athenodorus’’ (Doctor), ‘‘Hippolytus’’ (Rector), ‘‘Plotinus’’ (Prudens), ‘‘Alexander Achillini’’ (Philosophus), ‘‘Algazzali or Ghazali’’ (Mentor), ‘‘Kabbila,’’ ‘‘Chom,’’ ‘‘Said,’’ ‘‘Roophal,’’ ‘‘Magus.’’ It was not until Book XIV of the communications was written that Moses became satisfied of the identity of his controls. In his introduction to Spirit Teachings he writes: ‘‘The name of God was always written in capitals, and slowly and, as it seemed, reverentially. The subject matter was always of a pure and elevated character, much of it being of personal application, intended for my own guidance and direction. I may say that throughout the whole of these written communications, extending in unbroken continuity to the year 1880, there is no flippant message, no attempt at jest, no vulgarity or incongruity, no false or misleading statement, so far as I know or could discover; nothing incompatible with the avowed object, again and again repeated, of instruction, enlightenment and guidance by spirits fitted for the task. Judged as I should wish to be judged myself, they were what they pretended to be. Their words were words of sincerity and of sober, serious purpose.’’ Later, when the phenomena lost strength he was again assailed by doubts and showed hesitation. It is obviously impossible to prove the identity of ancient spirits. ‘‘Imperator’s’’ answer to this objection was that statements incapable of proof should be accepted as true on the ground that others that could be tested had been verified. For such evidential purposes many modern spirits were admitted for communication. In several cases satisfactory proofs of identity were obtained. ‘‘Imperator’s’’ statement was therefore logical. It should also be noted that each of the communicators had his distinctive way of announcing his presence. Moses was also well aware of the possible role his own mind might play in the communications, and observed: ‘‘It is an interesting subject for speculation whether my own thoughts entered into the subject matter of the communications. I took extraordinary pains to prevent any such admixture. At first the writing was slow, and it was necessary for me to follow it with my eye, but even then the thoughts were not

Moss, Thelma my thoughts. Very soon the messages assumed a character of which I had no doubt whatever that the thought was opposed to my own. But I cultivated the power of occupying my mind with other things during the time that the writing was going on, and was able to read an abstruse book and follow out a line of close reasoning while the message was written with unbroken regularity. Messages so written extended over many pages, and in their course there is no correction, no fault in composition and often a sustained vigour and beauty of style.’’ These precautions do not exclude the possibility of the action of the subconscious mind. Moses’ life and activity left a deep impression on Spiritualism. He took a leading part in several organizations. From 1884 until his death he was president of the London Spiritualist Alliance. The phenomena reported in his mediumship served as a partial inducement for the founding of the Society for Psychical Research. He was on its foundation council. Later, owing to the treatment the medium William Eglinton received (he was accused of fraud), Moses resigned his membership and censured the society for what he considered its unduly critical attitude. He edited Light, contributed many articles on Spiritualism to Human Nature and other periodicals, and published a number of books, primarily developed from his automatic writings, under the pen name of ‘‘M. A. Oxon,’’ a reference to his degree from Oxford. Sources: Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House, 1991. Gauld, Alan. The Founder of Psychical Research. New York: Schrocken Books, 1968. Oxon, M. A. [Stainton Moses]. Higher Aspects of Spiritualism. N.p., 1880. ———. Psychography; or, A Treatise on the Objective Forms of Psychic or Spiritual Phenomena. N.p., 1878. Reprinted as Direct Spirit Writing. N.p., 1952.

Moss, Thelma (1918–1997) Contemporary parapsychologist and medical psychologist at the Neuropsychiatric Institute of the University of California in Los Angeles. Her special interests have included telepathy, radiation, Kirlian photography, energy fields, and skin vision, which is akin to eyeless sight. Moss was a professional actress who left the stage after her husband’s death. An experience with psychedelic drugs in the 1960s led her into psychology, and after receiving her doctorate she joined the staff at UCLA. The psychedelic experience also opened her to parapsychological insights and she began to experiment. In one early experiment in the relationship of creativity and psychic ability, she found artists were scoring higher in ESP ability than her control group. She visited the USSR to investigate Kirlian photography and experimented in the field with a modified high-energy photography system, until it proved a dead end as controls were tightened. She also investigated a haunted house in Los Angeles with Gertrude Schmeidler. Moss died February 1, 1997. Sources: Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House, 1991. ‘‘Interview: Thelma S. Moss.’’ Psychic 1, no. 1 (1970). Moss, Thelma. The Body Electric. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher Inc., 1979. ———. ‘‘ESP Effects in ‘Artists’ Contrasted with NonArtists.’’ Journal of Parapsychology 33 (1969). 1059

The Moss-Woman ———. The Probability of the Impossible. New York: Dutton/ Plume, 1975.

The Moss-Woman According to German folklore, one of the moss or wood folk who dwelled in the forests of Bavaria, in southern Germany. Their stature was small and their form strange and uncouth, bearing a strong resemblance to certain trees. They were a simple, timid, and inoffensive race, and had little intercourse with humankind, approaching only at rare intervals the lonely cabin of the woodsman or forester to borrow some article of domestic use or to beg a little of the food being prepared for the family meal. They would also, for similar purposes, appear to laborers in the fields that lay on the outskirts of the forests. A loan or gift to the moss-people was always repaid manifold. But the most highly-prized and eagerly-coveted of all mortal gifts was a draught from the maternal breast for their own little ones; for this the moss-people held to be a sovereign remedy for all the ills to which their natures were subject. Yet it was only in the extremity of danger that they could so overcome their natural diffidence and timidity as to ask this boon—for they knew that mortal mothers turned from such nurslings with disgust and fear. It would appear that the moss or wood folk also lived in some parts of Scandinavia. Thus it was believed that in the churchyard of Store Hedding, in Zealand, there were remains of oaks that were trees by day and warriors by night. Sources: Arrowsmith, Nancy, and George Moorse. A Field Guide to the Little People. New York: Wallaby, 1977.

Mothman Winged humanoid creature reported in West Virginia from November 1966 to December 1967, along with strange lights, apparitions of men in black, and other occult phenomena supposedly connected with UFOs. These phenomena culminated on December 15, 1967, with the collapse of the Silver Bridge across the Ohio River at Point Pleasant. The name ‘‘Mothman’’ was the inspiration of a newspaper editor, who derived it from the Batman comic book hero, then the subject of a popular television series. In his book The Mothman Prophecies: An Investigation Into the Mysterious American Visits of the Infamous Feathery Garuda (1975), author John A. Keel suggests that these and other occult appearances might be the work of evil entities. The term ‘‘garuda’’ derives from ancient Hindu mythology, where Garuda is king of the birds, half-man, half-bird, the vehicle of the god Vishnu. In the religious epic the Ramayana, Jatayu is the son of Vishnu’s Garuda, and dies fighting against the demon Ravana in an attempt to prevent the abduction of the princess Sita. In February 1976, three schoolteachers in Texas reported sightings of a ‘‘Big Bird,’’ discussed in Grey Barker’s Newsletter (no. 7, March 1977). An earlier issue of the newsletter (no. 5, March 1976) had reported a more bizarre claimed abductee experience with ‘‘Vegetable Man,’’ pictured as a triffid-style animated tree. UFO authority Jacques Vallee compared Mothman and similar apparitions to Springheeled Jack, the legendary creature of early nineteenth-century Britain, who attacked travelers and terrified women with his giant leaps and diabolical appearance. Mothman was said to chase motorists and to frighten women. Witnesses stated that he was large, gray in color, without feathers, and with eyes that glowed red. It has been suggested that Mothman is a UFO phenomenon. Sources: Clark, Jerome. Encyclopedia of Strange and Unexplained Phenomena. Detroit: Gale Research, 1993. 1060

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. Haining, Peter. The Legend and Bizarre Crimes of Springheeled Jack. London: Frederick Muller, 1977. Keel, John A. The Mothman Prophecies: An Investigation Into the Mysterious American Visits of the Infamous Feathery Garuda. New York: Saturday Review Press/Dutton, 1975. Reprint, New York: New American Library, 1976. Reprinted as Visitors From Space: The Astonishing True Story of the Mothman Prophecies. St. Albans, England: Panther, 1976.

Mott, George Edward (1935–


Naval officer who has also experimented in the field of parapsychology. He was born on December 3, 1935, at Virginia Beach, Virginia. He studied at Duke University (B.S., electrical engineering, 1958) and joined the U.S. Navy as a lieutenant following his graduation. While at Duke University he assisted W. C. Stewart and J. E. Jenkins in developing and testing devices to investigate extrasensory perception. He is an associate member of the Parapsychological Association. Sources: Pleasants, Helene, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Parapsychology. New York: Helix Press, 1964. Stewart, W. C. ‘‘Three New ESP Test Machines and Some Preliminary Results.’’ Journal of Parapsychology (March 1959).

Mount Shasta See Shasta, Mount The Mountain Cove Community A Spiritualist community founded in Mountain Cove, Fayette County, Virginia, in the autumn of 1851 under the leadership of the Rev. James Scott and Rev. Thomas Lake Harris. Both were mediums who had settled in Auburn the previous year and had obtained a considerable following. While Harris was absent in New York the command to form a community at Mountain Cove was given through the mediumship of Scott, and about a hundred persons accompanied him to Virginia. Again at the command of the spirits, the members were obliged to deliver up all their possessions. Dissensions soon arose as pecuniary difficulties were experienced, and only Harris’s return in the summer of 1852 saved the community from immediate dissolution. However, the dissensions and difficulties remained, and early in 1853 the community finally broke up. (See also Apostolic Circle) Sources: Noyes, John Humphrey. Strange Cults and Utopias of 19thcentury America. New York: Dover Publications, 1966.

The Mountain Path (Journal) Quarterly journal founded in January 1964 dealing with the life and teachings of Sri Ramana Maharshi (1879–1950), celebrated Hindu saint credited with many miracles. Address: The Bookstore, Sri Ramanasramam, Tiruvannamalai 606-603, Tamil Nadu, India. Selected articles are available online at http://www.ramana-maharshi.org/. Sources: Sri Ramanasramam. March 8, 2000.


Mourning Star Mourning Star is an independent Satanist magazine that first appeared in 1997 and superseded A Taste from the Cauldron, the magazine of the First Occult Church. Mourning Star, like its predecessor, is edited by William ‘‘Starets’’ Gidney

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. (1972– ). In the early 1990s Gidney and his wife, Lady Ygraine, operated the First Occult Church, which included in its membership a range of occult perspectives from Wicca to voudou that were in fellowship with the Satanism of the leaders. In the mid-1970s, the First Occult Church was closed and both Gidney and Lady Ygraine affiliated with the Church of Satan. Lady Ygraine, who had previously operated two occult shops, The Cauldron and The Dragon’s Lair, also founded a new store dedicated to the left-hand path, Pandora’s Box, in Port St. Lucie, Florida. In 1999, in the wake of the Church of Satan’s reestablishment of grottos as local church centers, Gidney led in the founding of the Nepotism Grotto and now serves as the grotto master. Mourning Star is designed as the expression of a maturing Satanic philosophy in the tradition of Anton Sandor LaVey, the founder of the Church of Satan. Each issue contains articles, poems, reviews, and additional varied material. All articles must at the least show the author’s familiarity with the principles and idea of The Satanic Bible, the basic text of the Church of Satan. While representative of opinions within the Church of Satan, Mourning Star is not an official church publication. It is issued irregularly and while each issue is numbered, it is undated. Mourning Star is published at Pandora’s Box, 321 SE Port Saint Lucie Blvd., Port Saint Lucie, FL 34984. Sources: Mourning Star. Port Lucie, Fla., n.d.

Movement (Paranormal) Paranormal movement has been given various names, among them, parakinesis, which refers to movement with some contact but not enough to explain the motion. Movement without perceptible contact is called telekinesis. It was a frequently reported séance-room phenomenon during the first century of Spiritualism. Telekinesis, in its apparent simplicity, is the most important, and Spiritualists have hypothesized that an invisible intelligence performs complicated operations and exercises a directive influence over mysteriously generated and frequently tremendous forces. Popularly called ‘‘mind over matter,’’ the generally accepted modern term for paranormal movement is psychokinesis or ‘‘PK.’’ This term includes the claimed phenomenon of paranormal metal bending. In the heyday of psychical research, through the 1930s, physical phenomena in the séance was a major focus. It was among the most controversial of phenomena, the object of severe debate, resolved only after numerous mediums were caught in fraud and the mechanics of that fraud delineated in detail. Such fraud centered upon the production of materializations but included apports and various extraordinary movements. PK continues as an element of parapsychology and the reported production of such has periodically excited researchers. However, the continued discovery of fraudulent activity by individuals claiming psychic abilities requires constant vigilance, as the 1984 confession of prominent Japanese metal bender Masuaki Kiyota to trickery amply demonstrated. The presence of fraud (widespread in Spiritualism) by no means explains physical phenomena, but, it raises the standards any phenomena must pass before it moves from the status of séance-room folklore to established fact.

Shaking of the House In its initial stage in the séance room, physical movement phenomena commonly begin with the vibration of objects by the sitters; the séance table, upon which sitters have placed their hands, begins to tremble, shake, or jerk. This motion is not always restricted to the table; it may spread over the entire room. P. P. Alexander, in Spiritualism: A Narrative with a Discussion (1871), writes of a séance with the medium D. D. Home in

Movement (Paranormal) Edinburgh: ‘‘The first hint or foreshine we had of the phenomena came in the form of certain tremors which began to pervade the apartment. These were of a somewhat peculiar kind; and they gradually increased till they became of considerable violence. Not only did the floor tremble, but the chair of each person, as distinct from it, was felt to rock and—as we Scots say—dirl under him.’’ Rev. Maurice Davies in the Daily Telegraph and a Dr. Gully in the Morning Star describe the trembling of the floor during Home’s levitation as reminding them of an earthquake. In a similar record, Lord Adare, author of Experiences in Spiritualism with D. D. Home (1870), states: ‘‘We soon felt violent vibration of the floor, chairs and table—so violent that the glass pendants of the chandelier struck together, and the windows and doors shook and rattled in their frames not only in our room but also in the next.’’ Such phenomena, not limited to Spiritualism, can, for example, be found scattered through religious literature, such as the incident reported in the journal of George Fox, the Quaker founder: ‘‘At Mansfield, where was a great meeting, I was moved to pray, and the Lord’s power was so great that the house seemed to be shaken. When I had done, some of the professors said, it was now as in the days of the Apostles, when the house was shaken where they were.’’ The levitation of John Lacy, as described in Warnings of the Eternal Spirit (part 2, 1707), made the chamber shake. The Wesley family, during physical manifestations known collectively as the Epworth phenomena, heard vast rumblings and clattering of doors and shutters. Felicia Scatcherd writes of a séance with Etta Wriedt in Light (August 3, 1912): ‘‘We all felt the floor, walls and windows vibrating. I have twice experienced earthquake shocks in the Ionian Islands. The sensation was similar.’’ In the case of Mary Jobson, ‘‘a rumbling noise was heard like thunder, the tenants downstairs thought that the house was coming down.’’ An excess of power held the room in which William Stainton Moses sat in séance in constant vibration. Gambier Bolton writes in Psychic Force (1904): ‘‘On several occasions when sitting in my own room with Mr. Cecil Husk, the whole place, floor, walls, and ceiling, have commenced to tremble and vibrate strongly, table and chairs all responding, and glass, china and pictures swaying to and fro, some of the lighter articles eventually falling over; the motion being similar to that experienced when the screw of a steamer, during a gale of wind, and owing to the pitching of the vessel, comes nearly or quite to the surface of the water, and ‘races’; or like the tremble of the earthquake which, as I know by experience, when once felt is never forgotten again. So decided was this tremble and vibration that several of the experimenters present not only stated that it made them feel very ill, but their appearance proved to anyone used to ocean travel, that this was not an exaggeration.’’

Movement of Objects The telekinetic phenomenon reported from the séance room is varied: a séance curtain sways and bulges out; a table moves, slides or rotates; weights are lifted; small objects stir, jump into the air, and drop slowly or heavily. According to reports, such objects do not follow straight lines but move in curves, as if under the influence of an intelligent mechanical force. Their speed is sometimes alarming. They may come within an inch of some one’s face, then suddenly stop. There is no fumbling, no exploration, no accidental collision. If one puts out his hand in the dark for the reception of an object it neatly drops into his palm. The sitters may change seats or posture, yet the objects will seek them out perfectly. The invisible manipulator behind the phenomena seems to have cat’s eyes. A table may incline at a considerable angle, yet the objects may remain unmoved on the leaf or they may glide up the slope. A switch may be thrown, gas or electricity turned off, the flame 1061

Movement (Paranormal) of a candle depressed, cords and handkerchiefs knotted, bonds untied. Much of the reported phenomena occurred in a darkened séance room. Sitters also reported evidence of the operation of ‘‘invisible’’ hands, whose presence was often felt through touches; frequently the disembodied hands were said to have been seen in operation. The very nature of the reports suggest that much of the phenomena was produced by the mediums and their accomplices. Lord Adare saw, in a séance with D. D. Home, a hand stretch over the jet of gas. At the same moment eight jets of gas went out in the house. Psychical researcher Hereward Carrington wrote of the Naples séances with Eusapia Palladino: ‘‘In one of our séances, a white hand appeared, remained visible to all, and untied both Eusapia’s hands and one of her feet. ‘‘Once a gentleman seated to the left of Eusapia had his cigar case extracted from his pocket, placed on the table in full view of all of us, opened, a cigar extracted, and placed between his teeth.’’ Sir William Crookes in his Researches in the Phenomena of Spiritualism (1874), gives a good description of the average type of telekinetic phenomena: ‘‘The instances in which heavy bodies, such as tables, chairs, sofas, etc., have been moved, when the medium was not touching them are very numerous. I will briefly mention a few of the most striking. My own chair has been twisted partly around, whilst my feet were off the floor. A chair was seen by all present to move slowly up to the table from a far corner, when all were watching it; on another occasion an armchair moved to where we were sitting, and then moved slowly back again (a distance of about three feet) at my request. On three successive evenings, a small table moved slowly across the room, under conditions which I had specially pre-arranged, so as to answer any objection which might be raised to the evidence. I have had several repetitions of the experiment considered by the Committee of the Dialectical Society to be conclusive, viz., the movement of a heavy table in full light, the chairs turned with their backs to the table, about a foot off, and each person kneeling on his chair, with hands resting over the backs of the chairs, but not touching the table. On one occasion this took place when I was moving about so as to see how everyone was placed.’’ Julien Ochorowitz recorded some very curious telekinetic phenomena in his experiments with Stanislawa Tomczyk. In good light, before a commission composed of physicians, physiologists, and engineers, the medium placed her hands at a small distance on either side of an object. Between her extended fingers, the object rose into the air and floated without apparent support. In fact, the support appeared to be a threadlike, nonmaterial line of force of which Ochorowitz stated, ‘‘I have felt this thread in my hand, on my face, on my hair. When the medium separates her hands the thread gets thinner and disappears; it gives the same sensation as a spider’s web. If it is cut with scissors its continuity is immediately restored. It seems to be formed of points; it can be photographed and it is then seen to be much thinner than an ordinary thread. It starts from the fingers. Needless to remark that the hands of the medium were very carefully examined before every experiment.’’ When these photographs were projected enlarged upon a screen, the psychic structure became visible. There were swellings and nodes along it, like the waves in a vibrating cord. A whole number of filaments surrounded, like a net, a ball that Tomczyk lifted. With Eusapia Palladino, a marked synchronism was noticed between her movements and that of the objects. She could attract and remove pieces of furniture, cause them to rise into the air or drop to the floor by a corresponding motion of her hands. However, this was an exceptional phenomenon at her séances. Usually mediums profess an inability to account for 1062

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. the movement of objects because they do not know in advance what is going to happen. In the cases of both poltergeists and apparitions, spontaneous telekinetic phenomena have been witnessed. Joseph Maxwell obtained good phenomena with nonprofessional mediums in public restaurants in daylight. A Miss Cleio made pictures swing out on the wall in the rooms of the Hellenic Society for Psychical Research in full light before dozens of invited guests.

Difficult Operations The effect of these telekinetic manifestations is often a very complicated one. Pistols were fired in the dark séances of the Davenport brothers against a minute mark which was always hit with marvelous precision. The same phenomenon was witnessed earlier in the house of Jonathan Koons, under the control of ‘‘John King.’’ In the presence of the Davenport brothers, a billiard room at Milwaukee was darkened. After a few moments the balls were heard to roll and click against each other as if propelled by expert players. The cues moved, the game appeared to be regularly played, and it was marked and counted. The Davenports did not claim to be Spiritualist mediums, however, and are now generally regarded, as is Koons, as clever stage performers. In the séances of the Bangs sisters, the typewriter was held in the hands of the sitters above the table and was heard operating in rapid motion. The operators also inserted paper, addressed the envelopes, and sealed them. The Posthumous Memoirs of Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1896) is claimed to have been produced by this technical means. The machine, according to J. M. Wade’s introduction, typed nine paper sheets per hour. Of a sitting with Franek Kluski on November 23, 1919, the Polish Society for Psychical Research recorded: ‘‘The typewriter on the table, fully illuminated by the red light, began to write. The sitters remarked that it wrote very quickly, the keys being depressed as if by a skilful typist. There was no one near the machine. The persons holding Mr. Kluski’s hands noticed that they twitched during the writing.’’ In Tullio Castellani’s record of a sitting on July 6, 1927, in Millesimo Castle, there is a description of an artistic exhibition: ‘‘After a little while we heard in perfect rhythm with the music, a dance of two drumsticks upon the floor. Then the rhythm of the drumsticks was heard in the air. On being questioned Cristo d’Angelo described it as the dance of a celebrated American negro upon the ground and in the air. The same phenomena occurred later in the presence of Bozzano, and has been described by him. I think, however, it is useful to emphasize so that the reader may form some idea of how these phenomena took place, and the effect which this dance produced on me also, habituated though I am to spiritistic phenomenology. The dance took place upon the rug but the resonance was like that of wooden drumsticks which were dancing in the void. There was observable all the weight of a normal man dancing with vigour. Thus in the dark, by only the slight spectral light of the phosphorescence from the trumpet, one is reminded of a dance macabre.’’ Many are the mediums in whose presence musical instruments were played by invisible hands (see Music). Other forms of artistic expression through telekinetic movements are on record in independent direct drawing and painting. In volume 14 of the automatic scripts of Stainton Moses, there is a description of the carving of two cameo heads by the spirit entities ‘‘Mentor’’ and ‘‘Magus.’’ Magus produced his own likeness. Mentor’s artistic efforts are thus narrated under the date August 27, 1875: ‘‘A long message was rapped out by Catherine. She said they had brought a shell and were going to cut a cameo. A light was struck, then Dr. and Mrs. S. saw a shell in the middle of the table. Then Mentor came and Imperator. After he left light was

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. called for and in the centre of the table was a cameo and a quantity of debris of shell. Noises had been heard as of picking, and I saw a hand. The shell is more clearly cut than the first, and shows a head laurel-crowned. It is polished inside and shows plain marks of the graving tool.’’ According to a letter from Moses’ unpublished correspondence (Light, May, 1902), ‘‘Owasso,’’ one of Henry Slade’s controls, extracted, without actual pain, a bad tooth of his suffering medium. A reader of Light related in the following issue a similar incident, in the presence of several witnesses, in the history of the medium Miss C. E. Wood.

The Question of Scientific Verification Levitation of a table in the full blaze of sunshine was witnessed by Charles Richet in front of his Chateau de Carqueiranne with the medium Eusapia Palladino. Again, Ochorowitz, working with Tomczyk, saw a garden chair raised in full light. An ancient instance of table levitation is described in Samuel Brent’s Judischer agestreifter Schlangen Balg (1610), and in Zalman Zebi’s reply, Judischer Theriak 1615). Zebi admits the levitation but argues that it was not caused by magic since ‘‘beautiful hymns are sung during the production of the phenomena and no devil is able to approach us when we think of the Lord.’’ Count Gasparin, Baron Guldenstubbe, Marc Thury, Robert Hare, and James J. Mapes were the first investigators of table turning. Hare devised special scientific instruments. William Crookes repeated his experiments and improved upon them. Experiments with an electric bell in a locked and sealed box were successfully carried out with the mediumship of William Eglinton by the research committee of the British National Association of Spiritualists in January 1878. The bell sounded twice and the armature was depressed with so much force that a spring was strained and an electromagnet disarranged. Professor Johann Zöllner’s famous knot-tying experiments on an endless cord were successfully repeated with Eglinton by a Dr. Nichols in his own house. Mina Crandon (‘‘Margery’’) also rivaled Zöllner’s experiments by demonstrating the paranormal linking of two rings made of different woods (see Matter Passing through Matter). The ‘‘fraudproof’’ trick table of Harry Price was lifted by ‘‘Margery’’ in sittings in London. The telekinetoscope and the shadow apparatus of the same researcher provided some extraordinary phenomena in the presence of ‘‘Stella C.’’ in the National Laboratory of Psychical Research. The first demand that a Scientific American Committee submitted to ‘‘Walter,’’ Margery’s control, at the time of this well-known investigation was to produce movements inside a closed and sealed space. For this purpose a sealed glass jar with a brass hook projecting down into the bottle was used. Walter was set the task of opening the snap of the hook and hanging upon it the wooden, brass, or cord rings also enclosed in the jar. Two days later the cord ring was found on the hook. A day after its examination by Prof. Daniel F. Comstock, the ring was found removed. Another experiment with sensitive scales under a celluloid cover produced satisfactory results. With one of the pans weighted and the other empty, Walter held the scales in balance and sent up the weighted pan. This dynamic feat was achieved in good visibility. Similar results were achieved with a bell box, physically operated first by the depression of a key or by throwing a switch, and later (with the instrument revised) by the depression of contact boards. Held in the lap of Walter Franklin Prince, Research Officer of the American Society for Psychical Research (ASPR), the instrument was operated in daylight. The voice-cutout machine of Dr. Richardson apparently established the independence of Walter’s voice (see Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, vol. 19, no. 12, 1925). Modern psychical research laboratories may boast of a number of other instruments that detect or prevent the slightest move-

Movement (Paranormal) ment in the séance room and afford opportunities for observation under strict scientific conditions.

Display of Strength Occasionally the power that accumulates for telekinetic phenomena is so great that astounding feats of strength are exhibited. At Warsaw, in Ochorowitz’s experiments, a dynamometer marked a force three times as great as Eusapia Palladino’s and in excess of that of the strongest man present. The medium of Elizabeth d’Esperance recorded that during a séance in Breslau the strongest man in Silesia, a veritable Hercules, vainly tried to prevent the movements of the table. Zöllner recorded this incident from a séance with Henry Slade: ‘‘A violent crack was suddenly heard as in the discharging of a large battery of Leyden jars. On turning, with some alarm, in the direction of the sound, the before-mentioned screen fell apart in two pieces. The wooden screws, half an inch thick, were torn from above and below, without any visible contact of Slade with the screen. The parts broken were at least five feet removed from Slade, who had his back to the screen; but even if he had intended to tear it down by a cleverly devised sideward motion, it would have been necessary to fasten it on the opposite side.’’ Zöllner estimated that the strength of two horses would be necessary to achieve this effect. He mentioned that one of his colleagues seriously suggested that Slade carried dynamite about him, concealed it in the furniture, and exploded it with a match. In a sitting with Countess Castelvitch in Lisbon, a small table, strengthened with sheetiron, was rent into 200 pieces. The fragments were found piled in a corner of the room. This incident is found in the record of a séance with Eusapia Palladino, in which she was supervised by several Italian researchers: ‘‘Dr. Arullani asked that the hand behind the curtain should grasp his. The medium replied in her own voice: ‘First I am going to break the table, then I will give you a grasp of the hand.’ This declaration was followed by three fresh, complete levitations of the table, which fell back heavily on the floor. All those who were on the left of the medium could observe, by a very good red light, the various movements of the table. The table bent down and passed behind the curtain, followed by one of us (Dr. C. Foà) who saw it turn over and rest on one of its two short sides, whilst one of the legs came off violently as if under the action of some force pressing upon it. At this moment the table came violently out of the cabinet, and continued to break up under the eyes of everyone present. At first its different parts were torn off, then the boards themselves went to pieces. Two legs, which still remained united by a thin slip of wood, floated above us and placed themselves on the séance table.’’ The astronomer Porro reported from his séance with Palladino in 1891: ‘‘Next a formidable blow, like the stroke of the fist of an athlete is struck in the middle of the table. The blows are now redoubled and are so terrific that it seems as if they would split the table. A single one of these fist blows, planted in the back, would suffice to break the vertebral column.’’ Moses recorded sledgehammer blows in one instance and stated, ‘‘The noise was distinctly audible in the room below and gave one the idea that the table would be broken to pieces. In vain we withdrew from the table, hoping to diminish the power. The heavy blows increased in intensity, and the whole room shook with their force.’’ From the Livermore séance with Kate Fox, February 15, 1862, came these notes: ‘‘I asked for a manifestation of power; and we at once received the following message: ‘Listen, and hear it come through the air; hands off the table.’ Immediately a terrific metallic shock was produced, as though a heavy chain in a bag swung by a strong man had been struck with his whole power upon the table, jarring the whole house. This was repeated three times, with decreasing force.’’ 1063

Movement (Paranormal) In slate-writing experiments with Henry Slade, the slates were often pulverized. Paul Gibier reports in Le Spiritisme (1887): ‘‘At ten different trials the slate held by Slade under the table was broken into several pieces. These slates were framed in very hard wood. We endeavoured to break them in the same way by striking them against the table, but never succeeded even in cracking them.’’ Writing of a visit to a Shaker village with the mediums Miss King and H. B. Champion, the Reverend J. B. Ferguson said of the latter: ‘‘Although a man of most delicate physical organisation, he was, to my knowledge, without food for ten days, and during that time seemed to possess the strength of three men, when under direct spiritual influence; but when not he was as feeble as an infant, and needed all the care I had promised.’’

Lifting of Heavy Tables and Pianos There was a frequent display of great force in the paranormal lifting of heavy tables or pianos. Sir William Crookes saw on five separate occasions a heavy dining table rise from a few inches and one to a half foot off the floor under special circumstances that rendered trickery impossible (R. G. Medhurst, K. M. Goldney, M. R. Barrington, Crookes and The Spirit World [1972], 115). D. D. Home testified before the committee of the London Dialectical Society: ‘‘I have seen a table lifted into the air with eight men standing on it, when there were only two or three other persons in the room. I have seen the window open and shut at a distance of seven or eight feet, and curtains drawn aside and, in some cases, objects carried over our heads. In the house of Mr. and Mrs. S. C. Hall a table went up so high in the air that we could not touch it.’’ At a supper party attended by 30 persons, including Florence Cook, the heavy dining table, with everything on it, rose in full light into the air, until the feet of the table were level with the knees of those sitting around it; the dishes, plates, and glasses swayed perilously but came to no harm. (Gambier Bolton, Psychic Force 1904) Florence Marryat also writes of this incident in her book There Is No Death (1891). Robert Dale Owen claimed to have seen in Paris, in broad daylight in the dining room of a French nobleman, the dinner table seating seven persons, with fruit and wine on it, rise and settle down, while all the guests stood around without touching it. In another séance, with Katie Cook, a piano was carried over the heads of the sitters. One of the ladies became nervous and broke the chain of hands; the piano dropped to the floor the two carved legs were broken and the sounding board smashed. The levitation of two pianos in the presence of an 11-yearold child was described as early as 1855 in Marc Thury’s Des Tables Tournantes. The phenomenon of a levitated piano was witnessed by President Abraham Lincoln in 1862. Mr. Jencken, the husband of Kate Fox, said in a paper read before the London Dialectical Society, ‘‘As regards the lifting of heavy bodies, I can myself testify I have seen the semigrand at my house raised horizontally eighteen inches off the ground and kept suspended in space two or three minutes.’’ The Master of Lindsay, before the same body, said, ‘‘I was next to him [D. D. Home]. I had one hand on his chair and the other on the piano, and while he played both his chair and the piano rose about three inches and then settled down again.’’ Dr. John Ashburner, author of Notes and Studies in the Philosophy of Animal Magnetism and Spiritualism (1867), recorded the following personal experience: ‘‘Mr. Foster, who is possessed of a fine voice, was accompanying himself while he sang. Both feet were on the pedals, when the pianoforte rose into the air and was gracefully swung in the air from side to side for at least five or six minutes. During this time the castors were about at the height of a foot from the carpet.’’ Sergeant E. W. Cox, in What am I? (2 vols., 1873–74), writes: ‘‘As Mr. Home and myself were entering the drawing room lighted with gas, a very heavy armchair that was standing by the 1064

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. fire, thirteen feet from us, was flung from its place through the whole length of the room and fell at our feet. No other person was in the room and we were crossing the threshold of the door.’’ Arthur Lévy writes in his report on Eusapia Palladino, November 16, 1898: ‘‘Just as if she was defying some monster, she turns, with inflamed looks, toward an enormous divan, which thereupon marches up to us. She looks at it with a Satanic smile. Finally she blows upon the divan, which goes immediately back to its place’’ (Camille Flammarion, Mysterious Psychic Forces, 1907).

Vanishing Objects In the reported incidents of apports and human teleportation, and frequently in the phenomenon of matter passing through matter—still among the most controversial of phenomena—there is often reported an intermediate stage in which the objects in question or the human body apparently disappear. Sometimes nothing further than disappearance and subsequent reappearance is accomplished. How it occurs—if it occurs—is the object of speculation. Some have suggested it is accomplished by a great increase in the vibratory rate of the objects or by dematerialization. Instances to demonstrate the claimed phenomenon are abundant. A small table disappeared from underneath a larger one in Zöllner’s séance with Slade. They searched the room without result. Five minutes later it was discovered floating in the air, upside down. It dropped and struck Zöllner on the head. The vanishing and reappearance of a book was similarly observed. It struck Zöllner on the ear in its descent (J. C. F. Zöllner, Transcendental Physics, 1882). The records of Stainton Moses dated November 27, 1892, read: ‘‘As Dr. S. and I were pacing up and down the room a whole shower of Grimauve lozenges (the remainder of the packet out of which the cross had been made on Friday last) was violently thrown on to my head, whence they spread over the floor round about where we were standing. There were thirteen or fourteen of them, and that number, together with the nine used in making the cross, would just about make up the two ounce packet which I had. I had looked in every conceivable place for these lozenges (which were missing after the cross was made) but could find them nowhere.’’ ‘‘Lily,’’ the guide of Katie Cook, asked Florence Marryat whether she could take the fur coat that the authoress had put on her shoulders. She was given permission under the stipulation that she return it when Marryat had to go home. Lily asked that the gas be turned up. The fur coat disappeared. During the course of the séance, the coat was flung, apparently from the ceiling, and fell right over the owner’s head. The coat had gone through an ordeal for, although it was quite new, all the fur was coming out and an army of moths could not have damaged it more than ‘‘Lily’s’’ trick. Gladys Osborne Leonard, in her book My Life in Two Worlds (1931), tells of a control named ‘‘Joey,’’ a famous clown in mortal life, who as proof of his power made things belonging to her husband disappear in daylight in the house and reappear days later in exactly the same place. ‘‘Yolande,’’ d’Esperance’s control, often performed similar feats. In the presence of Eleonore Zügun, objects vanished for an indeterminate period. Her patron the Countess WassilkoSerecki coined the vivid phrase ‘‘holes in the world’’ to describe the effect (Harry Price, ‘‘Some Accounts of the Poltergeist Phenomena of Eleonore Zügun’’ Journal of the American Society of Psychical Research, August 1926). The disappearance usually involves no injury. In experiments with the medium Thomas Lynn at the British College of Psychic Science, watches frequently vanished from sight without showing harm or stoppage on their reappearance (Psychic Science, vol. 8, no. 2, July 1929). With the Austrian medium Maria Silbert it was noticed that she seemed to know intuitively

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. a few minutes beforehand what articles would appear, as if the ‘‘cloud of invisibility’’ that surrounded the objects had been of ectoplasmic nature. The objects that vanish are not necessarily solids. The invisible operators seem to have the same power over liquids. Lord Adare recorded that brandy was invisibly withdrawn from a glass that the medium D. D. Home held above his head. When Lord Adare held his hands above the glass the liquor fell over and through his fingers into the glass, dropping from the air above him. Home explained that the spirit making the experiment was obliged to form a material substance to retain the fluid. Dr. Eugene Crowell, author of The Identity of Primitive Christianity with Modern Spiritualism (2 vols., 1875–79), took a small vial filled with pure water to a séance with the medium Henry Slade to have it ‘‘magnetized.’’ He writes: ‘‘We were seated in a well-lighted room, the rays of the sun falling upon the floor, and no one present but us. Twice the medium said he saw a spirit hand grasping the vial, and I supposed the spirits were magnetising it and kept my eyes directing towards it, but I saw nothing, when suddenly at the same instance we both saw a flash of light apparently proceeding from the vial and the latter disappeared. I immediately arose and inspected every part of the room which from the beginning had been closed, under the table, chairs and sofa, but the vial was not found. Then resuming my seat and questions, in about fifteen minutes, while the two hands of the medium were clasping mine upon the table, I felt something fall into my lap, and looking down I observed the vial rolling off my knees on to the floor. Upon my taking it up we both remarked that the water had acquired a slightly purple tinge, but otherwise its appearance was unchanged.’’ Max George Albert Bruckner describes in the July 1, 1931, issue of the Zeitschrift für Metapsychische Forschung, a sitting with Maria Silbert in which a bottle filled with water and sealed was transferred from the top of the table to the undersides of it. On examination it was found that the water had completely disappeared. The seal and the cord remained intact. Not a drop of water was visible on the floor. Vice-Admiral Usborne Moore noticed that the ink in his bottle disappeared in a séance with the Bangs sisters (Glimpses of the Next State, 1911).

Theories of Explanation Since the first days of modern Spiritualism, speculation has been rife as to the mechanical agency by which movement without contact takes place. Animal magnetism was first thought to furnish a clue. Many theories were formulated. All of them (deriving somewhat from the ‘‘od’’ of Baron Karl von Reichenbach) were more or less similar to the ‘‘odylo-mesomeric’’ theory of E. C. Rogers. Rogers defined a medium as ‘‘a person in whom the conscious and personal control of the higher brain centres was for the moment in abeyance leaving the organism open to be acted upon by the universal cosmic forces.’’ J. Bovee Dods (Spirit Manifestations, 1854) posited an electromagnetic cause. He suggested rapping was caused by ‘‘an electro-magnetic discharge from the fingers and toes of the medium.’’ About table tilting he stated that ‘‘the millions of pores in the table are filled with electro-magnetism from human brains, which is inconceivably lighter than the gas that inflates the balloon.’’ However, the agency of human magnetism or electricity was quickly disproved when no instrument could detect the slightest trace of electromagnetism and neither the smallest iron filing nor the tiniest pith ball was attracted by the charged table. More mundane explanations—chance, fraud, hallucination, or a composite of these suppositions—fail to account for all reported data. The other extreme—that spirits were responsible for the movement—also explains little. It was a comparatively early claim that the contribution of the spirits was at most

Movement (Paranormal) a directive influence and that in some mysterious way the bodily organism of the medium played a dominant role. The spirits themselves reportedly described people who act as physical mediums to Allan Kardec in the following words: ‘‘These persons draw from themselves the fluid necessary to the production of the phenomena and can act without the help of foreign spirits. Thus they are not mediums in the sense attached to this word; but a spirit can assist them and profit by their natural disposition.’’ The ‘‘fluid’’ mentioned to Kardec at this early period was later replaced by the ‘‘ectoplasm’’ of psychical research. The claimed existence of this substance facilitated the idea of a bridge between telekinesis and ordinary mechanics. W. J. Crawford’s cantilever theory represented a sophisticated attempt in this direction. It essentially claimed that out of ectoplasmic emanations psychic rods so strong as to become semimetallic are formed; that this extrusion acts as a cantilever; and that the phenomena are produced by an intelligent manipulation on the part of unseen operators of these rods. In his early observations of the Goligher Circle, Crawford found that if the object to be levitated was heavy, the psychic structure beside the medium’s body found support on the floor. He made many exact measurements claiming to discover that the objects were usually gripped in a manner resembling suction. He supposedly proved the presence of the psychic rods by their pressure on a spring balance and measured their reaction on the medium’s body with scales. Crawford said he photographed psychic structures. He claimed he noticed that if an object was lifted or glued to the floor, the medium’s body showed a nearly equivalent increase or decrease in weight. The difference was distributed among the sitters (W. J. Crawford, Psychic Structures in The Goligher Circle, 1921). Crawford’s observations were paralleled by others. German zoologist Karl Gruber reported experiments with the medium Willi Schneider in 1922: ‘‘A rigid body seemed to emanate from the right hip of the medium. At about three quarters of a yard from the floor it traversed the gauze partition, enlarging some of its interstices, and moved objects 80 to 100 centimetres distant from the medium. It seems that the medium has to make a certain effort to cause this fluidic member to traverse the screen. By using luminous bracelets we have verified that during the levitation of a small table a dark stump like that of a member could be distinguished, that it rose up under the table, raised it, and replaced it on the floor and showed itself afresh underneath it.’’ The advantage of the cantilever theory is its simplicity. For that very reason it only explained an initial stage of telekinetic phenomena. But the theory has many weaknesses, chiefly the later discovery of the fraudulent production of the phenomena in the circle in which he made all of his initial observations. Also, Crawford’s theory does not explain movement without contact in haunted houses or in poltergeist cases, and the levitation of the human body, all of which apparently demand a different theory. Charles Richet suggested that telekinetic phenomena constitute the first stage of materialization which may be called mechanization. When phantom hands or whole bodies are formed, the presence of a separate dynamic organism is suggested. Such a body would be created at the expense of the medium and the sitters. By calculation Julien Ochorowitz announced the finding that the dynamometric energy which a circle lost corresponded to the average energy of a man. If the theory of a separate dynamic organism were accepted, it could account for experiences like that reported by Lord Adare: ‘‘[D. D.] Home . . . told me to go into the next room and place outside the window a certain vase of flowers. I did so, putting the vase outside the ledge and shutting the window. Home opened the window of the room in which we were sitting. The flowers were carried through the air from the window of the next room in at our open window. We could all hear the rus1065

Movement (Paranormal) tling, and see the curtains moved by the spirit standing there, who was bringing in the flowers; Lindsay saw the spirit distinctly.’’ Many psychical researchers refused to accept Ochorowitz’s ideas. They did not like to diminish the medium’s physical participation in the occurrences. Theodore Flournoy suggested an alternative theory, ‘‘It may be conceived that, as the atom and the molecule are the centre of a more or less radiating influence of extension, so the organised individual, isolated cell, or colony of cells, is originally in possession of a sphere of action, where it concentrates at times its efforts more especially on one point, and again on another, ad libitum. Through repetition, habit, selection, heredity and other principles loved by biologists, certain more constant lines of force would be differentiated in this homogeneous, primordial sphere, and little by little could give birth to motor organs. For example: our four members of flesh and blood, sweeping the space around us, would be but a more economic expedient invented by nature, a machine wrought in the course of better adapted evolution, to obtain at the least expense the same use full effects as this vague, primitive spherical power. Thus supplanted or transformed, these powers would thereafter manifest themselves, only very exceptionally, in certain states, or with abnormal individuals, as an atavic reapparition of a mode of acting long ago fallen into disuse, because it is really very imperfect and necessitates, without any advantage, an expenditure of vital energy far greater than the ordinary use of arms and limbs. Unless it is the Cosmic power itself, the amoral and stupid ‘demiurge,’ the Unconsciousness of M. Hartman, which comes directly into play upon contact with a deranged nervous system and realises its disordered dreams without passing through the regular channels of muscular movements.’’ Edmund E. Fournier d’Albe, author of several books on psychical phenomena, wondered if living principle of the cells that die could in some way still be attached to us. If so, we would be actually living half in this world and half in the next, he theorized. Could not then telekinesis be explained by a resumed embodiment or materialized activity of the disembodied epidermal cell principles? he asked. Cesare Lombroso suggested: ‘‘I see nothing inadmissible in the fact that, with hysterical and hypnotic subjects the excitation of certain centres which become active in proportion as all other centres become paralysed, may cause a transposition of psychical forces, and thus also bring about a transformation into luminous force or into motor force. It is thus conceivable how the force of a medium, which I may nominate as cortical or cerebral, might, for instance, raise a table or pull someone’s beard, or strike or caress him, phenomena which frequently occur under these circumstances.’’ Joseph Maxwell verified a correlation between the intensity of the muscular effort and the abnormal movement. The movement could sometimes be provoked by shaking the hand at a certain distance above the table. Rubbing the feet on the floor, rubbing the hands, the back, the arms—any quick or slightly violent movement—appeared to liberate this force. The breath appeared to exercise a great influence, as though in blowing on the object the sitters emitted a quantity of energy. Maxwell had the impression that, within certain limits, the quantity of force liberated varied in direct proportion with the number of experimenters: ‘‘There is a close and positive connection between the movements effectuated by the medium and the sitters, and the displacement of articles of experimentation; there is a relation between these displacements and the muscular contractions of the experimenters; a probable relation, whose precise nature he is unable to state, exists between the will of the experimenters and paranormal movements’’ (Joseph Maxwell, Metapsychical Phenomena, 1905). 1066

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. Exteriorization of motricity was postulated in the case of Eusapia Palladino by Enrico Morselli, Theodor Flournoy, Gustav Geley, and Hereward Carrington. Essentially the same theory was advanced earlier, in 1875, by Francis Gerry Fairfield in Ten Years With Spiritual Mediums, suggesting a nerve aura that surrounds every organic structure, capable of receiving sensory impressions, acting as a force and assuming any desired shape. The nerve aura, however, suggests something different from ectoplasm. It suggests the presence of a third factor, a nervous force to which both the medium and the sitters contribute. During the levitation of a table in the ‘‘Margery’’ séances on June 23, 1923, the sitters felt cold, tingling sensations in their forearms. Dr. Crandon at the same time observed faint, auroralike emanations from the region of Margery’s fingers. F. W. H. Myers suggested, as a correlative to telepathic effect, a ‘‘telergic action,’’ by which he meant the excitation of the motor and sensory centers of the medium by an external mind. He said that in the case of possession the external intelligence may directly act upon the body and liberate unknown energies. This theory goes far, as the external mind appears to dwell in the spiritual world, although it is of frequent observation that the sitters’ thoughts exercise a certain influence upon the phenomena. M. Barzini, journalist for Corriere della Sera, wrote about his séances with Palladino in Genoa, 1906–07: ‘‘It was obvious that our conversations were listened to, so as to yield a suggestion in the execution of the strange performance. If we spoke of levitation the table would rise up. If we began to discuss luminous phenomena instantly a light would appear upon the medium’s knees.’’ If one considers the world of spirits in the search for the agency in psychokinesis, Baron Lazar de Baczolay Hellenbach’s suggestion, from his Birth and Death as a Change of Form of Perception (1886) might provide a starting point: ‘‘I am convinced that the unseen world has first to learn how to act, so as to make themselves accessible to our senses somewhat in the same way that we have to learn how to swim in water, or communicate with the deaf and dumb.’’ In the weighing-scale experiments of the Scientific American Committee with ‘‘Margery,’’ the photograph of a curious, semitransparent cylinder was obtained (with flashlight and a quartz lens). The cylinder looked as if it was made of glass or celluloid. Seven of twelve exposed plates showed the cylinder. It was five or six inches long and three inches or a little less in diameter and stood on a base. When it was photographed on the scale, the pan that carried it was up; when it was photographed on the platform of the scale, the pans balanced. The deduction was that the cylinder acted as a sort of suction pump to keep the lighter pan up. The control ‘‘Walter’’ said that if the cylinders had been taken under long exposure they would have looked as though filled with cotton wool. There were also observations to suggest that threads finer than a strand of spider’s web, may connect the medium with objects in the room. Elizabeth d’Esperance often complained of a feeling of cobwebs on her face. ‘‘Margery’’ and many of her sitters had the same experience. With Stanislawa Tomczyk, Ochorowitz photographed a balance that was supernormally depressed by fine, hairlike threads. The method must have been similar when Palladino performed the same feat. In fact the thread was seen as it made a glass of water dance. Slowly and cautiously, a sitter drew the thick, white thread to himself. It resisted, then snapped and disappeared with a nervous shock to the medium. Ernesto Bozzano observed such threads 20 times in the same year. Juliette Bisson detected them with the medium ‘‘Eva C.’’ Dr. Jorgen Bull, of Oslo, found them instrumental in an invisible state in producing direct writing on wax tablets in the presence of Lujza Linczegh Ignath. In some of the excellent photographs obtained by Dr. T. Glen Hamilton with ‘‘Mary M.’’ of Winnipeg, slight threads can be seen reaching up to a bell fixed high above the curtain. A

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. similar attachment of threads to ‘‘apported’’ objects was observed in photographs taken by Major Mowbray with the medium Thomas Lynn. The spirit guide of a Frau Ideler explicitly stated, in the experiments conducted by a Professor Blacher of the University of Riga (Zeitschrift für Parapsychologie, October 1931), that she spun threads to accomplish telekinetic movement. In red light and later in blue light these attachments were observed and the medium seemed to pull the threads from the inner side of her hand with her fingertips. The threads seemed to be of a doughy, elastic substance, then pulled fine, and felt soft and dry. Even while being handled they diminished perceptibly. A piece was secured and subjected at once to microscopic examination in an adjoining room. An enlargement of the microscopic photo showed that it was composed not of one strand but of many fine but not organized threads. In its chemical composition the structure was not that of the known textile fabrics. Curiously, fire had no power over these threads. They made the flame withdraw. But they were conductors of electricity. The alleged unusual nature and action of such ‘‘psychic threads’’ makes it necessary to be cautious in hastily assuming fraud with ordinary threads. If the thread connection with the medium is accepted, it would be easy to understand what the medium subconsciously may feel and could indicate in advance what objects are going to be moved. Such an approach proved useful in Eugen Osty’s work with the medium Rudi Schneider at the Institut Métapsychique. The experience was also well known to sitters with Maria Silbert.

Modern Experiments in Psychokinesis The bulk of past observation and theory relating to paranormal movement belongs to a period when physical mediums dominated both Spiritualism and the attention of psychical research. Consideration of such phenomena is influenced by the fact that much of the evidence is purely anecdotal or belongs to a period of psychical research less sophisticated than in modern times. Much of the phenomena upon which researchers speculated is now, like that of the Golicher Circle, considered to have been produced deceptively. In the modern era of parapsychology, movement of objects without contact is now studied experimentally under the general term psychokinesis or ‘‘PK.’’ Parapsychology has attempted to construct more simple laboratory experiments that to demonstrate psychokinetic effects without the complicating and often questionable environment of the séance room. The first important experimental studies of this kind were initiated by J. B. Rhine in 1934 after he had encountered a gambler who claimed that he could influence the fall of dice by willpower. Rhine, who had been involved in investigation of the controversial ‘‘Margery’’ mediumship, was anxious to find some type of phenomenon that could be studied under the exacting conditions in a laboratory, thus avoiding the endless arguments about fraud and faulty observation involved with spontaneous phenomena. Dice-fall experiments could be controlled, and they were also repeatable and subject to statistical assessment. Rhine and his associates duly set up classic experiments at Duke University in North Carolina in which subjects attempted to influence the fall of dice by willpower. Over the years other parapsychologists verified the successful scores of Rhine and others. Eventually one of Rhine’s associates, W. E. Cox, introduced interesting variations, such as ‘‘Placement PK,’’ in which subjects attempted to influence movement of various objects in a target direction. Another interesting direction in scientific PK tests was the introduction of the Minilab, a glass tank containing various small objects as targets for PK. The Minilab can be sealed and locked, and is monitored by a video camera that is activated by a switching apparatus connected to the objects; thus, object movement is automatically recorded.

Movement (Paranormal) The Minilab has been used by parapsychologist J. D. Isaacs, who has investigated the phenomenon of paranormal metal bending, introduced by the Israeli psychic Uri Geller, whose feats in bending spoons and keys became world-famous, both stimulating imitators and new experiments, and providing accusations of fraud. Geller produced phenomena for scientists under laboratory conditions that led many of them to back his claims of being psychic with psychokinetic powers. Some later withdrew their enthusiastic endorsements. In the meantime, critics, like stage magician James Randi, denied the possibility of paranormal metal bending. Randi questioned the validity of the laboratory tests partly because of the inability of the scientists to detect stage tricks. He backed up his observations by carrying out an experiment in which he sent two amateur magicians into a parapsychological laboratory. They were able to fool the members of the staff of the McDonnell Laboratory for Psychical Research in St. Louis. Project Alpha, as Randi termed his experiment, was embarrassing to researchers in parapsychology and called attention to the ongoing need to double-check methodological controls, but it did not speak to the large body of data on psychokinesis accumulated during the last half century. Sources: Adare, Viscount. Experiences in Spiritualism with Mr. D. D. Home. Privately printed, 1870. Reprint, London: Society for Psychical Research, 1924. Bird, J. Malcolm. ‘‘Margery’’ the Medium. Boston: Small, Maynard, London: John Hamilton, 1925. Bolton, Gambier. Psychic Force: An Experimental Investigation. London, 1904. Carrington, Hereward. Eusapia Palladino and Her Phenomena. New York: B. E. Dodge, London: T. Werner Laurie, 1909. Crawford, W. J. Experiments in Psychical Science. London: John M. Watkins, 1919. ———. The Psychic Structures at the Goligher Circle. London: John M. Watkins, 1921. ———. The Reality of Psychic Phenomena. London: John M. Watkins, 1916. Crowell, Eugene. The Identity of Primitive Christianity and Modern Spiritualism. New York, 1874. D’Esperance, Elizabeth. Shadow Land or Light From the Other Side. London: George Redway, 1897. Flammarion, Camille. Mysterious Psychic Forces. Boston: Small, Maynard, London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1907. Forwald, Haakon. Mind, Matter, and Gravitation: A Theoretical and Experimental Study. New York: Parapsychology Foundation, 1970. Hasted, John. The Metal-Benders. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1981. Holms, A. Campbell. The Facts of Psychic Science and Philosophy Collated and Discussed. London: Kegan Paul, 1925. New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1969. Leonard, Gladys Osborne. My Life in Two Worlds. London: Cassell, 1931. London Dialectical Society. Report on Spiritualism of the Committee of the London Dialectical Society. London: Longmans, Green, 1871. Marryat, Florence. There Is No Death. London, 1891. Reprint, New York: Causeway Books, 1973. Maxwell, Joseph. Metapsychical Phenomena. London: Duckworth, 1905. Medhurst, R. G., and K. M. Goldney, eds. Crookes and the Spirit World: A Collection of Writings by or Concerning the Work of Sir William Crookes, O.M., F.R.S., in the Field of Psychical Research. New York: Taplinger, 1972. Reprint, London: Souvenir Press, 1972. Panati, Charles, ed. The Geller Papers: Scientific Observations on the Paranormal Powers of Uri Geller. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1976. 1067

Moyes, Winifred ‘‘Psychokinetic Metal-bending.’’ Psi News, Bulletin of the Parapsychological Association 4, 1. Rhine, Louisa E. Mind Over Matter: Psychokinesis. New York: Macmillan, 1970. Rogers, E. C. Philosophy of Mysterious Agents, Human and Mundane. Boston, 1853. Zöllner, J. C. F. Transcendental Physics: An Account of Experimental Investigations. London: W. H. Harrison, 1882.

Moyes, Winifred (d. 1957) The medium of the spirit guide ‘‘Zodiac’’ for the spreading of whose teachings The Greater World paper and the Greater World Christian Spiritualist League were founded in 1931. ‘‘Zodiac’’ first manifested at Moyes’s home circle in 1921. He claimed to have been a teacher at the Temple in the time of Jesus. His earth name was not disclosed but he said he was the scribe who asked Jesus which was the first commandment and to whom Jesus said: ‘‘Thou art not far from the Kingdom of God’’ (Mark 12:28–34). Although Moyes died in 1957, the work of the League continues in spreading the teachings of ‘‘Zodiac.’’

MUFOB (Metempirical UFO Bulletin) See Magonia MUFON See Mutual UFO Network

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. activity, Swami Nityananda founded a rival organization, the Shanti Mandir Seminars. After Muktananda’s death there were also serious charges leveled by a number of former disciples that in spite of his claim to be celibate Muktananda had engaged in sexual activity with, and at times sexually coerced female disciples. More positively Mukatananda is revered for his influence on many American spiritual leaders. Sources: Muktananda, Swami. Guru. New York: Harper & Row, 1971. ———. In the Company of a Siddha: Interviews and Conversations with Swami Muktananda. Ganeshpuri, India: Gurudev Siddha Peth, 1981. ———. Kundalini: The Secret of Life. South Fallsburg, N.Y.: SYDA Foundation, 1979. ———. The Perfect Relationship: The Guru and the Disciple. South Fallsburg, N.Y.: SYDA Foundation, 1980. ———. Play of Consciousness. New York: Harper & Row, 1974. ———. Satsang with Baba. Oakland, Calif.: S.T.D.A., 1975.

Mulchuyse, S. Dr. Mulchuyse is co-author with F. A. Heyne of the book Vorderingen en Problemen van de Parapsychologie (Progress and Problems in Parapsychology) (1950).

Muktananda, Swami (1908–1982)

Muldoon, Sylvan J(oseph) (ca. 1903–1971)

A Hindu spiritual teacher who was an exponent of what he termed siddha yoga, a variation of kundalini characterized by the demand that followers give over the guidance in their spiritual development to their teacher. Muktananda was born May 16, 1908, at Dharmasthala, South India. In 1964 he received his master’s degree from Jabalpur University and became a lecturer in Hindi at W. M. Ruia College, India. In February 1966, he first met Swami Nityananda of Ganeshpuri, who became his guru. Swami Nityananda had the power of shaktipat, the imparting of spiritual force through touch, thus arousing the kundalini energy believed to be latent in the human organism at the base of the spine. Through initiation by his guru, Muktananda experienced kundalini and its manifestation in various chakras or psychic centers of the body, accompanied by strange visions and enhanced consciousness. He described his remarkable experiences in his book Guru (1971), which were similar to those reported by Pandit Gopi Krishna. Muktananda became spiritual head of Shree Gurudev Ashram at Ganeshpuri, near Bombay, and attracted followers from all over India. He taught a traditional Hindu mystical doctrine of sadhana or spiritual discipline, enhanced by his ability to awaken spiritual force in others through shaktipat. He first visited the United States in 1970, and four years later made a triumphal tour in California, where he gave an address to a convention of 500 psychologists and psychotherapists in San Diego. Charles Garfield, clinical psychologist at the University of California, described Muktananda as ‘‘a highly developed being.’’ American ashrams were established across the country and additional followers emerged in Europe after Muktananda’s successful visits to Britain. Known affectionately as ‘‘Baba’’ to his devotees, he was also given the honorific title ‘‘Paramahansa,’’ indicating the highest type of Hindu holy man. After his death on October 2, 1982, Muktananda was succeeded by a brother/sister team, Swami Nityananda and Swami Chidvilasananda; however, they had a break and Swami Chidvilasananda emerged as Muktananda’s primary successor as head of the Siddha Yoga Dham Associates. After a period of in-

Pioneer American investigator of astral projection, also known as out-of-the-body travel. His first experience was at the age of twelve, stimulated by a visit with his mother to a Spiritualist Camp at Clinton, Iowa. After going to sleep, he apparently awoke to discover himself outside his physical body, looking down at it, and connected by a kind of elastic cord or cable. He thought at first that he had died, and prowled through the house trying to awaken members of his family, but was eventually drawn back into his physical body. This was the first of hundreds of other projections. In 1927, Muldoon read some books on the occult and psychical science by the famous researcher Hereward Carrington, in which Carrington had stated that the book Le Fantâme des Vivants by Charles Lancelin covered practically all that was known on the subject of astral projection. Muldoon wrote to Carrington, challenging this statement and saying that he could write a whole book on things that Lancelin did not know. As a result, Carrington invited Muldoon to collaborate on the book The Projection of the Astral Body (1929). The successful collaboration led to two further volumes, The Case for Astral Projection (1936) and The Phenomena of Astral Projection (1951). These books have become classic works of their kind. Meanwhile Muldoon wrote two additional books on his own: Sensational Psychical Experiences (1941) and Famous Psychic Stories (1942). During much of his life, Muldoon suffered from ill health, which may have been facilitated by his frequent separation from the physical body in astral projections. In the latter part of his life, his general health improved, but his ability in astral projection correspondingly decreased and he devoted less time to the subject.


Sources: Muldoon, Sylvan, and Hereward Carrington. The Case for Astral Projection. 1936. Reprint, Chicago: Aries Press, 1946. ———. The Phenomena of Astral Projection. London: Rider, 1951. ———. The Projection of the Astral Body. London: Rider, 1929.

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed.

Mulford, Prentice (1834–1891) American journalist and philosopher, and popular independent New Thought writer and mystic. He was born at Sag Harbour, Long Island, on April 5, 1834, and followed a rambling life. He served as a seaman, ship’s cook, and whalerman before becoming a gold prospector. He attempted to run a mining, prospecting and teaching school, then turned to journalism. From 1863 to 1866 he wrote for the Democrat, San Francisco, then The Golden Era (a leading literary paper), and the Dramatic Chronicle. In 1868 he spent a few months as editor of The Stockton Gazette, a Democratic journal. In 1872 he persuaded a group of San Francisco businessmen to sponsor him for a lecture tour, promoting California in England, a project that lasted for two years. Afterward he worked on the New York Graphic, conducting a news column ‘‘History of a Day’’ and in 1878 acted as Paris correspondent for the San Francisco Bulletin. After six years, he retired to the wilderness of New Jersey, where he built a small shanty and commenced writing his famous White Cross Library series of philosophical and occult essays. These covered a wide range of metaphysical, mystical, and practical topics, involving a science of thought, and the nature and application of individual powers. The titles of some of these essays give a good idea of the range of subjects: ‘‘God in the Trees,’’ ‘‘The God in Yourself,’’ ‘‘The Doctor Within,’’ ‘‘Mental Medicine,’’ ‘‘Faith: or, Being Led of the Spirit,’’ ‘‘The Material Mind versus the Spiritual Mind,’’ ‘‘Healthy and Unhealthy Spirit Communion,’’ ‘‘You Travel When You Sleep,’’ ‘‘The Law of Success,’’ and ‘‘Some Laws of Health and Beauty.’’ The first of these essays appeared in May 1886, published in Boston, Massachusetts. One of these White Cross Library series of special interest is ‘‘Prentice Mulford’s Story,’’ a vigorous autobiographical study to about 1872. On May 27, 1891, Mulford set out in a small boat, apparently for a vacation cruise, but that same evening died on board during his sleep, while anchored off Long Island. Sources: Mulford, Prentice. Life by Land and Sea. New York: F. J. Needham, 1889. ———. Thought Forces. London: G. Bell & Sons, 1913. ———. Your Forces and How to Use Them. 6 vols. White Cross Library. New York: F. J. Needham, 1887–92.

Müller, Auguste (ca. 1817) German somnambulist of Carlsruhe, the first sensitive in the age of animal magnetism who claimed contact with spirits. Her trance history was carefully recorded by Dr. Meier in his Höchst Merkwürdige Geschichte der Magnetisch Hellsehenden Auguste Müller (Stuttgart, 1818). She was controlled by the spirit of her dead mother and gave frequent exhibitions of a remarkable traveling clairvoyant faculty. She gave correct medical diagnoses of herself and others and claimed to discern in trance both the thoughts and the character of others. She could also project herself using out-of-the-body travel and appeared one night in the bedroom of her friend Catherine, as she promised her.

Müller, Karl E(ugen) (1893–1969) Electrical engineer who took a great interest in parapsychology. He was born on July 14, 1893, at New Orleans, Louisiana. He studied at the Technical University of Switzerland (B.E.E., D.Sc.Tech.), and after graduation worked for various firms as an engineer and consultant, a major length of time spent with the Oerlikon Engineering Co., Zürich (1930 until retirement in 1958). During his adult life he became a Spiritualist and after his retirement became president of the International Spiritualist Federation. He was also a member of the

Mullins, John Society for Psychical Research (London), the American Society for Psychical Research, and the Swiss Society for Parapsychology. In addition to his many articles in technical journals, Müller published contributions on parapsychology, and also experimented with infrared photography in the investigation of physical mediumship. He also published articles in Yours Fraternally, Chimes and other magazines, some of which were translated into Swedish, Danish, and German. Sources: Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House, 1991. Müller, Karl E. ‘‘Aspects of Astral Projection.’’ Introduction for F. C. Sculthorp. Excursions to the Spirit World. London: n.p., 1962. ———. ‘‘Proofs for Reincarnation.’’ Psychic News (October/ November 1960). ———. Reincarnation Based on Facts. London: Psychic Press, 1970. ———. ‘‘Spiritualist Doctrine.’’ Tomorrow. (Autumn 1960). Pleasants, Helene, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Parapsychology. New York: Helix Press, 1964.

Mullin, Albert Alkins (1933–


Mathematician who studied the relationship between parapsychology and cybernetics. He was born on August 25, 1933, at Lynn, Massachusetts. He studied at Syracuse University (B.E.E., 1955) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.S., electrical engineering, 1957). After graduation he became a research assistant at the University of Illinois. He was a charter associate of the Parapsychological Association. Sources: Mullin, Albert A. ‘‘Some Apologies by a Cyberneticist.’’ Journal of Parapsychology 23, no. 4 (1959).

Mullins, John (1838–1894) One of the most famous British water diviners. He was born at Colerne, near Chippenham, Wiltshire, on November 12, 1838, into a family of 11 children. His father was a stone mason and Mullins followed the same trade. At the age of 21, while employed by Sir John Ould to build a house in Gloucestershire, a dowser (water diviner) was employed to locate a water supply. Various people present tried their hand with the divining-rod, including Ould’s daughter, who was frightened when the rod suddenly turned over violently. An abundant water supply was found at the spot. Ould was most impressed and later asked all the workmen on his estate, about 150 men, to try divining with a rod. When Mullins tried, the rod moved so violently it snapped in two. Thereafter Mullins was considered a dowser, although he continued in his trade as mason. When he first attempted to locate a water source for Ould, he located a spring yielding 200 gallons per hour. After that, Mullins was much in demand as a water diviner. He married in 1859 and continued his trade as a mason, however he devoted the last twelve years of his life to dowsing and well-sinking. Such was his confidence in his talent that he made no charge for the expensive work of well-sinking if a good supply of water was not found. In fact, he was immensely successful, locating over five thousand sources of water. After his death in May 1894, his business was carried on by his sons, one of whom was a dowser, although not so successful as his father. The firm of John Mullins & Sons was one of the most famous businesses of its kind, claiming royal patronage. 1069

Mumbo-Jumbo Sources: Mullins, John. The Divining Rod and Its Results in Discovery of Springs. N.p., 1880.

Mumbo-Jumbo A term used to denote an object of senseless veneration, or a meaningless ceremony designed to overpower impressionable people. It has often been used by individuals as a pejorative label to express their strong personal belief about the occult. Mumbo-Jumbo dates back to the early eighteenth century, when it was reported as an image used by the Mundingo tribe in Gambia, Africa, to keep women in subjection. If the men had a dispute with the women, the ‘‘Mumbo-Jumbo’’ image was brought to adjudicate. This image was eight or nine feet high, made from the bark of trees, with straw on the head, and dressed in a long frock coat. A man of the tribe would be hidden under the coat, and would always give a judgment in favor of the men. The women would usually run away when he was brought to them, although he had power to make them come forward or sing and dance for his pleasure. A secret society amongst the men maintained the tradition of the Mumbo-Jumbo, and its members were sworn to secrecy. No boy under sixteen was allowed to join.

Mumler, William H. (d. 1884) The first practitioner of spirit photography. He lived in Boston, Massachusetts, where he was employed as the head engraver of the jewelry firm Bigelow, Kennard & Co. According to his account, one day, in a friend’s studio, he tried to take a photograph of himself by focusing the camera on an empty chair and springing into position on the chair after uncapping the lens. Upon developing the plate he discovered an extraneous figure, a young, transparent girl sitting in the chair, fading away into a dim mist in the lower parts. He identified the girl as his cousin who had died twelve years before. The experiment was repeated and he became satisfied that the extra faces appearing on his plates were of supernatural origin. The news of Mumler’s discovery spread and he was besieged with so many requests for sittings that he gave up his position and became a professional spirit photographer. Among the first to investigate Mumler’s powers was Andrew Jackson Davis, then editor of the Herald of Progress in New York. He first sent a professional photographer to test Mumler and on his favorable report conducted an investigation himself. He was satisfied that the new psychic manifestation was genuine. Mumler’s reputation was established and, as his fame grew, he did tremendous business. His most famous picture was a photograph of Mary Todd Lincoln on which appeared a spirit portrait of the deceased president. The first scandal, however, was not long in coming. It was discovered that he obtained from time to time the spirit portraits of men who were very much alive. Apologists claimed that the pictures must be genuine since they had been recognized by relatives and that the processes of production had been properly supervised to obviate fraud. It was thought that the living individuals might be doubles of the ‘‘spirits.’’ Mumler himself could not explain the result, but eventually even local Spiritualists accused him of trickery. Such a hue and cry was raised that in 1868 he was forced to transfer his headquarters to New York. He prospered for a while until he was arrested by the order of the mayor of New York on an accusation of fraud raised by a newspaperman. The journalist, P. V. Hickey, of the New York World, approached Mumler for a spirit photograph, giving a false name, hoping to get a good story for his newspaper. However, at the trial professional photographers and independent citizens testified for Mumler and he was acquitted. 1070

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. His further career was filled with ups and downs; Mumler died on May 16, 1884, in poverty. Sources: Aksakof, A. N. Animisme et Spiritisme. Reprint, Paris, 1985. English ed. as: Animism and Spiritism. Leipzig: Oswald Meats, 1890. Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House, 1991. Mumler, William H. Personal Experiences of William H. Mumler in Spirit Photography. N.p., 1875. Sidgwick, Eleanor. ‘‘On Spirit Photography: A Reply to Mr. A. R. Wallace.’’ Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research 7 (1891).

Mundle, Clement Williams Kennedy (1916–1989) Professor of philosophy who was actively involved in the study of parapsychology. He was born on August 10, 1916, in Fife, Scotland, and studied at the University of St. Andrews. After time out to serve in the Royal Air Force, Technical Branch (1940–45), Mundle attended Oxford University. He became head of the Philosophy Department, University College of St. Andrews, Dundee, Scotland (1947–55), during which time he was a holder of a Shaw Philosophical fellowship at Edinburgh University (1948–50). In 1955 he began his long tenure as head of the Philosophy Department at the University College of North Wales, Bangor. Mundle attended the International Conference of Parapsychological Studies, Utrecht, Netherlands (1953) and the International Conference on Philosophy and Parapsychology, St. Paul de Vence, France (1954). He was a charter member of the Parapsychological Association and was president of the Society for Psychical Research, London (1971–74). He assisted in the ESP investigations reported by S. G. Soal and H. T. Bowden in their book The Mind Readers (1959). Mundle died July 27, 1989. Sources: Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House, 1991. Mundle, C. W. K. ‘‘The Experimental Evidence for Precognition and Psychokinesis.’’ Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research 49 (July 1950). ———. ‘‘Is Psychical Research Relevant to Philosophy?’’ Proceedings, Aristotelian Society Supplemental Vol. 24 (1950). ———. ‘‘Philosophical Implications of ESP Phenomena.’’ In Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by P. Edwards. N.p. 1967. ———. ‘‘Professor Rhine’s Views on Psychokinesis.’’ Mind (July 1950). ———. ‘‘Selectivity in Extrasensory Perception.’’ Journal of the Society for Psychical Research (March 1951). ———. ‘‘Some Philosophical Perspectives for Parapsychology.’’ Journal of Parapsychology (December 1952). Pleasants, Helene, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Parapsychology. New York: Helix Press, 1964.

Munnings, Frederick T(ansley) (ca. 1928) British fake trumpet medium and former bugler. Writer H. Dennis Bradley, who held several experimental sittings with Munnings in his home, dismissed his claims to direct voice mediumship. Bradley stated that the sittings were entirely valueless and, in February 1926 a public warning against Munnings was issued in the press by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Abraham Wallace, R. H. Saunders, and H. D. Bradley. For publication of the warning, Munnings brought an action for libel against the Daily Sketch and the Sunday Herald in 1928.

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Sources: Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House, 1991. ‘‘The Cases of Mr. Moss and Mr. Munnings.’’ Journal of the Society for Psychical Research 23 (1926).

———. Personality. New York: Harper & Row, 1947. ———. ‘‘Psychical Research and Personality.’’ Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research (January 1950). ———. There Is More Beyond: Selected Papers of Gardner Murphy. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1989. ———. ‘‘Triumphs and Defeats in the Study of Mediumship.’’ Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 52 (October 1957). Murphy, Gardner, and Morton Leeds. Outgrowing SelfPerception. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1975. ———. The Paranormal and the Normal. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1980. Murphy, Gardner, and Robert Ballou. William James and Psychical Research. New York: Viking Press, 1960. Murphy, Gardner, and L. A. Dale. The Challenge of Psychical Research. New York: Harper and Row, 1961. Peatman, John G., and Eugene L. Hartley, eds. Festschrift for Gardner Murphy. N.p., 1960. Pleasants, Helene, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Parapsychology. New York: Helix Press, 1964. Schmeidler, Gertrude. ‘‘Some Lines About Gardner Murphy, the Psychologist’s Parapsychologist.’’ Parapsychology Review (July–August, 1976).

Murphy, Gardner (1895–1979)

Murphy-Lydy, Mary (ca. 1870–

Distinguished psychologist and pioneer figure in parapsychology. Murphy was born on July 8, 1895, at Chillicothe, Ohio. He studied at Yale University (B.A., 1916), Harvard University (M.A., 1917), and Columbia University (Ph.D., 1923). At Harvard he was the Richard Hodgson Fellow concerned with psychical research. While completing his doctorate he became a lecturer at Columbia where he remained through the 1920s. He later served on the faculty of the Department of Psychology at City College of New York (1940–52). In 1952 he became the director of research at the Menninger Foundation, Topeka, Kansas, where he stayed for the remainder of his professional career. He defended parapsychology in the face of a strong vocal attack at the 1938 meeting of the American Psychological Association and went on in 1944 to be elected president of that organization. He also received numerous honors for his psychological studies. Murphy joined the Society for Psychical Research, London, in 1917, while in England during World War I as a soldier in the United States Army. Murphy became involved in the controversy over Mina Crandon that divided the American Society for Psychical Research in the mid 1920s. Believing Crandon a fraud, he joined with others in the formation of the Boston Society for Psychic Research as a rival organization. Once that issue had lost its importance, he led in the reuniting of the two groups. He served as vice president of the ASPR (1940–62), and had a notable tenure as president. Throughout his many years in administering the most prominent parapsychological research institute in the United States, Murphy found time to author over one hundred papers and a number of books, many that are still influential in the field of parapsychology. Murphy died in George Washington University Hospital, Washington, D.C., March 19, 1979.

American materialization and trumpet medium, who practiced for many years in Chesterfield Camp, Indiana. She was engaged for a year by the Indiana Psychic Research Society at Indianapolis, toured the United States, and attained prominence in 1931 in England by platform demonstration of direct voice. Her chief controls were ‘‘Dr. Green’’ and ‘‘Sunflower.’’ Impressive accounts of her phenomena were published in the press, but British writer on psychic phenomena H. Dennis Bradley considered her performances highly suspicious. In his book, . . . And After (1931) he described sittings with the medium whom he roundly condemned as ‘‘deliberately fraudulent.’’ He also stigmatized her public appearances, stating, ‘‘There was no semblance whatever of spirituality during the medium’s proceedings. The effect produced was merely the boredom of a material and dreary exhibition.’’ The main charge was that in a private sitting the author actually heard the medium speak into the trumpet.

However, he did not face the issue before the court and judgment was entered for the defendants. Thereupon Munnings sold his ‘‘Confessions’’ to The People newspaper. It appeared in installments for several weeks, written by journalist Sydney A. Moseley, branding Munnings’s whole psychic career as an incident of fraud. The understanding between Moseley and Munnings, however, was not perfect and in an interview to the International Psychic Gazette, Munnings entered a mild protest against his own sensational disclosures. Psychical researcher Harry Price was instrumental in the exposure of Munnings, who claimed to produce the independent voices of ‘‘Julius Caesar,’’ ‘‘Dan Leno’’ (famous nineteenth-century comedian), ‘‘Dr. Crippen’’ (a murderer), and ‘‘King Henry VIII.’’ Price had invented a voice control recorder and ultimately proved that all the voices were those of Munnings.

Sources: Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House, 1991. Murphy, Gardner. ‘‘Difficulties Confronting the Survival Hypothesis.’’ Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 39 (April 1945). ———. Historical Introduction to Modern Psychology. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1925. ———. Human Potentialities. New York: Basic Books, 1958. ———. In the Minds of Men. New York: Basic Books, 1953.


Murray, (George) Gilbert (Aime) (1866–1957) Born on January 2, 1866, Murray was a Regius Professor of Greek at Oxford University who was a leader in the psychical research community in early twentieth-century England. He believed he had the capacity for thought-transference and declared in an interview for the Sunday Express in the summer of 1929, that he discovered his thought-reading faculty by accident while playing guessing games with his children. At the insistence of his wife, Murray commenced experimenting with grown-ups. Ultimately he became a famous figure in psychical research for his experiments in thought-transference with investigator Eleanor Sidgwick, the results of which were published in the 1924 Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research. Sidgwick considered these findings ‘‘perhaps the most important ever brought to the notice of the society.’’ Murray was president of the Society for Psychical Research, London, 1915–16. He did not believe in communication with the dead, but he had reached an agreement with psychologist William James that there exists a ‘‘stream of consciousness, with a vivid centre and dim edges.’’ In moments of inattentiveness, subconscious impressions register themselves and afterward form a sort of dim memory, which may account for certain phases of clairvoyance. Murray suspected that around our per1071

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ceptions is a fringe of still more delicate sensing apparatus. The ‘‘feelers’’ of this apparatus are constantly registering contacts with their surroundings, but the impressions are too weak to enter the field of normal consciousness. This fringe of consciousness is the key to telepathy. In addition, Murray published a number of books concerned with Greek traditions in literature and poetry. He died at Oxford, England, May 20, 1957.

Dessoir, Max. ‘‘Experiments in Muscle Reading and Thought-Transference.’’ Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research 4, 10 (1886–87). Sugden, E. H. ‘‘Note on Muscle Reading.’’ Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research 1, 4 (1882–83).

Sources: Essays in Honor of Gilbert Murray. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1972. Murray, Gilbert. Gilbert Murray: An Unfinished Autobiography. London: Allen and Unwin, 1960. Sidgwick, Eleanor. ‘‘Report on Further Experiments in Thought-Transference Carried Out by Professor Gilbert Murray, LL.D, Litt.D.’’ Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research 34 (1924).

Mathematician, physicist, cyberneticist, and philosopher who worked as a theoretician in the field of parapsychology. Born on April 28, 1919, in New Jersey, Musès studied at City College, New York (B.Sc.) and Columbia University (A.M., Ph.D. philosophy). He worked as a chemist and consultant for Gar-Baker Laboratories Inc. (1941–54), was editor in chief of Falcon’s Wing Press, Colorado (concerned with philosophical and occult books) (1954–59), and from the beginning of the 1960s held various positions as a writer, editor, and consultant, including a stint as editor of the Journal for the Study of Consciousness. Musès has made myriad contributions in a variety of fields. He worked with the late Norbert Wiener, pioneer of cybernetics, whose posthumously published lectures he edited. In the field of mathematics, Musès discovered root and logarithm operations for hyper-numbers following the square root of minus one. In the field of anthropology he studied the Mayans, the Lacadones of Chiapas, Mexico, and symbolic systems in India. He edited the Journal of Psychoenergetic Systems, the Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Biosimulation (Locarno, 1960), and the Aspects of the Theory of Artificial Intelligence (New York, 1962). For a time he served as director of research for the Center for Research on Mathematics and Morphology, Santa Barbara, California. In the field of parapsychology, Musès made important contributions to the study of the nature, alterations, and potentials of consciousness, to which he gave the name noetics.

Murray, Margaret A(lice) (1863–1963) British archaeologist whose writings on witchcraft played a prominent part in the modern witchcraft revival. She was born in Calcutta, India, July 13, 1863. She later moved to England and entered University College, London (1894) where she was subsequently a Fellow of University College (D.Lit., F.S.A. (Scot.), F.R.A.I.), and by 1899 became a junior lecturer on Egyptology. She retired in 1935. She participated in excavations in Egypt (1902–4), Malta (1921–24), Hertfordshire, England (1925), Minorca (1930–31), Petra (1937), and Tell Ajjul, South Palestine (1938). During her long career, which included a tenure as president of the Folklore Society, London (1953–55), she published a number of valuable works on archaeology, but is better remembered for her controversial books on witchcraft. In The Witch Cult in Western Europe (1921), Murray proposed the idea that witchcraft was a pre-Christian religion in its own right, rather than a heretical deviation from established Christianity. The book had a great influence on Gerald B. Gardner (1884–1964), pioneer of the modern witchcraft revival. Murray in turn contributed an introduction to Gardner’s book Witchcraft Today (1954). She also wrote two other books on witchcraft: The God of the Witches (1931) and The Divine King in England (1954). She died November 13, 1963, soon after her hundredth birthday. Sources: Murray, Margaret A. My First Hundred Years. London: William Kimber, 1963. Rose, Elliot. A Razor for a Goat. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1964. Valiente, Doreen. An ABC of Witchcraft Past and Present. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1973.

Muscle Reading According to psychic researcher James H. Hyslop, ‘‘the interpretation by the operator of unconscious muscular movements in the subject experimented on.’’ As no paranormal perception is involved in the interpretation, psychical research is not specifically concerned in muscle reading, although the special sensitivities involved may have some relevance to the mechanisms of paranormal cognition. Some have suggested that what has been interpreted as telepathy may in fact be conscious or unconscious muscle reading. Sources: Beard, George Miller. The Study of Trance, Muscle Reading and Allied Nervous Phenomena. New York, 1882. 1072

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Sources: Musès, Charles A. ‘‘Aspects of Some Crucial Problems in Biological and Medical Cybernetics.’’ In Norbert Wiener and J. P. Schade, eds. Progress in Bio-Cybernetics. Vol. 2. 1975. ———. Consciousness and Reality. New York: Morrow/Avon, 1983. ———. Destiny and Control in Human Systems. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, 1984. ———. East-West Fire; Schopenhauer’s Optimism and the Lankavatara Sutra: An Excursion toward the Common Ground between Oriental and Western Religion. London: J. M. Watkins, 1955. ———. Esoteric Teachings of the Tibetan Tantra. Falcon’s Wing Press, 1961. ———. An Evaluation of Relativity Theory after a Half-Century. 1953. ———. Illumination of Jacob Boehme: The Work of Dionysius Andreas Freher. 1951. ———. ‘‘The Limits of Consciousness.’’ Journal for the Study of Consciousness 1 (1968). ———. ‘‘The Politics of Psi; Acculturation & Hypnosis.’’ In Joseph K. Long, ed. Extrasensory Ecology: Parapsychology and Anthropology. 1977. ———. Prismatic Voices; An International Anthology of Distinctive New Poets. 1958. ———. ‘‘Psychotronic Quantum Theory; A Proposal for Understanding Mass/Space/Time/Consciousness Transductions in Terms of a Radically Extended Quantum Theory.’’ Proceedings of International Association for Psychotronic Research, 1975. Musès, Charles A., and A. M. Young, eds. Consciousness and Reality; the Human Pivot Point. New York: Outerbridge & Lazard, 1972.

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Museum of Magic and Witchcraft Founded in 1951 by Cecil H. Williamson as the Folklore Center of Superstition and Witchcraft at the Witches Mill, Castletown, Isle of Man, Great Britain. It contained witchcraft relics, as well as reconstructed scenes of occult rituals and instruments. Gerald B. Gardner (1884–1964), who developed modern Wicca, the neo-Pagan form of witchcraft, presided at the opening ceremony. In 1952 Gardner purchased the museum from Williamson. In the late 1950s as Gardner’s health failed, Scottish witch Monique Wilson (witch name ‘‘Lady Olwyn’’) and her husband Campbell Wilson, both Gardner initiates, began to administer the Museum’s affairs. They inherited the museum and Gardner’s papers after Gardner’s death in 1964. In 1971 Ripley’s International purchased the museum and brought its contents to the United States. The company created a Museum of Witchcraft and Magic at Fisherman’s Wharf, San Francisco, California, and another at Gatlinburg, Tennessee. Some of the collection was sold and various items distributed to the several Ripley’s museums now located in various cities. Sources: Kelly, Aidan A. Crafting the Art of Magic: A History of Modern Witchcraft, 1939–1964. St. Paul: Llewellyn Publications, 1991.

Mushrooms The narcotic and hallucinogenic properties of certain mushrooms have been known since ancient times. Some mushrooms were even regarded as sacred, and in some cultures their use was prohibited to ordinary people. In what is now Mexico and the southwestern United States a primary psychedelic source was peyote, a small, spineless, carrot-shaped cactus. Dried, the peyote button was consumed in various ceremonial settings. In the late nineteenth century, the use of peyote began to spread among various tribes, and early in the twentieth century strong opposition developed both among Native Americans who rejected it and whites who sought to control Native American behavior and religion. The Native American Church was founded in 1906 at the Union Church by peyote users in Oklahoma and Nebraska. It adopted its present name in 1918 in response to a campaign by the Bureau of Indian Affairs to outlaw peyote. The fight to legalize the practices of the church has continued into the 1990s, though major rulings in the 1960s largely established the place of the church and its major sacrament. Serious medical and scientific interest in hallucinogenic mushrooms dates from the pioneer work Phantastica: Narcotic and Stimulating Drugs by Louis Lewin (London, 1931). In this important book, Lewin discusses the use of fly agaric and identifies the peyote plant (which he named anhalonium Lewinii) and the active substance, mescaline, obtained from it. More than two decades later New York banker R. Gordon Wasson and his wife Valentina Wasson published their classic study Mushrooms, Russia, and History (Pantheon, 1957). This important work launched a new science of ethnomycology (i.e., the study of the role played by wild mushrooms in various human cultures throughout history). The Wassons took field trips to Mexico during 1955 to study firsthand the sacred mushroom ceremonies of the Indian people. Their record album Mushroom Ceremony of the Mazatec Indians of Mexico (Folkways Records, New York, 1957) was the first documented recording of its kind. The studies of the Wassons—along with the popular volume by Aldous Huxley, The Doors of Perception (1954)—spread interest in psychedelic drugs and their hallucinogenic properties and stand at the fountainhead of the psychedelic revolution of the 1960s. The Wassons also gave special attention to fly agaric (A. muscaria) in history. In his book Soma, Divine Mushroom of Immortality (1968, 1971) Wasson speculates that it was the source of the

Music (Paranormal) nectar named soma in the ancient Vedic literature of India. Although a few modern writers on psychedelics support the Wassons, this particular suggestion has not found support in the scholarly community. In 1960 Timothy Leary, then an instructor at Harvard University, was introduced to the psychedelic mushroom trianactyle by a Mexican anthropologist. The experience totally disturbed his rather settled view of the universe and led directly to his launching research on psychedelic drugs at Harvard. In the process, he was introduced to LSD and very soon he left Harvard to become the advocate of a new worldview based on the mind-altering properties of hallucinogens. Emerging as a major prophet of the mushroom was Carlos Castaneda, a South American anthropologist who seems to have worked one of the great hoaxes in history with his claims to have been taught by a mushroom-using Yaqui Indian whom he called Don Juan. His writings, using his research in the University of California library, not only influenced hundreds of thousands of readers already seeking justification for their use of psychedelics, but deceived the teachers at UCLA and many in the anthropological community who saw him as the advocate of a new methodology for the study of tribal cultures. In spite of the revelations of his deceit, Castaneda retains a loyal following. What began as an intellectual exercise to understand tribal cultures led in the 1960s to the development of a new subculture based on the consumption of drugs, and the emergence of prophets like Richard Alpert, who found a new vision in Hinduism. Sources: Castaneda, Carlos. The Teachings of Don Juan. New York: Ballentine Books, 1969. De Mille, Richard. Castaneda’s Journey: The Power and the Allegory. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Capra Press, 1976. ———. The Don Juan Papers. Santa Barbara, Calif.: RossErikson, 1980. La Barre, Weston. The Peyote Cult. New York: Schocken Books, 1969. Leary, Timothy. Flashbacks. Los Angeles: Jeremy Tarcher, 1983. Masters, R. E. L., and Jean Houston. The Varieties of Psychedelic Experience. New York: Delta, 1967. Roseman, Bernard. The Peyote Story. North Hollywood, Calif.: Wilshire Book, 1963.

Music (Paranormal) Paranormal music ranges from inspired performances by mediums, to compositions dictated by ‘‘spirit musicians,’’ to music that is heard without any apparent earthly source. This latter form of paranormal music is perhaps the most impressive. During the seventeenth-century persecution of the Huguenots in France, music from invisible sources became a widespread phenomenon. The Pastoral Letter of Pierre Jurieu (1689) refers to dozens of instances. The sound of trumpets as if an army were going to battle, the singing of psalms, a choir of many voices, and an ensemble of musical instruments were heard day and night in many places. After the church in Orthez was razed, there was hardly a house in the city in which people did not hear the music, ordinarily between eight and nine o’clock night. The Parliament of Pau and the Intendant of Bearn forbade citizens to go and hear these psalms under a penalty of 2,000–5,000 crowns. The scale of the phenomenon was too vast to be attributed to hallucination. It was experienced throughout the Cevennes. It was largely under the effect of this supernormal phenomenon that Cavalier, Roland, and Marion rose against Louis XIV. According to Beriah G. Evans, in his account of the Welsh religious revival in the Daily News (February 9, 1905), ‘‘From all 1073

Music (Paranormal) parts of the country come reports of mysterious music descending from above, and always in districts where the Revival fire burns brightly.’’ Several interesting cases in which music was heard around the deathbed are cited by Edmund Gurney, F. W. H. Myers and Frank Podmore in their classic study Phantasms of the Living (1886). For example, after the death of a Mr. L. (p. 446), three persons in the death chamber heard for several seconds three feminine voices singing softly, like the sounds of an Eolian harp. Eliza W. could distinguish the words: ‘‘The strife is o’er, the battle done.’’ Mrs. L., who was also present, heard nothing. Before a Mrs. Sewell’s little girl died (vol. 2, p. 221) ‘‘sounds like the music of an Eolian harp’’ were heard from a cupboard in the room. ‘‘The sounds increased until the room was full of melody,’’ the researchers narrate, ‘‘when it seemed slowly to pass down the stairs and ceased. The servant in the kitchen, two stories below, heard the sounds.’’ The sounds were similarly heard for the next two days by several people, except the child, who was passionately fond of music. She died when the music was heard for the third time. Following the death of her 21year-old daughter, a Mrs. Yates heard the sweetest spiritual music, ‘‘such as mortals never sang’’ (vol. 2, p. 223). As reported in the Journal of the Society for Psychical Research (vol. 4, p. 181), music was heard around the sickbed of John Britton, a deafmute who was dangerously ill with rheumatic fever. His face was lit up, and when he had recovered sufficiently to use his hands he explained in sign language that he had heard ‘‘beautiful music.’’ Puritan divine John Bunyan related his observations of an elderly believer, saying that ‘‘when his soul departed from him the music seemed to withdraw, and to go further and further off from the house, and so it went until the sound was quite gone out of hearing.’’ The British Daily Chronicle reported on May 4, 1905, the case of a dying woman of the Salvation Army: ‘‘For three or four nights mysterious and sweet music was heard in her room at frequent intervals by relatives and friends, lasting on each occasion about a quarter of an hour. At times the music appeared to proceed from a distance, and then would gradually grow in strength while the young woman lay unconscious.’’ Of course, in some cases the experience appears to have been purely subjective. According to a story told by Count de la Resie in the Gazette de France of 1855, Urham’s Chef d’oeuvre Audition was supernormally produced. In a narrow glade in the Bois de Boulogne, he heard a sound in the air. Urham saw a light without form and precision and heard an air with the accompaniment of an Eolian harp. He fell into a kind of ecstasy and distinctly heard a voice that said to him, ‘‘Dear Urham, write down what I have sung.’’ He hurried home and wrote down the air with the greatest ease. In the famous Versailles adventure of C. A. E. Moberley and E. J. Jourdain, two English women walking in the gardens of Versailles were apparently transported to the Trianon (a villa) of 1789, where they heard period music, which has since been transcribed.

Music through Mediums without Instruments Whereas mediumistic manifestation of the production of music without instruments was rare, the apparent telekinetic playing of instruments was heard fairly frequently. The sitters of D. D. Home and William Stainton Moses were often delighted by music from an invisible source. Home relates, in Incidents In My Life (1863), the following story: ‘‘On going to Boston my power returned, and with it the most impressive manifestation of music without any earthly instrument. At night, when I was asleep my room would be filled as it were with sounds of harmony, and these gradually grew louder till persons in other parts of the house could hear them distinctly; if by any chance I was awakened, the music would instantly cease.’’ 1074

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. In the second volume of his biography, Home recounts the following well-attested experience that occurred on Easter Eve 1866 in the home of S. C. Hall: ‘‘First we had simple, sweet, soft music for some minutes; then it became intensely sad; then the tramp, tramp as of a body of men marching mingled with the music, and I exclaimed ‘The March to Calvary.’ Then three times the tap-tapping sound of a hammer on a nail (like two metals meeting). A crash, and a burst of wailing which seemed to fill the room, followed; then there came a burst of glorious triumphal music, more grand than any of us had ever listened to, and we exclaimed ‘The Resurrection.’ It thrilled all our hearts.’’ Lord Adare, who published Experiences in Spiritualism with Mr. D. D. Home (1870), recorded many interesting accounts of the same phenomenon. ‘‘We had not been in bed more than three minutes,’’ he writes of an experience in Norwood, London, ‘‘when both Home and myself simultaneously heard the music: it sounded like a harmonium; sometimes, as if played loudly at a great distance, at other times as if very gently, close by.’’ On another occasion, says Adare, ‘‘the music became louder and louder, until I distinctly heard the words: ‘Hallelujah! Praise the Lord God Almighty!’ It was no imagination on my part.’’ The music was the same as at Norwood. The aerial musical sounds sometimes resembled drops of water, and according to Home they were produced by the same method as raps. Dr. James H. Gully, in whose house Home was a guest, writes: ‘‘Ears never listened to anything more sweet and solemn than these voices and instruments; we heard organ, harp and trumpet, also two voices’’ (Spiritualist, vol. 3, p. 124). In the presence of Moses, ‘‘drum, harp, fairy bells, trumpet, lyre, tambourine, and flapping of wings’’ were heard (Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, vol. 11, p. 54). No such instruments were in the room. They were also heard in the open. A Mrs. Speer reflects on the event (Light, January 28, 1893): ‘‘September 19, before meeting this evening we heard the fairy bells playing in different parts of the garden, where we were walking; at times they sounded far off seemingly playing at the top of some high elm trees, music and stars mingling together, then they would approach nearer to us, evidently following us into the séance room which opened on to the lawn. After we were seated the music still lingered with us, playing in the corner of the room and over the table, round which we were seated. They played scales and chords by request, with the greatest rapidity and copied notes Dr. Speer made with his voice. After Moses was in trance the music became louder and sounded like brilliant playing on the piano! There was no instrument in the room.’’ There were similar observations before Home and Moses; in the case of Mary Jobson a psychic invasion took place during a spell of mysterious illness. Taps ‘‘as on a bell so pure as to bear no vibration, in the most exquisite tones, quite beyond description’’ were produced by ‘‘Walter’’ in the ‘‘Margery’’ séances (see Mina Crandon) without any visible instrument. Notes were struck on a ‘‘psychic piano’’; the English call to arms was rendered on a ‘‘psychic bugle,’’ sounding at a distance and in an open space; the British reveille was played; an invisible mouth organ and the striking of a ‘‘celestial clock,’’ different from any clock known to be in the house or in the neighborhood, were heard (J. Malcolm Bird, ‘‘Margery’’ the Medium, 1925).

Music Telekinetically Produced According to E. W. Capron in Modern Spiritualism: Its Facts and Fanaticisms (1885): ‘‘Mrs. [Sarah] Tamlin was, so far as I have been able to learn, the first medium through whom the guitar or other musical instrument was played, without visible contact, so as to give recognisable tunes. In her presence it was played with all the exactness of an experienced musician, although she is not acquainted with music, or herself able to play

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. on any instrument. The tones varied from loud and vigorous to the most refined touches of the strings that could be imagined.’’ The playing of a locked piano in a séance with James Sangster is reported in the Age of Progress (March 1857). In the presence of Annie Lord and Jennie Lord of Maine— both unable to play any instrument—a double bass violincello, guitar, drums, accordion, tambourine, bells, and various small instruments were played ‘‘with the most astonishing skill and power,’’ writes Emma Hardinge Britten in Modern American Spiritualism (1870). The instruments were played ‘‘sometimes singly, at others all together, and not infrequently the strange concert would conclude by placing the young medium, seated in her invalid chair, silently and in a single instant in the centre of the table, piling up all the instruments around her.’’ Britten writes. In D. D. Home’s mediumship, musical feats of telekinesis were particularly well attested. Sir William Crookes witnessed it under fraud-proof conditions. The quality of the music was mostly fine. William Howitt had an experience to the contrary. He is quoted in a letter in D. D. Home’s Incidents In My Life (1863): ‘‘A few evenings afterwards, a lady desiring that the ‘Last Rose of Summer’ might be played by a spirit on the accordion, the wish was complied with, but in so wretched a style that the company begged that it might be discontinued. This was done, but soon after, evidently by another spirit, the accordion was carried and suspended over the lady’s head, and there, without any visible support or action on the instrument, the air was played through most admirably, in the view and hearing of all.’’ Lord Adare noted a peculiarity: ‘‘The last few notes were drawn out so fine as to be scarcely audible—the last note dying away so gradually that I could not tell when it ceased. I do not think it possible for any human hand to produce a note in that way.’’ Robert Bell gives the following account in the Cornhill Magazine (August 1860), under the title ‘‘Stranger than Fiction’’: ‘‘The air was wild and full of strange transitions, with a wail of the most pathetic sweetness running through it. The execution was no less remarkable, for its delicacy than its powers. When the notes swelled in some of the bold passages, the sound rolled through the room with an astounding reverberation; then gently subsiding, sank into a strain of divine tenderness.’’ The experience was the same when Bell held the accordion in his own hand, with full light upon it; during the loud and vehement passages it became so difficult to hold that he had to grasp the top with both hands, he said. In a letter to the Morning Star (October 1860), a Dr. Gully stated, ‘‘I have heard Blagrove repeated; but it is no libel on that master of the instrument to say that he never did produce such exquisite distant and echo notes as those which delighted our ears.’’ Alfred Russel Wallace writes in his book My Life (1902) of his first séance in the company of Crookes and Home: ‘‘As I was the only one of the company who had not witnessed any of the remarkable phenomena that occurred in his presence, I was invited to go under the table while an accordion was playing, held in Home’s hand, his other hand being on the table. The room was well lighted and I distinctly saw Home’s hand holding the instrument which moved up and down and played a tune without any visible cause. He then said ‘Now I will take away my hand,’ which he did; but the instrument went on playing, and I saw a detached hand holding it while Home’s two hands were seen above the table by all present.’’ There were other mediums who apparently performed similar feats of telekinetic music, Henry Slade and the Reverend F. W. Monck among them. Of Eusapia Palladino Hereward Carrington gives the following account, in The Story of Psychic Science (1930): ‘‘One of the most remarkable manifestations, however, was the playing of the mandolin, on at least two occasions. The in-

Music (Paranormal) strument sounded in the cabinet first of all—distinct twangings of the strings being heard, in response to pickings of Eusapia’s fingers on the hand of one of her controllers. The mandolin then floated out of the cabinet, on to the séance table, where, in full view of all, nothing touching it, it continued to play for nearly a minute—first one string and then another being played upon. Eusapia was at the time in deep trance, and was found to be cataleptic a few moments later. Her hands were gripping the hands of her controllers so tightly that each finger had to be opened in turn, by the aid of passes and suggestion.’’ H. Dennis Bradley writes in . . . And After (1931): ‘‘I have had instruments of an orchestra placed in the centre of my own study, with luminous paint covering them so that every movement could be seen instantly, and these instruments have been played by unseen forces in perfect harmony. Whilst operatic selections were being played upon the gramophone, they have been supernormally conducted with a luminous baton in a majestic manner.’’

Musicians Who Were Mediums There were also musical mediums who achieved fame, even though they were often without musical training or were unable to play in a conscious state. Among these, Jesse F. G. Shepard was the most astonishing. Well-known classical composers were said to play through George Aubert, a nonprofessional medium who was investigated at the Institut Genéral Psychologique in Paris. At the International Psychical Congress in 1900, Charles Richet introduced Pepito Ariola, a three-and-a-half-year-old Spanish child who played classical pieces. Blind Tom, a child living in south Georgia described as otherwise intellectually deficient, played the piano impressively with both hands, using the black and the white keys, when four years old. At age five he composed his ‘‘Rainstorm’’ and said it was what the rain, wind, and thunder had said to him. He could play two tunes on the piano at the same time, one with each hand, while he sang a song in a different tempo. Each tune was set to a different key as dictated by the audience. In 1903 the famous palmist ‘‘Cheiro’’ (Count Louis Hamon) introduced to London a M. de Boyon, a French musical medium to whose extraordinary gift Victorien Sardou, actress Sarah Bernhardt and other musicians of the day testified. M. de Boyon had no memory of what he played. He employed a unique fingering, and he could not play the same piece twice. The most remarkable musical medium of the late twentieth century has been Rosemary Brown, a British housewife who performs musical compositions on the piano, claimed to originate from such great composers as Beethoven, Mozart, Liszt, and Chopin. Brown has no musical training, but these psychic compositions have been endorsed by established musicians.

Paranormal Aspects of Music Because of its powerful influence directly on emotions, music often achieves remarkable effects on humans and even on animals. Music therapy is now a recognized treatment for mentally handicapped children. Ancient legends tell of the paranormal effects of music. Orpheus of ancient Greece charmed wild animals and even trees by his music, and the modal system of the Greeks was said to influence the social and emotional attitudes of listeners. Naik Gopal, a musician of ancient India, was said to have caused flames to burst forth by his performance of Dipak Raga (associated with heat), even when the musician stood in water. The musical system of India has always emphasized the powerful effects of musical vibration. Different ragas (scale patterns) are regarded as specific for certain times of the day or seasons of the year, and their microtonal intervals and grace notes involve vibrations that are unknown to the well-tempered scale of Western nations. Ragas, properly performed, are said to evoke beautiful forms or have paranormal effects. 1075

Musso, J(uan) Ricardo In Hinduism, the first manifestation of creation was said to be that of subtle sound vibration, giving rise to the forms of the material world. Each sound produced a form, and combinations of sound created complicated shapes. This is also the basis of mantra yoga. The creative power of sound is also echoed in the Christian Scripture: ‘‘In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God’’ (John 1:1). Through this century attempts have been made to explore the legendary traditions from scientific perspectives. The great Indian scientist Sir Jagadis Chunder Bose devised sensitive apparatus to demonstrate subtle plant reactions, many of which resembled nervous responses in animal or human life. Prof. T. C. N. Singh and Stells Ponniah of Annamalai University in India carried out experiments to measure the growth in plants as a result of musical sounds (see Plants, Psychic Aspects of). Western scientists have demonstrated that ultrasonic sounds can destroy bacteria, guide ships in the dark, and weld together materials. In recent years, the Hindu musician Swami Nadabrahmananda Saraswati has demonstrated an ancient yoga of music, involving the arousal of kundalini energy through the psychic power of musical vibrations. In a Western context, psychic effects from music were claimed by the singing teacher Alfred Wolfsohn. In contrast, some have suggested that the aggressiveness and violence of much of modern popular rock music seems to have had a negative and sinister influence on a younger generation, recalling the fears of the ancient Greeks that certain musical modes would have a harmful social effect. Sources: Brown, Rosemary. Immortals at My Elbow. London: Bachman & Turner, 1974. Reprinted as Immortals by My Side. Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1975. Crookes, William. Researches in the Phenomena of Spiritualism. London: J. Burns, 1974. Danielou, Alain. The Ragas of Northern Indian Music. London: Barrie & Rockliff, 1968. Gurney, Edmund. The Power of Sound. London: Smith, Elder, 1880. Reprint, New York: Basic Books, 1966. Parrott, Ian. The Music of ‘‘An Adventure.’’ London: Regency Press, 1966. Podolsky, Edward. Music Therapy. New York: Philosophical Library, 1954. Rogo, D. Scott. Nad: A Study of Some Unusual ‘‘Other-World’’ Experiences. 2 vols. New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1970–72. Scott, Cyril. Music: Its Secret Influence Throughout the Ages. 6th ed. London: Rider, 1956. Sivananda, Swami. Music as Yoga. Sivananda Nagar, India: Yoga-Vedanta Forest University, 1956.

Musso, J(uan) Ricardo (1917–1989) Business consultant, author, editor, and professor of parapsychology whose research centered on the testing of ESP by statistical methods. Musso was born on June 9, 1917, in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and studied at the School of Economic Sciences, Buenos Aires University (Doctor of Economic Sciences, 1944). He became a lecturer on parapsychology at the Argentine Institute of Parapsychology, Buenos Aires (1956–58) and at the National University of the South, Bahia Blanca, Argentina (1957). Beginning in 1959 he was a professor of parapsychology and psychostatistics at the School of Philosophy, Letters and Educational Sciences, National Littoral University, Rosario Argentina. In 1953 he helped found the Argentine Institute of Parapsychology. He was also a consultant to the Parapsychology Foundation, director of Biblioteca de Parapsicología (Parapsychology Publications), and director and editor of Revista de Parapsicología (Parapsychology Review). In 1971, he attended 1076

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. the Twentieth International Conference of the Parapsychology Foundation, held at Le Piol, St. Paul de Vence, France. He died October 28, 1989. Sources: Musso, J. Ricardo. En los Límites de la Psicología: Desde el Espiritismo hasta la Parapsicología (On the Frontiers of Psychology: From Spiritualism to Parapsychology). N.p., 1954. ———. ‘‘Il Movimiento Parapsicologico in Argentina’’ (The Parapsychology Movement in Argentina). International Review of Parapsychology (1956). Musso, J. Ricardo, and M. Granero. ‘‘An ESP Drawing Experiment with a High-Scoring Subject.’’ Journal of Parapsychology 37 (1973).

Mutual UFO Network, Inc. (MUFON) One of the largest and most influential UFO investigation organizations. MUFON was founded as the Midwest UFO Network in 1969 at Quincey, Illinois, by Walter H. Andrus, Jr., formerly a member of the Aerial Phenomena Research Organization. In 1975 Andrus moved the headquarters to Texas, where it is currently headquartered. Conceived as a grassroots organization, MUFON currently has over one thousand members and investigators spread over various parts of the world. The organization holds an annual symposium, the papers of which are published in an annual MUFON Proceedings, and publishes the MUFON UFO Journal (formerly Skylook), a monthly publication. Working with Andrus is a board of directors and a director for investigations. MUFON may be contacted at 103 Oldtown Rd., Seguin, TX 78155-4099. Website: http://mufon.com/. Sources: Clark, Jerry. UFOs in the 1980s. Vol. 1 of The UFO Encyclopedia. Detroit: Apogee Books, 1990. Fowler, Raymond. MUFON Field Investigator’s Manual. 3d ed. Seguin, Tex.: Mutual UFO Network, 1983. ———. UFOs, Interplanetary Visitors. New York: Exposition, 1974. MUFON: The Mutual UFO Network. http://mufon.com/. March 8, 2000.

MYANMAR An independent republic of Southeast Asia, known until 1989 as Burma, located east of India and south of China, and formerly a province of British India, inhabited by an indigenous stock of Indo-Chinese people who originally migrated from Western China at different periods, represented by three principal groups, the Talaings, the Shans, and the Bama, although groups of several other allied races are also found. The largest religious community is the Theravada Buddhist, though there are significant minority communities of Hindus, Muslims, Christians, and those who follow forms of indigenous tribal religions. Many beliefs were affected by the Japanese occupation during World War II and by the internal power struggles following independence in 1948, culminating in the creation of the present socialist republic in 1974. Some traditional beliefs still linger on. In general, the Burmese believed the soul is immaterial and independent of the body, to which it is only bound by a special attraction. It can quit and return to the body at will, but can also be captured and kept from returning to it. After death the soul hovers near the corpse as an invisible butterfly, known as leippya. A witch or demon may capture the leippya while it wanders during the hours of sleep, and sickness is sure to result. Offerings are made to the magician or devil to induce him to release the soul. The Kachins of the northern hills of Burma believed that persons having the evil eye possessed two souls, the secondary soul being the cause of the malign influence.

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed.


Belief in Spirits

Mediums and Exorcists

Beliefs in spirits, mostly malign, took a prominent place in the religious beliefs of the people of Myanmar. The spirits of rain, wind, and the heavenly bodies were in that condition of evolution that usually results in their becoming full-fledged deities, with whom placation gives way to worship. But the spirits of the forest are true demons with well-marked animistic characteristics. Thus the nat or seiktha dwells in trees or groves. His nature is usually malign, but occasionally we find him as the guardian of a village. In any case, he possesses a shrine where he may be propitiated by gifts of food and drink. Several of these demonic figures have almost achieved godhead, so widespread did their particular veneration become, and Hmin Nat, Chiton, and Wannein Nat may be named as fiends of power, the dread of which spread across extensive districts. The nats were probably of Indian origin, and the now thoroughly indigenous creatures may at one time have been members of the Hindu pantheon. Many spirit families such as the Seikkaso, Akathaso, and Bommaso, who inhabit various parts of the jungle trees, are of Indian origin. The fulfillment of every wish depends upon the nats or spirits, who are all-powerful as far as humans are concerned. They are innumerable. Any house might have its complement, who swarmed in its several rooms and took up their abode in its hearth, doorposts, verandas, and corners. The nats also inhabited or inspired wild beasts, and all misfortune was supposed to emanate from them. The Burmese used to believe that the more materialistic dead haunted the living with a malign purpose. The people had a great dread of their newly-deceased relatives, whom they imagined to haunt the vicinity of their dwellings for the purpose of ambushing them. No dead body would be carried to a cemetery except by the shortest route, even should this necessitate cutting a hole in the wall of a house. The spirits of those who died a violent death haunted the scene of their fatality. Like the ancient Mexicans (see Ciupipiltin), the Burmese had a great dread of the ghosts of women who died in childbirth. The Kachins believed such women to turn into vampires (swawmx) who were accompanied by their children when these died with them. The spirits of children were often supposed to inhabit the bodies of cats and dogs. The Burmans were extremely circumspect as to how they spoke and acted towards the inhabitants of the spirit world, as they believed that disrespect or mockery would at once bring down upon them misfortune or disease. An infinite number of guardian spirits were included in the Burmese demonological system, and these were chiefly supposed to be Brahmanic importations. These dwelt in the houses like the evil nats and were the tutelars of village communities, and even of clans. They were duly propitiated, at which ceremonies rice, beer, and teasalad were offered to them. Women were employed as exorcists to drive out the evil nats, but at the festivals connected with the guardian nats, women were not permitted to officiate.

The tumsa or natsaw were magicians, diviners, or wise men and women who practiced their arts in a private and in a nonhierophantic capacity among the rural Burmese. The wise man physician who worked in iron (than weza) was at the head of his profession, and sold amulets that guarded their purchasers from injury. Female mediums professed to be the spouses of certain nats, and could only retain their supernatural connection with a certain spirit so long as they were wedded to him. With the exorcists, training was voluntary and even perfunctory. But with the mediums it was severe and prolonged. Among the civilized Burmanese a much more exhaustive apprenticeship was demanded. Indeed a thorough and intricate knowledge of some departments of magical and astrological practice was necessary for recognition by the brotherhood, the entire art of which was medico-magical, consisting of the exorcism of evil spirits from human beings and animals. The methods employed were such as usually accompanied exorcism among tribal cultures, that is, dancing, flagellation of the afflicted person, induction of ecstasy, oblation to the fiend in possession, and noise.

Necromancy and Occult Medicine Necromancy used to be common among the Burmese. The weza or wizards were of two kinds, good and evil, and these were each subdivided into four classes, according to the materials they employed, such as, for example, magic squares, mercury, or iron. The native doctors professed to cure the diseases caused by witchcraft, and often specialized in various ailments. Besides being necromantic, medicine was largely astrological. There was said to be in Lower Burma a town of wizards at Kale Thaungtot on the Chindwin River, and many journeyed there to have the effects of bewitchment neutralized by its chief. Sympathetic magic was employed to render an enemy sick. Indian and native alchemy and cheiromancy were widespread. Noise is the universal method of exorcism, and in cases of illness the patient was often severely beaten, the idea being that the fiend that possessed him was the sufferer.

Prophecy and Divination Prophecy and divination have been quite popular in Myanmar, and were in some measure controlled by the use of the Deitton, an astrological book of Indian origin. Observation of the direction in which the blood of a sacrificed animal flowed, the knots in torn leaves, the length of a split bamboo pole, and the whiteness or otherwise of a hardboiled egg were utilized as methods of augury. But by far the most important mode of divination in use in the country was the bones of fowls. It was indeed an almost universal way of deciding all the difficulties of Burmese existence. Those wing or thigh bones in which the holes exhibit regularity were chosen. Pieces of bamboo were inserted into these holes, and the resulting slant of the stick defined the augury. If the stick slanted outwards it decided in favor of the measure under test. If it slanted inwards, the omen was unfavorable. Other materials of divination were the entrails of animals and the contents of blown eggs.

Astrology Burmese astrology derived both from Indian and Chinese sources, and powerfully affected the entire people, most of whom had a private astrologer who would be consulted for knowledge of the trend of the horoscope regarding the near future. Burmese would be active and enterprising on lucky days, but nothing would induce them to undertake any form of work should the day be pyatthadane or ominous. The bedinsaya, or astrologers proper, practiced a fully developed Hindu astrology, but being few in number, they were not as influential as the rural soothsayers, who followed the Chinese system known as Hpewan, almost identical to the Taoist astrological tables of Chinese diviners. From this system were derived horoscopes, fortunes, happy marriages, and prognostications regarding business affairs. But in practice the system was often confounded with the Buddhist calendar and much confusion resulted. The Buddhist calendar was in popular use, while the Hpewan was purely astrological. Therefore the Burmese ignorant of the latter was obliged to consult an astrologer who was able to collate the two regarding his lucky and unlucky days. The chief horoscopic influences were day of birth, day of the week, represented by the symbol of a certain animal, and the position of the dragon’s mouth to the terminal syllables of the day-names.

Magic Burmese magic consisted in the making of charms and the manufacture of occult medicine to cause hallucination, second sight, the prophetic state, invisibility, or invulnerability. It was frequently sympathetic and overlapped with necromancy and 1077

Myers, A(rthur) T(homas) astrology. It did not appear to be at all ceremonial, and was to a great extent unsophisticated, save where it had been influenced by Indian and Buddhist monks, who also drew on native sources to enlarge their own knowledge. Sources: Fielding, H. The Soul of a People. London: n.p., 1902. Fytche, A. Burma, Past & Present. 2 vols. London: n.p., 1878. Spiro, Melford E. Burmese Supernaturalism. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1967. Temple, Sir Richard C. The Thirtyseven Nats (Burmese Animism). London: n.p., 1906.

Myers, A(rthur) T(homas) (1851–1894) Brother of F. W. H. Myers and a founding member of the Society for Psychical Research (SPR), London, serving on the society’s council from 1888 to 1894. He used his medical knowledge to investigate cases of alleged paranormal healing and also made a special study of hypnotism. He was largely responsible for forming the Edmund Gurney Library of books and pamphlets on hypnotism and related subjects. Myers also participated in the experiments of the French neurologist Pierre Janet in telepathic hypnotism, as well as some of the SPR sittings with the American medium Leonora Piper. He died in London, England, January 10, 1894. Sources: Myers, Arthur Thomas. ‘‘Report on a Alleged Physical Phenomenon.’’ Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research 3, no. 9 (1885). Myers, Arthur Thomas, and F. W. H. Myers. ‘‘Mind-Cure, Faith-Cure, and the Miracles of Lourdes.’’ Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research 9, no. 24 (1893).

Myers, Frederic William Henry (1843–1901) A leading theoretician during the first generation of psychical research. He was born February 6, 1843, at Keswick, Cumberland, England, and educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. For 30 years Myers filled the post of an inspector of schools at Cambridge. Here his resolve to pursue psychical investigation was born in 1869 after a starlight walk and talk with Henry Sidgwick. His theory was that if a spiritual world ever manifested to humans, a serious investigation must be made to discover unmistakable signs of it. For ‘‘if all attempts to verify scientifically the intervention of another world should be definitely proved futile, this would be a terrible blow, a mortal blow, to all our hopes of another life, as well as of traditional religion’’ for ‘‘it would thenceforth be very difficult for men to be persuaded, in our age of clear thinking, that what is now found to be illusion and trickery was in the past thought to be truth and revelation.’’ Myers had in mind an empiric method of deliberate, dispassionate, and exact inquiry. It was in this spirit that, in 1882, the Society for Psychical Research (SPR), London, of which he was a cofounder, came to be established. He devoted all his energies to its work and concentrated with a deep grasp of science on the psychological side. Of the 16 volumes of the society’s Proceedings published while he lived, there are few without an important contribution from his pen. In Phantasms of the Living, a collaboration with Edmund Gurney and Frank Podmore (and one of the society’s first major studies of the paranormal), the system of classification of paranormal phenomena was entirely his idea. The words ‘‘telepathy,’’ ‘‘supernormal,’’ ‘‘veridical,’’ and many others less in use today were coined by Myers. In the SPR he filled the post of honorary secretary. In 1900, Myers was elected to the presidential chair, a post that only distinguished scientists had previously filled. 1078

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. To periodicals such as the Fortnightly Review he contributed many articles. They were collected and published in 1893 under the titles Science and a Future Life and Other Essays. His chief work, Human Personality and its Survival of Bodily Death, was posthumously published in 1903. It is an exposition of the potential powers of the subliminal self, which Myers pictured as the real ego, a vast psychic organism of which the ordinary consciousness is but an accidental fraction, the life of the soul, not bound up with the life of the body, of which the socalled supernormal faculties are the ordinary channels of perception. Myers challenged the Spiritualist position that all, or most of, supernormal phenomena were due to the spirits of the dead, contending to the contrary that by far the largest proportion was due to the action of the still embodied spirit of the agent or of the percipient himself. The theory brought order into a chaotic mass of psychical phenomena. On the other hand, it greatly enhanced the probability of survival after death. As the powers of the subliminal self did not degenerate during the course of evolution and served no purpose in this life they were obviously destined for a future existence. Why, for instance, should the subconscious so carefully preserve all thoughts and memories if there would be no use for them? William James suggested that the problems of the subliminal mind should be called ‘‘the problem of Myers.’’ And he added, ‘‘Whatever the judgment of the future may be on Mr. Myers’ speculation, the credit will always remain to them of being the first attempt in any language to consider the phenomena of hallucination, automatism, double personality, and mediumship as connected parts of one whole subject.’’ Theodore Flournoy, a profound psychologist himself, considered Myers ‘‘one of the most remarkable personalities of our time in the realm of mental science.’’ Further, he observed, ‘‘If future discoveries confirm his thesis of the intervention of the discarnate, in the web and the woof of our mental and physical world then his name will be inscribed in the golden book of the initiated, and, joined to those of Copernicus and Darwin, he will complete the triad of geniuses who have the most profoundly revolutionised scientific thought, in the order, Cosmological, Biological and Psychological.’’ Walter Leaf compared Myer to Ruskin and considered him in some respects his peer. According to Charles Richet ‘‘if Myers were not a mystic, he had all the faith of a mystic and the ardour of an apostle, in conjunction with the sagacity and precision of a savant.’’ ‘‘I never knew a man so hopeful concerning his ultimate destiny,’’ wrote Sir Oliver Lodge in memoriam. ‘‘He once asked me whether I would barter—if it were possible—my unknown destiny, whatever it might be, for as many aeons of unmitigated and wise terrestrial happiness as might last till the secular fading of the sun, and then an end. He would not.’’ Myers was working not only in the first generation of parapsychology, but at a time when psychology was struggling to separate itself from the dominance of physiology. The kind words of Myers’s contemporaries about his psychological theories reflect his general high standing in the intellectual community and the larger consideration that was being given to Myers’s theories concerning the human personality. His psychological theories, which could possibly have made a significant place for the paranormal in the consideration of the psychological community, were, however, displaced by the competing thought of his contemporary, Sigmund Freud, and the emergence of psychotherapy. In the success of Freudian thought, Myers’s ideas were pushed to the fringe.

Myers on Spiritualist Phenomena In Human Personality and Its Survival of Bodily Death, physical phenomena received but little consideration. Myers believed in telekinesis, but in spite of his own experiments and those of Sir William Crookes, its genuine occurrence did not appear to him sufficiently believable to justify discussion in his book. Nev-

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. ertheless, in dealing with possession he suggested an ingenious explanation, i.e., that the possessing spirit may use the organism more skillfully than its owner and may emit some energy that can visibly move ponderable objects not actually in contact with the flesh. Of his own investigations between 1872 and 1876 he said that they were ‘‘tiresome and distasteful enough.’’ On May 9, 1874, in the company of Edmund Gurney, he made the acquaintance of medium William Stainton Moses. The two became such close friends that when Moses died on September 5, 1982, his notebooks were handed to Myers for study. Myers’s articles in the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research (vols. 9 and 11) contain the best accounts of this remarkable mediumship, although his conclusions were not solely based on personal experiences with Moses. He also participated in some startling sessions involving C. E. Wood and Annie Fairlamb Mellon. In 1894, on the Ile Roubaud, Myers was the guest of Charles Richet and participated with Sir Oliver Lodge and Julien Ochorowicz in the experiments conducted with Eusapia Palladino. The Cambridge exposure of Palladino’s fraud shook his belief and he then wrote: ‘‘I had no doubt that systematic trickery had been used from the first to last, and that there was no adequate ground for attributing any of the phenomena occurring at these sittings to a supernormal cause.’’ Later, however, he participated in another series of sittings with Palladino in Paris and at the solemn adjuration of Richet he declared himself convinced that both telekinesis and ectoplasm were genuine phenomena. He also sat with Mrs. Thomas Everitt, Elizabeth d’Esperance, and David Duguid. Further, Myers experienced crystal gazing and he investigated the haunted Ballechin House in Perthshire, Scotland. As a result, he published two papers in the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research: ‘‘On Alleged Movements of Objects without Contact, occurring not in the Presence of a Paid Medium’’ (vol. 7, pts. 19 and 20, 1891–92).

Myers Speaks from the Grave? Myers died January 17, 1901, in Rome, Italy. After his death, a flood of claimed communications from his spirit came from many mediums. The most important ones were those received through Leonora Piper, Margaret Verrall, and Alice K. Fleming (known publicly as Mrs. Holland). As regards the latter, Frank Podmore and Alice Johnson agreed that the ‘‘Myers’’ control was a subconscious creation of the medium. The views there expressed were alien to the mentality of the living Myers. Verrall apparently obtained the contents of a sealed letter that Myers had written in 1891 and left in the care of Sir Oliver Lodge for such a test. However, when the letter was opened in 1904 the contents were found to be entirely different. In 1907, Eleanor Sidgwick obtained good identity proofs through Leonora Piper. On her behalf, Verrall asked some questions to which she did not know that answer and received correct replies as regards the contents of the last conversation that had taken place between Mrs. Sidgwick and Myers. Many other impressive indications of his surviving self were found in cross-correspondences, especially during Piper’s second visit to England in 1906–07. The whole system of crosscorrespondences appears to have been elaborated by him, and the wealth of classical knowledge displayed in the connected fragments given by several mediums raises a strong presumption that they emanated from Myers’ mind. The most striking evidence of this nature was obtained after Piper’s return to the United States by G. B. Dorr in 1908. Frank Podmore considered it ‘‘perhaps the strongest evidence yet obtained for the identity of any communicator.’’ In The Road to Immortality (1932), a book supposedly written by Myers through Geraldine Cummins, a stupendous vista was opened up, apparently by Myers, of the soul’s progression

Myomancy through the after-death states. As regards the authorship of the book, Sir Oliver Lodge received independent testimony through Gladys Osborne Leonard from ‘‘Myers’’ of his communications through Cummins. Lodge saw no reason to dissent from the view that the remarkable accounts of the fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh states ‘‘are the kind of ideas which F. W. H. Myers may by this time [1932] have been able to form.’’ Sources: Berger, Arthur S., and Joyce Berger. The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House, 1991. Gauld, Alan. The Founders of Psychical Research. New York: Schocken Books, 1968. Haynes, Renée. The Society for Psychical Research, 1882–1982: A History. London: Mcdonald, 1982. Myers, F. W. H. Human Personality and the Survival of Bodily Death. London: Longmans, Green, 1903. ———. Science and a Future Life: With Other Essays. London: Macmillan, 1901. Myers, F. W. H., Edmund Gurney, and Frank Podmore. Phantasms of the Living. London: Trubner, 1886. Pleasants, Helene, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Parapsychology. New York: Helix Press, 1964. Salter, W. H. ‘‘F. W. H. Myers’ Posthumous Message.’’ Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research 52 (1958).

Myers, John (d. 1972) Prominent British medium who demonstrated psychic healing and spirit photography. Originally a London dentist, he visited a psychical research society in 1931 where a medium warned him of a possible defect in his automobile. His interest in psychic phenomena so piqued, Myers visited the Stead Bureau (see Julia’s Bureau), founded by W. T. Stead. He met the medium Ada Emma Deane, who practiced psychic photography and tried the phenomena for himself, with successful results. He also discovered a mediumistic talent. In his séances, Myers would enter into semi-trance while standing and was controlled by ‘‘Blackfoot,’’ an American Indian. From clairvoyant impressions, he would describe the presence of spirit forms and, quite frequently, the extra that would appear on a photographic plate. He was challenged by the Marquess of Donegall. In the presence of the art editor of the Sunday Dispatch, journalist Hannen Swaffer, and stage magician Will Goldston, Donegall filled Myers’s camera (which he examined) with his own marked plates, took six pictures in bright light while Myers simply stood by, and developed them himself. Two of the plates showed extras that neither Donegall nor the art editor could explain (Sunday Dispatch, October 9, 1932). The following week, however, after another sitting, Donegall accused Myers of substituting plates. In the l930s, Myers was consulted by Laurence Parish, a New York businessman, who was greatly impressed by his psychic photography. Myers was also instrumental in the psychic healing of Parish’s sciatica and restoring normal eyesight after years of defective vision. After these miraculous cures, Parish invited Myers to join his company in New York. Myers accepted and eventually became vice president of the company. Sources: Barbanell, Maurice. He Walks in Two Worlds: The Story of John Myers, Psychic Photographer, Healer and Philanthropist. London: n.p., 1964.

Myomancy A method of divination by rats or mice, supposedly alluded to in the biblical book of Isaiah (62:17). Their peculiar cries, or 1079

Mysteria Mystica Aeterna some marked devastation committed by them, was taken for a prognostic of evil. Aeilan related that Fabius Maximus resigned the dictatorship in consequence of a warning from these creatures, and Cassius Flaminius retired from the command of the cavalry for no greater reason. Herodotus stated that when the army of Sennacherib invaded Egypt, mice invaded their camp by night and gnawed their quivers and bows to pieces. In the morning, therefore, without arms, they fled in confusion; many were slain. Horapollo, in his work on the hieroglyphics of Egypt, described the rat as a symbol of destruction and said that the Hebrew name of this animal is from a root that means to separate, divide, or judge. It has been remarked by one of the commentators on Horapollo that the mouse has a finely discriminating taste. An Egyptian manuscript in the Bibliothèque Royale in Paris contains the representation of a soul going to judgment, in which one of the figures is depicted with the head of a rat. It is understood that the Libian rats and the mouse of Scripture are the same as the Arabian jerboa, which is characterized by a long tail, bushy at the end, and short forelegs. Sources: Waite, Arthur Edward. The Occult Sciences. 1891. Reprint, Secaucus, N.J.: University Books, 1974.

Mysteria Mystica Aeterna A lodge of the occult society OTO (Ordo Templi Orientis) licensed to Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925) in 1906, some years before Steiner fully developed his own interpretations of Theosophy, which culminated in his concept of Anthroposophy (man-wisdom).

Mysteria Mystica Maxima Name given to the British lodge of the occult society OTO (Ordo Templi Orientis) when Theodor Reuss, head of the German order, proposed that Aleister Crowley start a British section.

Mysteries From the Greek word muein, to shut the mouth, and mustes, an initiate: a term for what is secret or concealed in a religious context. Although certain mysteries were probably part of the initiatory ceremony of the priests of ancient Egypt, we are ignorant of their exact nature, and the term is usually used in connection with certain semi-religious ceremonies held by various cults in ancient Greece. The mysteries were secret cults, to which only certain initiated people were admitted after a period of preliminary preparation. After this initial period of purification came the mystic communication or exhortation, then the revelation to the neophyte of certain holy things, the crowning with the garlands, and lastly the communion with the deity. The mysteries appear to have revolved around the semi-dramatic representation of the life of a deity. It is believed that these mystic cults were of pre-Hellenic origin, and that the Pelasgic aboriginal people of Greece strove to conceal their religions from the eyes of their conquerors. However, it is interesting to note that for the most part the higher offices of these cults were in the hands of aristocrats, who, it may be reasonably inferred, had little to do with the strata of the population that represented the Pelasgic peoples. Again, the divinities worshiped in the mysteries possess for the most part Greek names and many of them are certainly gods evolved in Greece at a comparatively late period. We find a number of them associated with the realm of the dead. The Earth-god or goddess is in most countries often allied with the 1080

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. powers of darkness. It is from the underworld that grain arises, and therefore it is not surprising to find that Demeter, Ge, and Aglauros are identified with the underworld. But there were also the mysteries of Artemis, of Hecate, and the Cherites— some of which may be regarded as forms of the great Earth mother. The worship of Dionysus, Trophonious, and Zagreus was also of a mysterious nature; however it is the Eleusinian and Orphic mysteries that undoubtedly are the most important to the occult student, and though archaeological findings (such as vase-painting) it has been possible to glean some general idea of these. That is not to say that the heart of the mystery is revealed by any such illustrations, but that these, supplemented by what the Christian fathers were able to glean regarding these mystic cults, give useful hints for further investigations.

Eleusis The mysteries of Eleusis had for their primal adoration Demeter and Persephone (the mother and the daughter). Other ‘‘nameless’’ divinities appear to have been associated with Eleusinian mysteries, usually signified by terms such as ‘‘the gods’’ or ‘‘the goddesses.’’ Mythological science suggests that such nameless gods are merely those whose higher names are hidden and unspoken. In Egypt, for example, the concept of the concealed name was extremely common. The name of the power of a god, if discovered, bestowed on the discoverer control over that deity. Dionysus is also a figure of some importance in the Eleusinian mystery. It has been thought that Orphic influence was responsible for his presence in the cult, but traces of Orphic doctrine have not been discovered in what is known of the mysteries. A more baffling personality in the great ritual drama is that of Iacchus, who appears to be none other than Dionysus under another name. In either case Dionysus (or Iacchus) does not appear to be a primary figure of the mystery. In early Greek legends there are allusions to the sacred character of the Eleusinian mysteries. From the fifth century their organization was in the hands of the Athenian city, the royal ruler of which, along with a committee of supervision, undertook the general management. The rites took place at the city of Eleusis and were celebrated by a hereditary priesthood, the Eumolpedie. They alone (or rather their high priest) could penetrate into the innermost holy of holies, but there were also priestesses and female attendants of the goddesses. The celebration of the mysteries was somewhat as follows: in the month of September the Eleusinian Holy Things were taken from the sacred city to Athens and placed in the Eleusinion. These probably consisted to some extent of small statues of the goddesses. Three days afterward, the catechumens assembled to hearken to the exhortation of one of the priests, during which those who were for any reason unworthy of initiation were solemnly warned to depart. All Greeks or Romans above a certain age were admitted, including women and even slaves, but foreigners and criminals could not partake. The candidates were questioned about their purification, especially regarding the food they had eaten. After this assembly, they went to the seashore, bathed, and were sprinkled with the blood of pigs. A sacrifice was offered up, and several days later the Eleusinian procession commenced its journey along the sacred way, its central figure being a statue of Iacchus. Many shrines were visited on the way to Eleusis, where, upon arrival, the supplicants celebrated with a midnight orgy. It is difficult to know what occurred in the inner circle, but there appear to have been two grades in the celebration, and we know that a year elapsed before a person who had achieved one grade became fit for election to the higher. Regarding the actual ritual in the hall of mystery, a great deal of controversy has taken place, but it is certain that a dramatic representation was the central point of interest, the chief characters in which were probably Demeter and Persephone, and that the myth of

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. the lost daughter and the sorrowing mother was enacted before an audience. Of scenic display there was probably little or none, as excavation has proved that there was not room for it, and we find nothing regarding scenery in the accounts presented in many inscriptions; but the apparel of the actors was probably most magnificent, heightened by the effect of gloom and torchlight. Certain sacred symbols were also displayed before the eyes of the elect. These appear to have been small idols of the goddesses, of great antiquity and sanctity. We know that the original symbols of deity are jealously guarded by many priesthoods. For example, the Uapes of Brazil kept careful watch over the symbols of Jurupari, their god, and they were shown only to the initiated. Any woman who cast eyes on them was instantly poisoned. It was also stated by Hippolytus that the ancients were shown a cut corn stalk, the symbol of Demeter and Persephone. This, however, is debatable, as is the theory that the Eleusinians worshiped the actual corn as a clan totem. Corn as a totem is not unknown elsewhere, as for example in Peru, where the cconopa or godlings of the maize fields were probably originally totemic. But if the Eleusinian corn was a totem, it was certainly the only corn totem known to Greece, and corn totems are rare. The totem was usually initiated with the hunting condition of peoples. When they arrived at the agricultural stage a fresh pantheon usually slowly evolved, in which full-fledged gods took the place of the old totemic deities. The corn appears as a living thing. It is growth, and within it resides a spirit. Therefore the deity that evolves from this concept is more likely to be of animistic than of totemistic origin. The neophyte was then made one with the deity by partaking of holy food or drink. This recalls the story of Persephone, who, upon reaching the dark shores of Hades, partook of the food of the dead—thus rendering it impossible for her to return. Once the human soul eats or drinks in Hades, it may not return to Earth. This belief is universal, and it is highly probable that it was symbolized in the Eleusinian mysteries. M. Foucart ingeniously put forward the theory that the object of the Eleusinian mysteries was much the same as that of the Egyptian Book of the Dead, i.e., to provide the initiates with elaborate rules for avoiding the dangers of the underworld, and to instruct them in the necessary magical formula. Thus, friendship with the Holy Mother and Daughter (Demeter and Persephone), to the Eleusinian votary, was the chief assurance of immortality.

Dionysiac A great many offshoots of the Eleusinian cult were established in several parts of Greece. The most important cult next to the Eleusinian was the Orphic, which probably arose in Phrygia, and which came to be associated with Dionysus, originally a god of vegetation, who was also a divinity of the nether world. By entering into communion with Dionysus it was believed that immortality might be assured. His celebrations were marked by orgies of a bacchic description, in which it was thought that the neophyte partook for the moment of the character and the power of the deity himself. The rites of the cult of Dionysus were of a much more barbaric nature than those of Eleusis. For instance, the devouring of an animal victim was supposed to symbolize the incarnation, death, and resurrection of the divinity. Later the Dionysiac mysteries were somewhat tempered, but always retained something of their earlier character. The cult does not appear to have been highly regarded by the sages of its time. The golden tablets relating to the Orphic mystery found in tombs in Greece, Crete, and Italy contain fragments of a sacred hymn. As early as the third century C.E., it was buried with the dead as an amulet to protect the deceased from the dangers of the underworld.

Mysteries Attis and Cybele The Phrygian mysteries of Attis and Cybele focused on the rebirth of the god Attis, who was also of an agrarian character. Communion with the deity was usually attained by bathing in blood in the taurobolium or by the letting of blood.

Mithraic Mysteries The Mithraic cult was of Persian origin, having at its center Mithra, a personification of light worshiped in that country some five hundred years before the Christian era. Carried into Asia Minor by small colonies of magi, it was largely influenced by the religions with which it was brought into contact. For instance, Chaldean astrology inspired much of the occult traditions surrounding the creed of the sun-god; the art of Greece influenced the representation of Mithra Tauroctonous that graced the temples of the cult; and the Romans gave it a wide geographical area and immense influence. According to Plutarch, the rites originally reached Rome through the agency of Cilician privates conquered and taken there by Pompey. Another source, doubtless, was the large number of Asiatic slaves employed in Roman households. Again the Roman soldiery must have carried the Mithraic cult as far north as the mountains of Scotland, and south to the borders of the Sahara Desert. Mithraism may be said to have been the only living religion Christianity found a need to combat. It was strong enough to exert a formative influence on certain Christian doctrines, such as those relative to the end of the world and the powers of hell. Mithra was essentially the divinity of beneficence. He was the genius of celestial light, endowing the Earth with all its benefits. As the sun he put darkness to flight, so by a natural transition he came to represent truth and integrity, the sun of goodness that conquers the night of evil. To him was ascribed the role of mediator between God and humanity. His creed promised a resurrection to a future life of happiness and felicity. Briefly the story of Mithra is as follows. Mithra sprang to being in the gloom of a cavern from the heart of a rock, seen by none but humble shepherds. He grew in strength and courage, excelling all, and used his powers to rid the world of evil. Of all his deeds of prowess, however, the one upon which the cult centered was the slaying of a bull, itself possessed of divine potentialities. From the spinal cord of the bull sprang the wheat of the human race’s daily bread, from its blood the vine, source of the sacred drink of the mysteries, and from its seed all the different species of useful animals. After this beneficent deed, Mithra ruled in the heavens, yet still kept watch over human beings, granting the petitions asked in his name. Those who followed him, who were initiated into his mysteries, passed under his divine protection, especially after death, when he would rescue their souls from the powers of darkness. In addition, when the Earth failed in her life-sustaining powers, Mithra would slay a divine bull and give to all abundant life and happiness. Among Mithra’s worshipers were slaves and soldiers, high officials and dignitaries, who worshipped in temples, mithraeums as they were called, built underground or in caves and grottoes in the depths of dark forests, symbolizing the birthplace of their god. The rites in which they participated were of magical significance and an oath of silence was taken by all. In order to bring their lives into closer communion with the divinity of Mithra, the neophytes had to pass through seven degrees of initiation, successively assuming the names of Raven, Occult, Soldier, Lion, Persian, Runner of the Sun, and Father. Each of these grades carried with it symbolic garments and masks, donned by the celebrants. The masks represented birds and animals and seem to indicate belief in the doctrine of metempsychosis, or perhaps they point to a remnant of totemic belief. An almost ascetic habit of life was demanded, including prolonged fasting and purification. 1081

Mystic Order of Veiled Prophets of the . . . Before the supplicants entered the higher grades, a ceremony called the Sacrament was held where they partook of consecrated bread and wine. Believers were also expected to undergo dramatic trials of strength, faith, and endurance, a stoical attitude and unflinching moral courage demanded as sign of fitness in the participant. The drinking of the sacred wine and the baptism of blood were supposed to bring to the initiate not only material benefit but wisdom. They gave the power to combat evil and the power to attain the immortality of their god. An order of priests was connected with this cult, which faithfully carried on the occult tradition and usages, such as that of initiation, the rites of which were arduous; the tending of a perpetual fire on the altars; and prayers to the sun at dawn, noon, and evening. There were sacrifices, libations, and musical rites including long psalmodies and mystic chants. The days of the week were each sacred to a planet, the day of the sun being held especially holy. There were seasonal festivals: the birth of the sun was solemnized on the 25th of December, and the equinoxes were days of rejoicing, while the initiations were held preferably in the spring, in March or April. It is believed that in the earliest days of the cult, some of the rites were of a savage and barbaric character, especially the sacrificial element, but these, as indicated, were changed and ennobled as the beneficence of Mithra took precedence over his warlike prowess. The Mithraic brotherhoods were involved with secular interests as well as spiritual ones and were in fact highly organized communities, composed of trustees, councils, senates, attorneys, patrons, and people of high status and wealth. Belonging to such a body gave the initiate a sense of brotherhood and comradeship that was doubtless a powerful reason for the popularity the Mithraic cult gained in the Roman army, whose members, dispersed to the ends of the Earth, relied on such fraternal comfort and solace. Sources: Angus, Samuel. The Mystery Religions and Christianity. London: John Murray, 1928. Reprint, New York: Dover, 1975. Burkert, Walter. Ancient Mystery Cults. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1987. Cumont, F. V. M. Mysteries of Mithra. London: Kegan Paul; Chicago: Open Court, 1910. Harrison, Jane E. Prolegmena to the Study of Greek Religion. Cambridge University Press, 1922. Masks of Dionysus. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1993. Mylonas, George E. Eleusis and the Eleusian Mysteries. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1961. Nilsson, Martin P. The Dionysian Mysteries of the Hellenistic and Roman Age. Lund, Sweden: C. W. K. Gleerup, 1957. Ouvaroff, M. Essay on the Mysteries of Eleusis. London: Rodwell & Martin, 1817.

Mystic Order of Veiled Prophets of the Enchanted Realm In spite of its name, the Mystic Order of Veiled Prophets of the Enchanted Realm is not an occult or mystical organization, but entirely a fellowship association for Master Masons. The order was created in 1889 by LeRoy Fairchild and members of a Masonic lodge in Hamilton, New York. It grew out of an expressed desire of lodge members for diversions from the mundane concerns. Meeting for the first time in September of 1889, the order was originally known as the Fairchild Deviltry Committee. The idea proved a popular one, and the next year, members of the growing organization formally instituted the Supreme Council of the Mystic Order of Veiled Prophets of the Enchanted Realm. From the beginning, membership was limited to Master Masons in good standing. In spite of its major membership requirement, the order is not formally connected to any particular Masonic organization 1082

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. and does not engage in Masonic rituals. It does encourage the members’ participation in their lodge, but the rituals and activities of the order are strictly for fun. The unique ritual of the order is an elaborately staged production that amid its humor offers lessons in optimism, brotherhood, and the benefits of fellowship. Order chapters are known as grottoes, a number of which are found across North America. New members receive a fez, a distinctive pin, and a membership card, which will admit a member to any grotto in North America. Members of the order can be recognized by their wearing of the pin in their everyday life. The order’s supreme council may be contacted at 1696 Brice Rd., Reynoldsburg, OH 43068. Its Internet page is found at http://members.tripod.com/%7Ebelagrotto/GrottoH.htm. Sources:Mystic Order of Veiled Prophets of the Enchanted Realm. http://members.tripod.com/%7Ebelagrotto/ GrottoH.htm. February 20, 2000.

Mystical Night (of the Sufis) It was believed by the Sufis that to attain the coveted state of mystical contemplation, it was necessary to close the gateway of the physical senses, so that the inner or spiritual senses might operate more freely. This injunction was sometimes taken literally, as by the Brahmin Yogis, who carefully closed eyes, ears, nose, and mouth in order to attain visionary ecstasy. The Mystical Night was thus a shutting out of all external sense impressions—of hope, fear, consciousness of self, and every human emotion—so that the interior light might be more clearly perceived. (See also meditation; yoga)

Mysticism The attempt of man to attain the ultimate reality of things and experience direct communion with the highest. Mysticism maintains the possibility of a relationship with God, not by means of revelation or the ordinary religious channels, but by introspection and meditation in conjunction with a purified life, culminating in the awareness that the individual partakes of the divine nature. Mysticism has been identified with pantheism by some authorities, and many pantheists have been mystics. However, mysticism is not tied to any particular philosophical or theological perspective. Mysticism tends to differ from public religion, which emphasizes a worshipful submission to the deity and the ethical dimension of life, while mysticism strains after the realization of a personal union with the divine source itself. The mystic desires to be as close to God as possible, part of the divine essence itself, whereas the ordinary devotee of most religious systems merely desires to walk in God’s way and obey his will.

Historical Survey Mysticism has emerged as a strain in all of the major religious systems, both East and West. It tends to have a particular affinity, however, with some systems. While there is, for example, a perceptible mystical stain in Christianity, Judaism (Hassidism), and Islam (Sufism), Western systems that emphasize the transcendence of a personal all-powerful deity have made mysticism a secondary concern. In the East, where the unreality of material things is emphasized, mysticism is a more dominant form of spiritual life. The Sufis of Persia may be said to be a link between the more austere Indian mystics and those of Europe. With the rise of Alexandrian Neoplatonism, mysticism attained a new level of presence in Europe. Neoplatonism made a definite mark upon early Christianity, and we find it mirrored in many of the patristic writings of the sixteenth century. It was Erigena who, in the ninth century, transmitted to Europe the so-called writings of Dionysius the Areopagite, the

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. sixth century Syrian thinker who synthesized Christian theology and Neoplatonism and thus greatly influenced the mysticism of the Middle Ages. Erigena based his own system upon that of Dionysius. This was the so-called ‘‘negative theology,’’ which placed God above all categories and designated him as nothing, or the incomprehensible essence from which the world of primordial causes is eternally created. This creation is the work of the Son of God, in whom all substantial things exist; but God is the beginning and end of everything. On this system Christian mysticism may be said to have been founded with little variation. With Erigena, reason and authority are identical, and in this he agrees with all speculative mystics. Scholasticism, however, is characterized by the acceptance by reason of a given matter that is presupposed even when it cannot be understood. It seemed to Erigena that in the scholastic system, religious truth was external to the mind, while the opposite view was fundamental to mysticism. That is not to say that mysticism according to Erigena is a mere subordination of reason to faith. Mysticism indeed places every confidence in human reason, and it is essential that it should have the unity of the human mind with the divine as its main tenet, but it accepts nothing from without, and it posits the higher faculty of reason over the realization of absolute truth. Medieval mysticism may be said to have originated from a reaction of practical religion against the dialectics in which the true spirit of Christianity was then enshrined. Thus St. Bernard opposed the dry scholasticism of Abelard. His mysticism was profoundly practical, and dealt chiefly with the means by which human beings may attain the knowledge of God. This is to be accomplished through contemplation and withdrawal from the world. Asceticism is the soul of medieval mysticism, but St. Bernard averred regarding self-love that it is proper to love ourselves for God’s sake, or because God loved us, thus merging self-love in love for God. We must, so to speak, love ourselves in God, in whom we ultimately lose ourselves. In this, St. Bernard is almost Buddhistic, and indeed his mysticism is of the universal type. Perhaps Hugh of St. Victor, a contemporary of St. Bernard’s, did more to develop the tenets of mysticism, and his monastery of Augustinians near Paris became a great center of mysticism. One of his apologists, Richard of St. Victor, declared that the objects of mystic contemplation are partly above reason, and partly, as regards intuition, contrary to reason. The protagonists of this theory, all of whom issued from the same monastery, were known as the Victorines and put up a stout fight against the dialecticians and schoolmen. Bonaventura, who died in 1274, was a disciple of this school and a believer in the faculty of mystic intuition. In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, the worldliness of the church aroused much opposition among laymen, and the church’s cold formalism created a reaction towards a more spiritual regime. Many sects arose, such as the Waldenses, the Cathari (see Gnosticism), and the Beguines, all of which strove to infuse into their teachings a warmer spirituality than that which burned in the heart of the church of their time. In Germany, mysticism made great strides, and Machthild of Magdeburg and Elizabeth of Thuringia were, if not the originators of mysticism in Germany, certainly among its earliest supporters. Joachim of Flores and Amalric of Bena wrote strongly in favor of a reformed church, and their writings are drenched with mystical terms, derived for the most part from Erigena. Joachim mapped out the duration of the world into three ages, that of the Father, that of the Son, and that of the Spirit—the last of which was to commence with the year 1260, and to be inaugurated by the general adoption of monastic and contemplative life. A sect called the New Spirit, or the Free Spirit, became widespread through northern France, Switzerland, and Germany;

Mysticism and these did much to infuse the spirit of mysticism throughout Germany. It is with Meister Eckhart, who died in 1327, that we get the juncture of mysticism with scholastic theology. Of his doctrine it has been said: ‘‘The ground of your being lies in God. Reduce yourself to that simplicity, that root, and you are in God. There is no longer any distinction between your spirit and the divine—you have escaped personality and finite limitation. Your particular, creature self, as a something separate and dependent on God is gone. So also, obviously, your creaturely will. Henceforth, therefore, what seems an inclination of yours is in fact the divine good pleasure. You are free from law. You are above means. The very will to do the will of God is resolved into that will itself. This is the Apathy, the Negation, the Poverty, he commends.’’ With Eckhart personally this self-reduction and deification is connected with a rigorous asceticism and exemplary moral excellence. Yet it is easy to see that it may be a merely intellectual process, consisting in a man’s thinking that he is thinking himself away from his personality. He declares the appearance of the Son necessary to enable us to realize our sonship; and yet his language implies that this realization is the perpetual incarnation of that Son—does, as it were, constitute him. Christians are accordingly not less the sons of God by grace than is Christ by nature. Believe yourself divine, and the Son is brought forth in you. The Saviour and the saved are dissolved together in the blank absolute substance.’’ With the advent of the Black Death, a great spirit of remorse swept over Europe in the fourteenth century, and a vast revival of piety took place. This resulted in the foundation in Germany of a society of Friends of God, whose chief object was to strengthen each other in intercourse with the creator. Perhaps the most distinguished of these were John Tauler and Nicolas of Basle, and the society numbered many inmates of the cloister, as well as wealthy men of commerce and others. Ruysbroek, the great Flemish mystic, was connected with them, but his mysticism is perhaps more intensely practical than that of any other visionary. The machinery by which the union with God is to be effected is the most attractive. In Ruysbroek’s lifetime, a mystical society arose in Holland called the Brethren of Common Lot, who founded an establishment at which Groot dispensed the principles of mysticism to Radewyn and Thomas Kempis. The attitude of mysticism at the period of the Reformation is peculiar. We find a mystical propaganda sent forth by a body of Rosicrucians denouncing Roman Catholicism in the fiercest terms, and we also observe the spirit of mysticism strongly within those bodies that resisted the coldness and formalism of the Roman Catholic Church of that time. On the other hand, however, we find the principles of Luther strongly opposed by some of the most notable mystics of his time. But the Reformation passed, and mysticism went on its way, divided, it is true, so far as the outward theological principles of its votaries were concerned, but strongly united in its general principles. It is with Nicolas of Kusa, who died in 1464, that mysticism triumphs over scholasticism. Nicolas was the protagonist of super-knowledge, or that higher ignorance which is the knowledge of the intellect in contra-distinction to the mere knowledge of the understanding. His doctrines colored those of Giordano Bruno (1550–1600) and his theosophy certainly preceded that of Paracelsus (1493–1541). The next great name in mysticism is that of Jakob Boehme (1575–1624), a German Rosicrucian mystical teacher. The Roman Catholic Church produced many mystics of note in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, including Francis of Sales, Madame Guyon, and Molinos—the last two of which were the protagonists of Quietism, which set forth the theory that there should be no pleasure in the practice of mysticism, and that God did not exist for the enjoyment of man. Per1083


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haps the greatest students of Boehme were William Law (1686–1761) and Saint-Martin (1743–1803).

The Universality of Mystical Experience It is clear from the statements of mystics that they are not limited to any given religion or theology. Given the elevation of the mystical experience over any theological reflection upon that experience, it has been relatively easy for mystics of different traditions to relate to each other, often finding a more natural affinity that with the non-mystic members of their own religious tradition. It is obvious that they are dealing with an element in human experience common to all of humankind. When Meister Eckhart stated, ‘‘If I am to know God directly, I must become completely He, and He I: so that this He and this I become and are one I,’’ he comes to the same point as the Advaita Vedanta doctrine of Hinduism, where the jiva (individual soul) merges with Brahma the creator before absorption in Brahman, the non-personal divine ground. Sufism, Islamic mysticism, first arose in the ninth century among the Persian Moslems, probably as a protest against the severe monotheism of their religion, but in all likelihood more ancient springs contributed to its revival. In the Persia of Hafiz and Saadi, pantheism abounded, and their magnificent poetry is read by Moslems as having a deep mystical significance, although for the most part it deals with the intoxication of love. It is certain that many of them exhibit the fervor of souls searching for communion with the highest. The apparent differences between Hindu mysticism and Christian mysticism are nominal. Although Christian theology postulates the divine in the form of God as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, such distinctions become largely unimportant in the actual mystical experience. Similarly, popular Hinduism postulates hundreds of different gods and goddesses, but these are merely legal fictions to the Indian mystic, melting away in the totality of higher consciousness. Because mind and emotion are transcended in the higher reaches of mysticism, they are seen by mystics as merely ways of reaching a reality that lies beyond them, a totality of consciousness without object, beyond the normal human limitations of individual body, ego, personality, hopes, and fears. Like Christianity, Hindu Vedanta (inquiry into ultimate reality), has different schools of theology, ranging from Advaita (monism or non-dualism, claiming that all is one and only the divine ultimate has actual existence, all else being illusory) to degrees of Dvaita or dualism (claiming that there is one ultimate divine principle of God but that the soul is a separate principle with independent existence). Such schools are not really contradictory to the mystic, but rather different degrees of interpretation of one reality on the way to an actual mystical experience in which intellectual distinctions vanish.

The Way of the Mystic In both Eastern and Western mysticism, withdrawal from the everyday life of a householder is recognized as an aid to mystical progress, thus both have monastic establishments at which one follows a life of prayer and meditation. In the initial stages, self-purification is facilitated by dedicated service to others, prior to the more secluded life of the contemplative. Mystics have sometimes been accused of escapism, of retreating from the responsibilities of everyday life into a private world, and indeed, the descriptions of the ecstasies of spiritual awareness often sound rather like a selfish indulgence, oblivious to the problems of the outside world. It is clear that the ideal mystic partakes fully of the duties and social responsibility of life after spiritual enlightenment, since mystical experience should give deeper meaning to the reality behind the everyday mundane world. For most individuals, however, a period of retreat from everyday life is helpful in disengaging oneself from the fears, desires, and egoism of mundane existence. 1084

Hinduism places great stress on dharma, the duties and responsibilities of the individual, which take priority over any desire for transcendentalism. During this period one would observe the everyday religious rites and rituals related to the gods and goddesses of an individual’s life. Later, however, when one had fulfilled one’s responsibilities, married, begat a family, and provided for them, the realization that everything connected with the material world and physical life was transient would grow steadily, culminating in a hunger for knowledge of what is eternal. At such a time, one might seek a qualified guru or spiritual preceptor and follow an ascetic life, discarding all material possessions, egoism, hopes, and fears in the quest for a higher spiritual awareness not subject to birth and death, or change and decay. Various pathways of yoga facilitated that quest, involving self-purification, service to others, and refinement of perception based upon physical health and its spiritual counterpart. The Hindu emphasis on the duties and responsibilities of a householder taking priority over the quest for mystical enlightenment have something in common with Judaism, which does not seek to separate mystical experience from everyday life. Judaism is essentially pragmatic in its approach to the spiritual life and requires that mystical experience be interfused with daily life and religious observance. The Jewish mystic typified in the period of eighteenth- to nineteenth-century Hasidism, was a pious rabbi, living a life of prayer, study, and meditation within his community and sharing everyday social life and responsibility. In this respect he resembled the Eastern teacher around whom a group of pupils would gather for spiritual teaching and experience.

The Mechanisms of Mysticism It is clear that the concept of self-purification in mystical progress involves psycho-physical mechanisms. Fasting, asceticism, mortification, and intense meditation have profound effects on the individual nervous system and other aspects of the body and mind. Very little discussion on this important area appeared in Western literature until Aldous Huxley published The Doors of Perception (1954) and Heaven & Hell (1956). The starting point for Huxley’s speculations about the psychophysical mechanisms of mystical experience was his own experiment in taking mescaline, a psychedelic drug, and unfortunately this particular stimulus has overshadowed the wider implications of his discussion. A more simplistic interpretation of Huxley’s speculations leads directly to the psychedelic revolution of the 1960s, spearheaded by Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert, based on the conviction that by merely taking certain chemical substances one could have a spiritual experience comparable with that of the great mystics of history. This was a concept that Huxley himself deplored in his later years.It is now obvious that the chemical ecstasy and visions produced by psychedelic drugs are qualitatively different from the transcendental union experienced by the mystic who has devoted years to self-purification of mind, inner exploration, and spiritual perception, and that unless there is such a purification of the individual, the consumption of drugs can produce an intense but ultimately shallow experience. The search for chemical ecstasy was soon abandoned by its major early exponents, such as Walter Houston Clark. It is now clear that the gradual transformation of the personality on all levels—physical, mental, emotional and spiritual—involves specific psycho-physical concomitants. Some of these may be accessible to scientific inspection. It may also be possible to evaluate various degrees of transcendental experience, ranging from emotional euphoria to progressively more profound areas of higher consciousness. The modern Hindu mystic Pandit Gopi Krishna, who experienced a dramatic development of higher consciousness following a period of intense yoga discipline and meditation, has

Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology • 5th Ed. published his experiences and the perceptions accompanying them in a series of books, which during the last years of his life attracted the attention of scientists in investigating the phenomenon.

Paranormal Side Effects Most religions have reported miraculous phenomena associated with the path of mysticism, including visions, disembodied voices, levitation, and gifts of healing. Christian saints have their miracles and the yogis have their occult powers. It would seem that with the transcendence of normal mental and emotional life, there is an area of transcendence of normal physical law. However, the mystic is warned not to be snared by such phenomena, since it will activate egoism and pride, common faults of the beginner on the spiritual path.

A Turning Point in Western Mysticism Recent studies of Christian mysticism recognize 1200–1350 C.E. as a crucial period in Western mysticism history. The era witnessed new styles and forms of religion, including reformed attitudes toward the relation of the world and the church. No longer was withdrawal from the worldly considered necessary to experience the mystical. Language styles changed in mystical poetry, sermons, and hagiography. Most significantly, there was a growth in the number of mystics, both male and female, as women began to take on a more influential role in mysticism during this time. Among these women visionaries was the ecstatic mystic Angela of Foligno and several great spiritual leaders of the Beguine movement: Mary of Oignies, Hadewijch of Antwerp, Mechthild of Magdeburg, and Marguerite Porete. Sources: ‘‘AE’’ [George W. Russell]. The Candle of Vision. London: Macmillan, 1919. Reprint, New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1965. Augustine, St. Confessions. N.p., n.d.Blakney, Raymond B. Meister Eckhart: A Modern Translation. New York: Harper, 1941. Brinton, Howard H. The Mystic Will: Based on a Study of the Philosophy of Jacob Boehme. New York: Macmillan, 1930. Buber, Martin. Tales of the Hasidim: The Early Masters. London: Thames & Hudson, 1956. Reprint, New York: Schocken, 1961. Bucke, Richard M. Cosmic Consciousness: A Study in the Evolution of the Human Mind. 1901. Reprint, New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1961. Cheney, Sheldon. Men Who Have Walked with God. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1968. Reprint, New York: Dell, 1974. Clement, Olivier and Theodore Berkeley. The Roots of Christian Mysticism : Text and Commentary. New York: New City Press, 1995. Ferguson, John. An Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Mysticism and The Mystery Religions. London: Thames & Hudson, 1976. Gall, Edward. Mysticism Throughout the Ages. London: Rider, 1934.

Mysticism Gopi Krishna, Pandit. The Biological Basis of Religion and Genius. New York: Harper & Row, 1972. Hartmann, Thom. The Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight: Waking Up to Personal and Global Transformation. Northfeld, Vt.: Mystical Books, 1998. Huxley, Aldous. The Doors of Perception. London: Chatto & Windus, 1954. ———. Heaven & Hell. London: Chatto & Windus, 1956. James, William. The Varieties of Religious Experience. London, 1902. Johnston, William. Christian Mysticism Today. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1984. Jones, Richard H. Mysticism Examined: Philosophical Inquiries into Mysticism. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993. Lawrence, Brother. The Practice of the Presence of God. London, 1691. Light from Light: An Anthology of Christian Mysticism. Edited by Louis Dupre and James A. Wiseman. New York: Paulist Press, 1988. Maeterlinck, Maurice. Ruysbroeck and the Mystics. London, 1908. McGinn, Bernard. The Flowering of Mysticism: Men and Women in the New Mysticism (1200-1350). New York: Crossroad, 1998. McGinn, Bernard. The Foundations of Mysticism (Presence of God : A History of Western Christian Mysticism, Vol 1). New York: Crossroad, 1994. O’Brien, Elmer. Varieties of Mystical Experience. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1964. Pandit, Madhav Pundalik. Traditions in Mysticism. New Delhi, India: Sterling, 1987. Patanjali. The Yoga-Sutras of Patanjali. N.p., n.d.Roth, Ron and Peter Occhiogrosso. The Healing Path of Prayer: The Modern Mystic’s Guide to Spiritual Power. New York: Harmony Books, 1997. Swedenborg, Emanuel. Divine Love and Wisdom. New York: Swedenborg Foundation, n.d. Underhill, Evelyn. The Mystic Way: A Psychological Study in Christian Origins. London and New York, 1913. ———. Mysticism: A Study in the Nature & Development of Man’s Spiritual Consciousness. London: Methuen; New York: E. P. Dutton, 1911. Waite, Arthur E. Lamps of Western Mysticism. London: Kegan Paul; New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1923. Reprint, Blauvelt, N.Y.: Multimedia, 1973. ———. Studies in Mysticism. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1906. Younghusband, Francis. Modern Mystic. London: John Murray, 1935. Reprint, New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1970. Zaehner, R. C. Mysticism: Sacred, and Profane. London: Oxford, 1957.


N NAA See National Astrological Association Nacht, Sacha (1901–


Physician and psychoanalyst concerned with relationships between psychology and parapsychology. He was born on September 23, 1901, in Bacau, Romania, but later moved to France, where he studied at the Faculté de Médecine de Paris, and was director of the Institut de Psychanalyse de Paris from 1952. Author of La Psychanalyse d’aujourd’hui (1956, American ed. 1959). Sources: Pleasants, Helene, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Parapsychology. New York: Helix Press, 1964.

Nada A Sanskrit term used in Hindu musical theory to denote subtle aspects of musical sound. There are two kinds of nada: anahata is the mystical essence of sound; ahata is the conscious realization of musical sound by human beings. Anahata is heard by yogis in meditation and is related to different chakras (psychic centers) in the human body. Nada upasana is the yoga of music, which brings God-realization through pure forms of music and meditation. (See also Swami Nadabrahmananda Saraswati; vibrations; Alfred Wolfsohn) Sources: Rogo, D. Scott. Nada: A Study of Some Unusual ‘‘Other World’’ Experiences. 2 vols. New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1970, 1972. Sivananda, Swami. Music as Yoga. Rishikesh, India, 1956.

Nadabrahmananda Saraswati, Swami (1896– ?) A Hindu musician who developed a yoga of music, involving the arousal of kundalini energy through the psychic power of sound vibrations. Born May 5, 1896, in Mysore, India, he studied music under Shri Sadasiva Bua, and Ustad Alladiya Khan of Dolahpur, eventually becoming a disciple of Tata Bua of Benares. He spent 15 years in perfecting his skills and was a devotee of the late Swami Sivananda. Saraswati taught music to students at the Sivananda Ashram (Divine Life Society), Rishikesh, Himalayas, North India. He not only played various instruments like swara mandala (Indian zither) and tabla (Indian drums), but was also a master of the intricate graces of Thaan or vocal exercises. During his vocal performances he directed the sound vibration to various parts of his body, and sent out vibrations through his ears and the top of his head when his mouth was covered. In his performances on the tabla, he suspended respiration for nearly half an hour in a state of trance, playing the most intricate and com-

plex rhythms without movement of his eyes or head. He also used sound vibrations for psychic healing. (See also nada)

Naddeo, Alighiero (1930–


Italian professor of statistics who has conducted investigations in parapsychology. He was born on August 18, 1930, in Rome, Italy. He studied at the University of Rome (LL.B., 1952; B.S. statistics, 1953). He joined the faculty at the university (1954–61) and eventually in 1961 was named a professor of statistics at the University of Trieste. He is the author (with M. Boldrini) of Le statistiche empirische e la teoria dei campioni (Empirical Statistical Studies on the Sample Theory, 1950). In his investigation of ESP ability with 500 students he concluded that the correct results were higher than random expectation. Sources: Pleasants, Helene, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Parapsychology. New York: Helix Press, 1964.

Nakaidokilini (d. 1881) Nakaidokilini or Nochaydel-klinne was an Apache visionary who emerged in 1881 during the time that the U.S. government’s attempts at pacification of the Native American population was being hampered by Geronimo. During a lull in the ongoing hostilities, Nakaidokilini emerged claiming that he possessed power to raise the dead and that he regularly communed with spirit entities. He also brought the welcome message that the whites would soon be driven from the land. From his spirit contacts he had learned a dance that he taught his followers. With Nakaidokilini assuming a position in the center, dancers would be arranged in lines outward, much as spokes on a wagon wheel. They faced inward and as they moved in a circular pattern around him, he sprinkled them with hoddentin, a sacred yellow powder made from the pollen of the tule-rush, a plant widely used by the Apache. In June of 1881, he asserted his posi