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The tragedy of 9/11 placed homeland security and the prevention of further attacks into the central focus of our national consciousness. With so many avenues of terror open to our enemies in terms of mode, medium, and location, effective management and mitigation of threat must be grounded in objective risk assessment. The structure of national security decisions should be premised on decision theory and science with minimal political posturing or emotional reactivisim.National Security Issues in Science, Law, and Technology demonstrates a mature look at a frightening subject and presents sound, unbiased tools with which to approach any situation that may threaten human lives. By applying the best of scientific decision-making practices this book introduces the concept of risk management and its application in the structure of national security decisions. It examines the acquisition and utilization of all-source intelligence, including the ability to analyze data and forecast patterns, to enable policymakers to make better informed decisions. The text addresses reaction and prevention strategies applicable to chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons; agricultural terrorism; cyberterrorism; and other potential threats to our critical infrastructure. It discusses legal issues that inevitably arise when integrating new legislation with the threads of our Constitution and illustrates the dispassionate analysis of our intelligence, law enforcement, and military operations and actions. Finally, the book considers the redirection of our national research and laboratory system to investigate the very problems terrorists can induce through the use of weapons we have as yet toconfront.Taking the guesswork out of hard choices, National Security Issues in Science, Law, and Technology provides anyone burdened with the mantle of responsibility for the protection of the American people with the tools to make sound, well-informed decisions.

E-Book Content

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National Security Issues in Science, Law, and Technology

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National Security Issues in Science, Law, and Technology Edited by

Thomas A. Johnson

Boca Raton London New York

CRC Press is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

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CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742 © 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S. Government works Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 International Standard Book Number-10: 1-57444-908-7 (Hardcover) International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-57444-908-2 (Hardcover) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. No part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www. copyright.com (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC) 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data National security issues in science, law, and technology / [edited by] Thomas A. Johnson. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-57444-908-2 (alk. paper) 1. Intelligence service--United States. 2. National security--United States. 3. Terrorism--United States--Prevention. 4. Illegal arms transfers--Prevention. 5. Forensic sciences. I. Johnson, Thomas Alfred. II. Title. III. Series. JK468.I6N38 2007 355’.033073--dc22 Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com and the CRC Press Web site at http://www.crcpress.com


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Table of Contents









Section I Terrorism: Threats, Vulnerabilities, and Weapons


An Introduction to the Intelligence Process for Addressing National Security Threats and Vulnerabilities


Thomas A. Johnson


Medical Response to Chemical and Biological Terrorism


Michael P. Allswede




Simon J. Kenyon


Illicit Trafficking in Nuclear and Radiological Materials


David York


Nuclear Capabilities of North Korea: Issues in Intelligence Collection, Analysis, and National Security Policy Thomas A. Johnson v


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Section II Cyber Terrorism and Cyber Security


A Framework for Deception


Fred Cohen


Critical Infrastructure Protection: Issues and Answers


Fred Cohen


Information Warfare, Netwar, and Cyber Intelligence


Fred Cohen

Section III National Security Strategy: Implications for Science, Law, and Technology


Geographic Information Systems as a Strategic Tool for Better Planning, Response, and Recovery 277 Lucy Savitz, Roberta P. Lavin, and Elisabeth Root


An Introduction to the Concept and Management of Risk


James O. Matschulat


The Structure of National Security Decisions


James O. Matschulat


National Security Executive Orders and Legal Issues Roy Shannon


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Table of Contents


Courts-Martial, Military Tribunals, and Federal Courts



Roy Shannon


National Nuclear Security Administration Laboratories: Emerging Role in Homeland Security


Richard A. Neiser


An All-Hazards National Response Plan: Concluding Remarks


Thomas A. Johnson



Appendix A National Security Strategy Summary


Appendix B Homeland Security Presidential Directives 1 to 14




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Since the tragic attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001, our nation has focused its attention and resources on issues central to our homeland and national security. Particular focus has been directed to the prevention of any further terrorist attacks, especially an attack that may use chemical, biological, nuclear or radiological dispersal devices, or dirty bombs. Our nation’s leaders also recognize that we are vulnerable to terrorists who would utilize agricultural terrorism and insect weaponization attack strategies. In short, our nation’s critical infrastructure is at risk and in need of continued protection and vigilance. To properly address these threats and weapons of terrorism, we must apply a very rigorous process of risk assessment, and learn how to best manage and mitigate the risk our nation now confronts. This also suggests that the structure of national security decisions should be premised on decision theory and science, while minimizing political posturing. Our elected leaders and senior executives have been confronted with a range of issues never before faced with the intensity that is now occurring on a daily basis. The scope of national security policies and decisions required by our policymakers has called for an improved quality of all-source intelligence. Indeed, the overriding purpose of our intelligence community is to collect, analyze, and forecast patterns and trends that will enable our policymakers to make better informed decisions. To create effective policies that protect our national security, our decision makers and elected governmental officials must also possess a rich understanding and appreciation of science, law, and technology. The range of legal issues and challenges that confront the very foundation of our democracy must be made by closely following the threads of our Constitution. We will continue to experience legal issues that call for dispassionate analysis of our intelligence, law enforcement and military operations actions. Both the Congress and the Courts will be further pressed to make new laws and interpret existing laws to protect our nation’s heritage and future. Finally, our nation’s impressive national laboratory system is also at the crossroads of re-focusing its impressive array of talented people to address a ix

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new and emerging role in homeland security. The administrators and managers within our national laboratory system will be called upon to redirect and refocus on the very problems terrorists can induce through their use of the weapons we have described, as well as weapons we have yet to confront. Thomas A. Johnson

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This book is the result of many people providing their insights and efforts in making it possible. First and foremost are the outstanding chapters prepared by each of my contributing authors. Their vision and insights as to how our nation can enhance our security is a testament to their expertise and individual leadership. Each of these outstanding colleagues gave considerable time from their schedules so that we might provide our readers with an overview of the important issues and challenges that confront our nation. Dr. Michael Allswede, Dr. Simon Kenyon, and Dr. Fred Cohen are three of the most distinguished international scholars in their respective fields. Their groundbreaking work in bioterrorism, agroterrorism, and computer security and information assurance is among the most important in their respective fields. It is such an honor to work with each of these thoughtful and outstanding scholars. Dr. Lucy Savitz, Roberta Lavin, and Elisabeth Root’s work in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is providing new and important tools that are being utilized by federal, state, and local agencies in their efforts to secure our nation. Dr. Savitz has provided our nation with a rich body of literature from her previous innovative and groundbreaking work in GIS, and we look to her leadership for additional writing and research. David York’s fascinating work on the illicit trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials promises to be one of the first of many important contributions we can expect to see from this innovative scientist. Professor James Matschulat, who is now embarking on a new career in academia after a most impressive and successful career as a chief executive in the corporate world, has enriched our academic program beyond our expectations. His enthusiasm, writing skills, and gift for working with students clearly demonstrate that he belongs in academia. I would be remiss if I did not mention my deep gratitude to Robert Alvine and William Alvine for their encouragement and assistance in transforming this corporate executive into an academician. Another important debt is owed to Justice George Nicholson of the California Court of Appeals for his encouragement and foresight to our nation’s security. I am particularly indebted to Justice Nicholson as he was singularly xi

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responsible for Professor Roy Shannon joining our team. Professor Shannon has not only excelled in the classroom, but also as an important contributor to this text. He promises to become one of our most prolific authors in this new emerging field of national security law. Dr. Richard Neiser is truly one of our nation’s leading scientists, and his thoughtful approach to the field of national security will be profound, not only for the manner in which he encourages other scientists to apply their discipline skills and knowledge to the security needs of our nation, but also for the vision he offers his colleagues. Our publisher, Taylor & Francis Group, has provided excellent guidance and assistance throughout this project. Becky McEldowney, Carolyn Spence and, especially, Jill Jurgensen and Jay Margolis were so gracious in both their assistance and their patience. Each and, collectively, all four represent the best in the publishing world, and it is an author’s dream to work with professionals such as these. Finally, and most important of all, is the guidance and support offered by my wife, Colleen, who in addition to standing by my side and being my lifetime partner, has enabled our marriage to also include a working professional relationship. She has worked with each of our contributing authors and her editorial advice and skills have been reflected in the quality of this book. I am and will forever remain indebted to her for her wise counsel and sensitive support. Thomas A. Johnson Editor-in-Chief

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Thomas A. Johnson Dr. Thomas Johnson presently serves as dean of the Henry C. Lee College of Criminal Justice and Forensic Sciences and also dean and director of the University of New Haven, California Campus. He received his bachelor’s and master’s degrees from Michigan State University and completed his doctorate in criminology at the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Johnson founded the Center for Cybercrime and Forensic Computer Investigation and serves as director of the Forensic Computer Investigation Graduate program. Additionally, he was responsible for developing the on-line program in Information Protection and Security at the University of New Haven. Dr. Johnson also founded the Graduate National Security program with campus offerings in Connecticut, Virginia, and two National Nuclear Security Administration laboratories in California and New Mexico. Currently, Dr. Johnson serves as a member of the FBI Infraguard program and also a member of the Electronic Crime Task Force, New York Field Office, U.S. Secret Service. The U.S. Attorney General appointed him as a member of the Information Technology Working Group and he served as Chair, Task Force Group on Combating High Technology Crime for the National Institute of Justice. He was also appointed an advisor to the Judicial Council of California on the Court Technology Task Force by the California Supreme Court. Dr. Johnson has published 4 books, 13 refereed articles; he holds copyright on 4 software programs and, in October 2000, his chapter on “Infrastructure Warriors: A Threat to the U.S. Homeland by Organized Crime,” was published by the Strategic Studies Institute of the U.S. Army War College. In addition to lecturing at the U.S. Army War College, Carlisle Barracks, he has lectured at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center and at numerous universities. Dr. Johnson has appeared many times in both state and U.S. courts as an expert witness and was a member of the Select Ad Hoc Presidential Investigative Committee and consultant to the American Academy of Forensic Sciences in the case of Sirhan B. Sirhan regarding evaluation of ballistics and physical evidence concerning the assassination of U.S. Senator Robert F. Kennedy in June 1968. xiii

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Michael P. Allswede Dr. Michael Allswede specializes in emergency medicine, critical care medicine, and medical toxicology and has devoted a career to improving medical response to disasters and terrorism. He has developed several operational programs in the areas that are in use today. Among these is the Strategic Medical Intelligence project that has taken its place in the Pittsburgh Field Office of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and has served as an organizing principle for Interpol efforts in worldwide terrorism. The RaPiD-T program is the educational program taught by the Pittsburgh Emergency Medical Services and serves to organize response to toxic, or infectious events. Lastly, the Rational Response Matrix project serves as a response modeling tool and modular disaster plan framework for several health systems. Dr. Allswede is currently the program director at the Conemaugh Health System’s Program in Emergency and Disaster Medicine, a residency that combines training in emergency medicine and disaster medicine to create physician leaders of tomorrow. Dr. Allswede also serves on several boards and advisory panels, including the informal advisory board to Interpol’s Bioterrorism Unit and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Altered Standards of Care in Mass Events. Dr. Allswede also serves as a tactical medicine asset for the Pennsylvania State Police.

Fred Cohen Dr. Fred Cohen is best known as the inventor of computer virus defense techniques, the principal investigator whose team defined the information assurance problem as it relates to critical infrastructure protection today, as a seminal researcher in the use of deception for information protection, and as a topflight information protection consultant. But his work on information protection extends far beyond these areas. In the 1970s, he designed network


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protocols for secure digital networks carrying voice, video, and data; he also helped to develop and prototype the electronic cash watch for implementing personal digital money systems. In the 1980s, he developed integrity mechanisms for secure operating systems, consulted for many major corporations, taught short courses in information protection to over 10,000 students worldwide, and in 1989, he won the prestigious international Information Technology Award for his work on integrity protection. In the 1990s, Dr. Cohen developed protection testing and audit techniques and systems, secure Internet servers and systems, defensive information warfare techniques and systems, early systems using deception for information protection, and bootable CDs designed for forensics and secure server applications. All told, the protection techniques he pioneered now help to defend more than three quarters of all the computers in the world. Dr. Cohen has authored nearly 200 invited, refereed, and other scientific and management research articles. His most recently published books include: World War 3: We are losing it and most of us didn’t even know we were fighting in it — Information Warfare Basics, ASP Press, 2006, and Frauds, Spies, and Lies, and How to Defeat Them, ASP Press, 2005. He received his M.S. in information science from the University of Pittsburgh in 1980 and his Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of Southern California in 1986. The reader is invited to find out more about Dr. Cohen at his website: http://all.net or his books at ASP-Press.com

Simon J. Kenyon Dr. Simon J. Kenyon is an extension veterinarian and associate professor of population health at Purdue University’s School of Veterinary Medicine. He teaches and practices dairy cow production medicine and teaches veterinary students about foreign animal diseases. He delivers farmer and public education programs on animal diseases and on health risk to humans from diseases, such as, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and avian Influenza. He has studied foreign animal disease threats at the USDA’s Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory on Plum Island and spent 10 years on assignment for the British Overseas Development Administration in Sudan and Indonesia dealing with epidemic disease diagnosis and disease reporting. He helped develop a nationally recognized program for aiding and rescuing animals after natural disasters and is a member of the Executive Committee of the Extension Disaster Education Network (EDEN). His publications include coauthorship of Emergency Management of Disasters Involving Livestock in Developing Countries, and the Diagnostic Manual for Field Veterinarians, which was published by the Veterinary Research Administration in Sudan and adopted as a training manual by the Food

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and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations Global Rinderpest Eradication Program. He received his veterinary degree from London University in 1969 and a Ph.D. in immunology from the University of Pennsylvania in 1976.

Roberta P. Lavin Captain Roberta P. Lavin is currently working on a doctorate in nursing at the Uniformed Service University for the Health Science and also serves as the chief of staff to the Assistant Secretary for Public Health Emergency Preparedness at the Department of Health and Human Services. Prior to joining the Office of the Assistant Secretary, Captain Lavin was the director of the Secretary’s Operations Center from October 2001 through March 2003. During her career, Captain Lavin has held a variety of positions including chief of field operations for the Division of Immigration Health Services, assistant health services administrator and clinical coordinator for the Federal Correctional Institution in Tuscon, Arizona, and nurse practitioner at St. Elizabeth Hospital in Washington, D.C. She holds a bachelor of science in psychology and a master of science degree in nursing as well as a master of arts in disaster and emergency management.

James O. Matschulat James O. Matschulat, MBA, is a visiting associate professor in the Graduate National Security Program offered by The Henry C. Lee College of Criminal Justice and Forensic Sciences at the University of New Haven. Professor Matschulat’s focus is on the administration of national security and he has been in the risk trade for over 40 years. He began his career as an insurance underwriter with Chubb & Son, Inc. and served as an adjunct associate professor at The College of Insurance (now St. John’s School of Risk Management) and as a risk management consultant. He was also a principal at McKinsey & Company, Inc. and CEO of Middlesex Mutual Assurance Company, Inc.

Richard Neiser Dr. Richard Neiser is currently manager of the Applied Systems and Materials Science Department in the Systems Assessment and Research Center at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Born and raised in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania he received his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in materials science and engineering from Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, Virginia.

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Dr. Neiser performed his Ph.D. studies at the State University of New York at Stony Brook, Long Island. For 6 years, he worked at Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island operating x-ray facilities for the Naval Research Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Upon completing his doctorate, Dr. Neiser received an Alexander von Humboldt fellowship to study in Germany and performed post-doctoral research at Aachen Technical University and at the University of the Federal Armed Forces in Hamburg. Since moving to New Mexico in 1991, Dr. Neiser has worked at Sandia National Labs on a broad range of applied engineering projects in the area of national security. He is married and has three children.

Elisabeth Root Elisabeth Root is a medical geographer specializing in modeling geographic information systems (GIS) data and cartographic analysis. Her current research involves the geographic analysis of the supply and demand of health services, specifically examining market characteristics and health outcomes in order to identify geographic areas with inadequate access to care or disparities in the quality of care. Root is also involved in research examining the relationship between the built environment and health behaviors and health outcomes. She uses GIS and spatial statistics software to examine geographic variation quality measure, health outcomes, and hospital services. Her work at RTI International in Durham, North Carolina includes data collection and database development activities, geographic analysis as well as project management and qualitative research. Prior to working at RTI, Root worked at the U.S. Census Bureau where she was responsible for the creation and design of county-level maps for the Census 2000 Brief publication series. She also acted as the lead geographic analyst in the development of the new Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA) Metro- and Micropolitan areas and assisted with final quality check activities for the Census 2000 public use files.

Lucy Savitz Dr. Lucy Savitz holds a Ph.D. from the Department of Health Policy and Administration at the University of North Carolina and an MBA from the University of Denver. With more than 20 years experience in health-care delivery and health services research, she has worked as a financial planner at UNC Health Care, a researcher at the Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research, as a faculty member at the UNC School of Public Health, and most recently as a senior researcher at RTI International in Durham, North Carolina and now Abt Associates, based in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Prior to relocating to North Carolina, Dr. Savitz served as an economist for the Colorado Legislative Council. Dr. Savitz’s applied research has focused on preparedness, safety, and quality in health care. She is recognized as a thought leader in implementation and partnership science and is published extensively in the peer-reviewed literature and over a dozen book chapters as well as coediting Geographic Methods for Health Service Research. Dr. Savitz has been acknowledged as an examiner for the 2001 and 2002 Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Program, administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology in the U.S. Department of Commerce and the American Society for Quality. She is also a senior scientist in the Intermountain Health Care Quality Institute and Research Fellow at the Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research (UNC).

Roy Shannon Roy Shannon is a Distinguished Special Lecturer at the University of New Haven, National Security Program, Sandia National Laboratory campus. He is a member of the prosecution team, San Joaquin County District Attorney’s Office, Homicide and Gang Unit–California District Attorneys Association Legislative Office. Shannon served as a judicial extern in the California Third Appellate District Court of Appeal, Chamber of Associate Justice George Nicholson, and is a United States Department of Defense and Intelligence Community consultant and contractor (executive director of Katabatics and ArdRI systems). He received his J.D. from the McGeorge School of Law, 2005, and is a Governmental Affairs Certificate Holder. Twice published in McGeorge Law Review (35 McGeorge L. Rev 606, 36 McGeorge L. Rev. 727), he also is the research editor for Journal of National Security Law & Policy, Vols. 1-2. Shannon received his B.A. from Texas Christian University (TCU), 1989 summa cum laude in research psychology and foreign languages (Russian, German). He is a member of Phi Beta Kappa and is currently pursuing Arabic language coursework at California State University in Sacramento.

David York David York received his undergraduate education in molecular genetics from the University of New Mexico (UNM) in 2003 and a master’s of national security and information protection and security from the University of New Haven (UNH) in 2005. York began his career in international security at Sandia National Laboratories during his senior year at UNM. He was involved in biological monitoring of feedlots to combat agroterrorism. He also assisted on projects involving nuclear and radiological terrorism, which introduced him to the international nuclear security scene.

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Currently, York is participating on several international projects involving nuclear transparency and remote monitoring of nuclear fuel cycles. He also directs the Illicit Nuclear Trafficking Framework at Sandia for the modeling and analysis of nuclear and radiological trafficking at the International Nuclear Safeguards Conference and the International Workshop on Radiological Sciences and Applications held at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). He has also presented at the International Nuclear Materials Management Conference and the American Nuclear Society Conference on nuclear transparency. In addition, York is a member of the Generation IV Reactor International Nuclear Experts Group for Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (GenIV-PRPP) where he specializes in providing physical protection analyses of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. York is married to Jennifer York D. O., and has two rottweilers, Lilly and Roxy.

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Section I

Terrorism: Threats, Vulnerabilities, and Weapons

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An Introduction to the Intelligence Process for Addressing National Security Threats and Vulnerabilities


THOMAS A. JOHNSON Contents The Intelligence Process ................................................................................... 6 Customer Requirements ......................................................................... 6 Collection Disciplines ............................................................................ 7 Processing and Exploitation of Data.................................................... 12 Analysis and Production....................................................................... 12 Covert Action/Special Activities ........................................................... 14 Counter-Intelligence.............................................................................. 16 Dissemination of Intelligence Products............................................... 17 Policy ...................................................................................................... 18 Evaluation .............................................................................................. 19 Conclusion....................................................................................................... 19 References ........................................................................................................ 20 A significant range of issues in science, law, and technology are all a part of our nation’s National Security challenges. The decision makers we hold responsible for protecting our nation require a vast amount of information to base their policy judgments upon. Our nation must have at its disposal the most current defensive weapons systems based on the latest advances in science and technology. At the same time, our nation’s leaders must have current information about potential threats that could harm our nation or our people. Since 1947, our nation has benefited from both a Department of Defense and an intelligence community. We look to our intelligence community to provide information to our president for the formulation of policies that will result in greater protection of our nation. Since the close of the Cold War with the Soviet Union in 1991, there have been tremendous changes in our intelligence community and in its responsibilities. 3

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These changes were all part of a “peace dividend” that had an enormous impact on how congressional support for our intelligence community had diminished. In fairness to the position of Congress, there was a shaping of this environment by the mistakes made in the mid-1970s by our intelligence community, which necessitated the greatest degree of congressional oversight ever experienced in the history of our nation’s intelligence community. The attack on our nation on September 11, 2001 refocused our nation’s attention to our intelligence community, both in terms of the mistakes made and to the new set of challenges and expectations we have of our entire intelligence community. While there have been major reorganizations of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), and a new Director of National Intelligence (DNI), along with major reporting modifications and budgetary reallocations, the one thing that has not changed is the need for our intelligence community to provide current and accurate information on the potential threats our nation confronts. Today our concerns focus on how terrorist organizations might use biological, chemical, or nuclear weapons to attack us. Other modalities of attack range from radiological dispersal devices, commonly known as dirty bombs, to several forms of agricultural terrorism caused by the weaponization of insects. This chapter will describe the intelligence process for collecting and analyzing information, which our intelligence community uses to provide to our nation’s leaders, so they might formulate the policies and make the decisions that ultimately become our strategy for defending and protecting our nation. To place into perspective how the intelligence process works, it will be useful to understand how the President of the U.S. communicates and receives national security information to assist his office in formulating national security policy. This will entail a brief description of both the National Security Council and the White House Situation Room. The National Security Council consists of the President, Vice President, Secretaries of State and Defense, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the National Security Advisor to the President. The DNI serves as the Intelligence Advisor to the National Security Council. The National Security Staff reports to the National Security Advisor and consists of military officers, career civil servants, and political appointees who have day-to-day responsibility for conveying the wishes of the President to the intelligence community and for coordinating among the various departments and agencies. In essence, the National Security Council Staff is primarily interested in the execution of policy as defined by the President and senior presidential appointees.1 The White House Situation Room’s (WHSR) important daily role with the National Security Council is basic to how the White House and the National Security Council function in providing current intelligence information to key decision makers, including the President.

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An Introduction to the Intelligence Process


The White House Situation Room (WHSR) was established by President Kennedy after the Bay of Pigs disaster in 1961. That crisis revealed a need for rapid and secure Presidential communications and for the White House coordination of the many external communications channels of national security information, which led to the President. Since then, the mission of the White House Situation Room has been to provide current intelligence and crisis support to the National Security Council Staff, the National Security Advisor and the President. The SIT room is composed of approximately 30 personnel, organized around 5 watch teams who provide 7-day, 24-hour monitoring of international events.2 The Watch Team within the WHSR prepares a “Morning Book,” which contains the Senior Executive Intelligence Brief, the State Department Morning Summary, and diplomatic cables and intelligence reports. These reports are transmitted to the National Security Advisor who presents them to the president.3 The president’s daily brief was formerly prepared and presented by the CIA, but now is presented to the president by the DNI. The intelligence process that typically begins by a request from the “customer,” which may emanate from the president, the National Security Council, or very senior leadership executives of the government will begin a series of events that ultimately will entail the preparation of a series of intelligence products. The dissemination of these intelligence reports will eventually be routed to the DNI and to the National Security Council and WHSR’s external channel operations. However, not all intelligence products will follow this pathway, as the Department of Defense is also both a producer and consumer of intelligence information at levels of the Pentagon through to senior battlefield commanders. The intelligence community will be discussed in a variety of roles and activities throughout this chapter, therefore, the 16-member agencies of our intelligence community are presented in alphabetical order as follows: • • • • • • • • • •

Air Force Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Army Military Intelligence Central Intelligence Agency Coast Guard Intelligence Defense Intelligence Agency Department of Energy — Office of Intelligence Department of Homeland Security — Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection Directorate Department of State — Bureau of Intelligence and Research Department of Treasury — Office of Intelligence and Analysis Drug Enforcement Administration — Office of National Security Intelligence

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• • • • • •

Federal Bureau of Investigation Marine Corp Intelligence National Geospatial Intelligence Agency National Reconnaissance Office National Security Agency Navy Intelligence — Office of Naval Intelligence

The Intelligence Process For purposes of best understanding how our intelligence process provides our decision makers with the information they can use to frame their policies, the balance of this chapter will follow the outline of the actual intelligence process as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Customer Requirements Collection Disciplines Processing and Exploitation of Data Analysis and Production Covert Action/Special Activities Counter Intelligence Dissemination of Intelligence Products Policy Evaluation

Customer Requirements This is a critical phase in the entire intelligence process since there must be a clear understanding of what the intelligence problem is before one can begin the collection and analysis stages. Therefore, customer “needs,” particularly if they are complex and time sensitive, require a very careful assessment before being expressed as intelligence requirements. Lisa Krizan observes that the “five Ws” (who, what, when, where, and why) are a good starting point for translating intelligence needs into requirements. A sixth related question, “how,” may also be important to the analysis.4 In short, the intelligence requirements translate the customer needs into an intelligence action plan, which in turn guides the collection strategy and the entire production of the intelligence product. At the national level, it is the National Security Council that establishes our nation’s policy and intelligence priorities. The National Security Advisor and the DNI must establish a clear understanding as to articulating intelligence priorities in such a manner that the entire intelligence community comprehends the specific nature of the intelligence problem or problems.

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An Introduction to the Intelligence Process


Collection Disciplines Once the process for translating the customers’ intelligence needs into a set of intelligence requirements with senior officials establishing an intelligence action plan is completed, then the process for selection of collection methodologies can take place. The intelligence need defines the collection requirement and ultimately the selection of collection sources. The collection strategy can use one or more of the collection disciplines. The four major collection disciplines are: 1. 2. 3. 4.

SIGINT — signals intelligence GEOINT — geospatial intelligence MASINT — measurement and signature intelligence HUMINT — human intelligence

For the intelligence process to work at its best level, the intelligence community seeks to produce all-source intelligence or, as it is oftentimes referred to, fusion intelligence. In other words, the intelligence that is collected comes from as many collection sources and subdisciplines as possible. To appreciate the role and function each collection discipline plays in providing all-source intelligence, a brief description of each of the five collection disciplines and their subdisciplines will be presented. The first major collection discipline, signals intelligence (SIGINT), is collected by satellites and by ships and planes. SIGINT consists of multiple types of intercepts: one type refers to the interception of communication between two parties; this is the subdiscipline of communications intelligence (COMINT). Another type of intercept of signals is the capture of data relayed by weapons during a test; this is the subdiscipline of telemetry intelligence (TELINT). A third type of intercept is with electronic emissions from military and civilian weapons and tracking systems; this is within the subdiscipline electronic intelligence (ELINT).5 The National Security Agency (NSA) is responsible for both the collection of our signals activities and the subdisciplines of COMINT, TELINT, and ELINT. The National Security Agency also has the responsibility of defending our nation against any nation–state who would use signals intelligence against us. From a technological point of view, life was not as difficult for the National Security Agency at its creation in 1952, as there were only 5000 computers in the entire world and no fax machines or cellular telephones. Fifty years later in 2002 there were over 180 billion minutes of international phone conversations from some 2.8 billion cellular phones and 1.2 billion fixed telephones. Instant messaging generates 530 billion messages daily. As communications switch to fiber optic cable, the available volume will increase. Also, more phone calls are going over the Internet using the voice-over Internet-protocol (VOIP) technology.6

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As of 1995, the National Security Agency was capable of intercepting the equivalent of the entire collection of the U.S. Library of Congress (1 quadrillion bits of information every 3 hours). By 1997, new high tech collection systems produced even a more massive volume of intercepts; however, the NSA was swamped with intercepts and only able to process approximately 1% of the intercepts.7 This problem came to a head on September 11, 2001 with our inability to capture intercepts that might have alerted our intelligence community to AlQaeda attack plans. Of course, there were additional reasons for our inability to capture and process the communication patterns of Al-Qaeda cells, among these reasons were the media’s public disclosure of our earlier capture of cell phone and fax intercepts that alerted Al-Qaeda to avoid using these devices. Another reason centered on the 20% cut in intelligence personnel mandated by Congress as a result of the “peace dividend” at the close of the Cold War in 1991. Still another reason focused on our inability to translate the different Arabic languages from the Middle East, which include Farsi, Pashto, Dari, Hindi, and Urdu. The war against terrorism has created additional problems for the capture of SIGINT. Our SIGINT collection discipline was designed to collect intelligence on the Soviet Union and other nations. Terrorist cells offer much smaller signatures that may not be susceptible to interception by remote SIGINT sensors. Therefore, we may have to rely on sensors that have been placed close to the target by human agents. In effect, HUMINT will become the enabler for SIGINT.8 Signals intelligence will continue to play a very prominent role in providing fusion intelligence to the finished intelligence products produced by our intelligence community. The second major collection discipline, geospatial intelligence (GEOINT), used to be referred to as imagery intelligence (IMINT); the current terminology has been renamed and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency that was responsible for processing and assessing images now falls under the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency. Geospatial intelligence is defined as “information about any object — natural or manmade — that can be observed or referenced to the Earth and has national security implications.”9 Images can be acquired by satellite over flights and electronically captured and sent to satellite collecting stations. Electro-optical (E-O) cameras are a camera type of satellite imaging sensor and provides high-resolution images. These E-O sensors can only capture images in the day and cannot effectively operate through cloud cover or heavy fog. Another sensing device on some satellites is synthetic aperture radar, which does permit the capture of images of earth through clouds, fog, haze, and darkness, but does not have the high resolution that is provided by E-O sensors.10 Imagery is a most compelling form of collected intelligence and this was appropriately documented in the Cuban Missile Crisis in which President Kennedy was able to provide clear and convincing proof to the world as to the intentions of the Soviet Union by displaying photos and images of Soviet missiles on Soviet ships and in Cuba itself.

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Another method of capturing images is provided by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), which unlike satellites fly closer to areas of interest instead of making the high altitude orbital pass. The advantage of UAVs centers on producing realtime images and images that can be gathered by pursuit directional systems from the ground, thus offering an immediate capture of intelligence. Another advantage is found in the ability to incorporate missiles on the UAV. The United States currently relies on two UAVs, the Predator and the Global Hawk. Predator operates at up to 25,000 feet, flying at the relatively slow speed of 84 to 140 miles per hour. It can be based as far as 450 miles from a target for 16 to 24 hours. Predator provides real time imagery and has been mated with air-to-ground missiles, allowing immediate attacks on identified targets instead of having to relay the information to nearby air or ground units . . . Global Hawk operates at up to 65,000 feet at a speed of up to 400 miles per hour. It can be based 3000 miles from the target and can operate over the target for 24 hours.11 Other forms of images are captured by infrared (IR) imagery, which produces an image based on the heat reflected by the surfaces being recorded. This provides the ability to detect warm objects such as tanks or planes being camouflaged or inside hangers. Also, it provides the ability to detect humans camouflaged under a heavy jungle canopy.12 The third major collection discipline, measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT), is technically derived intelligence that detects and identifies the “signature” or distinctive characteristics of targeted sources. MASINT uses a wide variety of sensors to detect and differentiate specific signatures that permit one to identify the presence of particular materials, such as molecules, types of crops, soil composition, industrial pollutants, chemical composition, and numerous other types of signatures. By detecting these “signatures,” MASINT can make very important contributions to the intelligence community. MASINT collection systems include radar, spectroradiometric, electrical optical, acoustic, radio frequency, nuclear detection, and seismic sensors, as well as techniques for gathering chemical, biological, nuclear, and other material samples.13 There exist six subdisciplines to this very important and scientific collection system. The six subdisciplines to the measurement and signature intelligence collection system are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Materials intelligence Radar intelligence Radio frequency intelligence Geophysical intelligence Electro-optical intelligence Nuclear intelligence

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Following is a brief description of three of these subdisciplines. Materials intelligence is the collection, processing, and scientific analysis of gas, liquid, or soil samples. Material intelligence is critical to the collection against chemical, biological, and nuclear warfare threats. This subdiscipline is also crucial to our assessment of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The inclusion of computerized databases of established signatures of gas, liquid, and soil samples permits identification of these items. Radio frequency intelligence consists of the collection and assessment of electromagnetic emissions, which assists in the identification of various weapon systems and also nuclear testing because of the ability to measure electromagnetic pulses, which are measurable bursts of energy. Geophysical intelligence captures through its sensors and permits analysis of emitted or reflected sounds, pressure waves, vibrations, and magnetic or ionospheric disturbances. 14 Spectroradiometric sensors are critical to intelligence collection as any object with a temperature above absolute zero emits electromagnetic energy. The higher the temperature, the shorter the mean wavelength of the radiation. This scientific principle is what permits multi- or hyperspectral E-O/IR sensors to remotely determine material composition. This is how NASA was able to perform and analyze the chemical and mineral composition of the soil on Mars over 119 million miles from Earth.15 This capability of utilizing sensors for our intelligence community provides a base of scientific richness that is invaluable. For example, hyperspectral imaging can differentiate one crop from another or one type of soil from another as well as measuring water and industrial pollutants, all capabilities useful to the intelligence community. Macartney also observes that some of the more useful applications of MASINT include the following: • •

Spectral analysis of jet or rocket exhaust that identifies the type of fuel and the specific type of vehicle, and even the throttle setting. F-15 Fire control radar can count the number of compressor blades on an approaching aircraft and the number of blades constitutes a “signature,” thus identifying the engine itself and the type of aircraft. Laser remote sensing: Since WMD (chemical, biological, and nuclear) give off distinctive signatures (or their manufacture or storage involves signatures), and since WMD proliferation is one of the top priorities for the intelligence community, much of the MASINT effort has been pointed toward WMD detection.16

The fourth major type of collection discipline is human intelligence or HUMINT. This collection discipline was substantially impacted when President Carter appointed Admiral Stansfield Turner to assume the Director of Central Intelligence and, on assuming this role, Admiral Turner de-emphasized

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the role of human intelligence in what was then known as the “Day of the Long Knife” in which our human intelligence capability was severely curtailed. The Carter Administration decided to pursue the more technological collection disciplines previously described. Also, as previously noted, the “peace dividend” of the 1990s as a result of the Cold War with the Soviet Union ending saw a further decline and retrenchment of our human intelligence capability. In fact, John E. McLaughlin, CIA deputy director of intelligence, noted that the reduction in intelligence community personnel was over 22% as a result of congressionally mandated action during the 1990s. Human intelligence consists of espionage or spying and special activities, which include clandestine and covert operations. Also included within the operational subset of human collection activities will be counter-intelligence roles and responsibilities. Human intelligence becomes quite important in collecting information that the other collection disciplines are not fully capable of acquiring. Human intelligence requires agents to become proficient in a number of skill sets, such as evasion techniques, communications equipment, weapons, recruiting skills, knowledge of foreign countries, human asset management, and a general understanding of the tradecraft. After September 11, 2001, it became quite clear to the Congress and the nation that our intelligence community had to make a greater investment in our human intelligence capabilities. The collection systems, which were designed to work against large nation–states, were not functional against smaller terrorist nonstate operations, such as Al-Qaeda. The need to penetrate these terrorist organizations or to acquire information on their planned activities requires human intelligence capabilities. This process is a very difficult endeavor, as one has to identify individuals who will have information or access to information that is needed by the intelligence community. These individuals have to be managed in such a manner that the information acquired has value and is not part of a counterintelligence activity or a plan for planting false information. Human intelligence agents have to maintain cover stories or plausible reasons for being in a foreign nation. There are two types of cover: official and nonofficial. Agents with official cover hold other government jobs, such as a posting within an embassy. Nonofficial cover (NOC) avoids any overt connection between the agent and the government and makes the operation of this human intelligence agent very difficult since no overt contact can be made between the NOC agent and the agency. The use of NOCs is more complex and difficult, as they must maintain full-time jobs to fully explain their presence. 17 Other forms of human intelligence activities may include paramilitary actions, covert special operational activities, and clandestine operations that may not be focused on collection activities, but in the process of fulfilling these responsibilities, information of value may be found that should be processed to the Directorate of Intelligence for further analysis.

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In describing these four major collection disciplines, one major factor that one hopes to achieve is a fusion of information from all collection sources possible. Therefore, collection disciplines really are producing information, and the next step in processing this information goes to the stage of processing and exploitation, at which time this complex data and scientific information are further refined into information sets that ultimately are transmitted to the analysis and production stage for review by intelligence analysts. Processing and Exploitation of Data The processing and exploitation of data collected from the previously described collection disciplines reveal that much of the scientific data collected in signal intelligence, geospatial intelligence, and measurement and signature intelligence are simply not ready for submission to the analysis and production stage of this intelligence process. In other words, complex digital signals, foreign language that requires translation, and signature intelligence must be processed and converted into usable symbols or language that can be transmitted to the analysis and production stage. This is a very important phase of the intelligence process and if the data are not converted to useful information, it will minimize or preclude the intelligence analyst from producing usable intelligence reports or products. In short, the processing and exploitation phase of the intelligence cycle is critical to converting very technical collected data into information that will ultimately become processed into intelligence. Analysis and Production This important phase of the intelligence process is dependent on well-trained intelligence analysts. Analysis is not simply reorganizing data and information into a new format. The intelligence analyst’s responsibility is to fully describe and provide as much usable and explanatory information about the intelligence target as possible. Intelligence assessments are based on the data and information captured by the collection disciplines and are refined by research methodologies used by the intelligence analyst. If the analysis of the data can reach beyond the descriptive and explanatory levels to a synthesis, which then results in an estimation, this will be of value and may be produced as an intelligence report or part of an intelligence product. The purpose of intelligence analysis is to reveal to the ultimate policymakers the underlying significance of selected target information. Intelligence analysis involves estimating the likelihood of one possible outcome given the numerous possibilities that exist. Therefore, intelligence analysis involves forecasting and requires the analyst to provide a statement as to the degree of confidence held in a certain set of judgments, which are based on a certain set of explicit facts or assumptions.18

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The intelligence analyst will deal with facts, findings, and forecasts in preparing the intelligence report. • •

Facts: Verified information related to an intelligence issue. Findings: Expert knowledge based on organized information that indicates, for example, what is increasing, decreasing, changing, or taking on a pattern. Forecasts: Judgments (interpretations, predictions) based on facts and findings and defended by sound and clear argumentation.19

The intelligence analyst has the responsibility of reviewing the collected information and going beyond the descriptive and explanatory levels of analysis and to synthesize the facts by verification of information. The findings must be presented to the policymaker in such a fashion that the analyst forecast reduces the uncertainty that confronts decision makers and policymakers. To effectively produce intelligence forecasts, estimates, warnings, or trends, the intelligence analyst must be able to apply the rigors of the scientific method to the intelligence analysis. To minimize error and institute proper controls, the intelligence analyst must clearly employ a research methodology and, where possible, statistical tests to provide for validated levels of statistical confidence. When decision makers are confronted with a range of difficult choices, they will demand as much confidence in the intelligence assessment or report as possible. There are a number of analytical methods that intelligence analysts can employ in assessing a body of collected information that is presented to them for their review. Several of these methods of analysis have been designed and implemented because of past failures of intelligence estimates and reports. Some of the methods of analysis that intelligence analysts will use are: 1. Scientific method – Induction – Deduction – Abduction 2. Lynch pin analysis 3. Opportunity analysis 4. Competitive vs. cooperative analysis 5. Alternative analysis 6. Red cell analysis 7. Contingency analysis 8. High impact/low probability analysis 9. Scenario development 10. Indications and warnings 11. Computer and database analysis 12. Data mining analysis 13. Numerous other classified analytical bases for analysis

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Ironically, until September 11, 2001 there existed little formal training for intelligence analysts within the intelligence community. Furthermore, university-based programs in preparing graduates to assume intelligence analyst positions were almost nonexistent. Given the incredible scientific detail that each of the previously described collection disciplines produces, our nation needs intelligence analysts that not only fully appreciate and can apply the scientific method, but they also are educated in a richness of calculus, physics, mathematics, biology, chemistry, and, in general, the hard sciences. Covert Action/Special Activities The CIA’s principle role is in providing both clandestine and covert strategic services. The CIA’s Directorate of Operations is responsible for providing both service and, in the process, the clandestine service operates to support military operations, law enforcement, and renders support to diplomatic/ policy operations. Thus, the clandestine service is a very unique and versatile instrument of national power. Norman Imler best distinguishes the difference between clandestine and covert. Clandestine regards activities crafted, conducted, and intended to remain secret. Clandestine HUMINT activities use special means (tradecraft, in CIA parlances) to accomplish a collection task against a target, to produce information unobtainable by other means. This is espionage, more often referred to as spying. It is subdivided into foreign or positive intelligence, operational intelligence, and counterintelligence, which initially was referred to as negative intelligence. Covert regards activities crafted and conducted to keep the sponsor’s hand hidden or plausibly deniable.20 In summary, covert action is an activity of the U.S. government designed to influence governments, events, organizations, or persons in support of U.S. foreign policy in a manner that is not attributable to the United States covert actions may require use of political, economic, propaganda, or paramilitary activities. Under current U.S. law, covert actions or special activities as they are now officially termed must be approved by the President of the U.S. in the form of a Memorandum of Notification and termed as a “finding.” The Memorandum of Notification is transmitted to the Intelligence Oversight Committees of both the U.S. Senate and the U.S. House of Representatives. Covert actions are typically carried out by the CIA’s Directorate of Operations, with the assistance as may be required from the Department of Defense and other members of the intelligence community. In assessing other activities performed by both the clandestine service and covert operations, there has been a growing reliance on specialized intelligence

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disciplines to counter the numerous security threats aimed at our nation. These six counter strategies are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Counter-intelligence Counter-terrorism Covert action Counter-proliferation Counter-narcotics and counter-crime Counter-denial and deception

While all six of the above counter strategies are very important, the counter-proliferation is probably the one area that best represents how all collection disciplines and the human intelligence areas could best work together, especially since the September 11, 2001 attacks. Counter-proliferation includes programs and activities designed to identify, monitor, and thwart efforts by foreign countries and groups that seek to possess weapons capable of causing mass casualties — radiological, chemical, biological, and nuclear arms often referred to as Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) . . . WMD are in many cases, accessible to foreign states and groups for little investment, but require networks of individuals to weaponize a capability . . . Counter-proliferation . . . is heavily dependent on science and technology and HUMINT — enabled access for success, particularly in the growing MASINT arena.21 In our nation’s effort to combat terrorism, we are relying more on our clandestine services and especially our covert operations to neutralize and perform counter terrorist activities. The expectation of Congress and many critics of the performance of our intelligence agencies, particularly the CIA centered on the expectation that the intelligence community would have been able to detect the September 11, 2001 terrorist plot in time for measures to be taken to eliminate the threat. However, people have to appreciate that specific intelligence on terrorist threats are very rare, simply because we need the sources that could provide the information. Human assets are required to provide this information and since Congress and several Administrations (Carter and Clinton) severely cut back on our human intelligence capabilities, it has become almost impossible to acquire this information from natural sources. An additional complication in recruiting terrorist assets is that the individuals with the most information to offer tend to have considerable baggage, including possible involvement in past terrorist acts. Any use of such persons as intelligence assets requires additional

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checks and safeguards, including approval at high levels (up to the Director of Central Intelligence) and notification as appropriate to the Congressional Intelligence Committee. If the person may have violated U.S. law, the Department of Justice must also review the case and decide whether to seek or to waive prosecution. The National Commission on Terrorism stated that the CIA’s guidelines for using such people as sources has hindered the recruitment of terrorist informants by making Intelligence Officers “risk aversive.”22 Former Director of Central Intelligence, John Deutch, mandated the most restrictive use of CIA informants and this coupled with the language and religious views of Al-Qaeda provided almost insurmountable problems for penetrating this terrorist cell. As Mark Lowenthal observes, the war on terrorism has focused attention on covert activity that does not fall into the customary range of actions — renditions. Renditions are the seizure of individuals wanted by the U.S. These individuals are living in countries where the U.S. cannot use legal processes to take them into custody. However, after the fugitive terrorist is captured and formally delivered to U.S. custody, the U.S. may retain custody of the individual or send the individual to the home nation of origin.23 The issue of rendition has become a very sensitive matter for the U.S. government, engaging the Secretary of State and requiring explanation to officials of the European Union. Ultimately, the issue of maintaining custodial facilities in foreign countries or sending these individuals to the U.S. for custody and trial will pivot on the decision as to whether to use the criminal law process or the status of enemy combatants. Of course, there are numerous forms of other special activities performed by the clandestine service and covert operations, but the previously described activities clearly portrays the role for enhancing the collection process in cooperation with the collection disciplines of SIGINT, GEOINT, and MASINT. Counter-Intelligence As discussed previously, the intelligence process consists of four major activities, three of which have been described: the collection process, the analysis and production process, and the covert action/special activities process. Counter-intelligence is the fourth of these major activities within the intelligence process and its responsibilities center on conducting activities and exploiting information collected on a nation’s adversaries. This entails the identification, monitoring, manipulating, or neutralizing of any foreign intelligence threat to our nation. Currently, there are more than 45 countries that are attempting to commit some form of espionage on our nation. Counterintelligence operations are designed to collect information on these activities and to affect appropriate action in response to these challenges.

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Another major activity of our counter-intelligence process centers on internal monitoring of our Intelligence Agents, so that we preclude repeat episodes of former agents, such as Aldrich Ames and Robert Hanson, who provided information on our nation’s secrets to the Soviet KGB. This role of internal affairs is quite different from the other activity of monitoring the Intelligence Agents of those groups or nations seeking to perform espionage acts against us; the collection methods are similar, but the process requires careful implementation as the potential for creating internal morale problems is very large. Dissemination of Intelligence Products The intelligence community has the responsibility of preparing and transmitting intelligence reports to the customer. The defined intelligence problem, which has been targeted by the appropriate collection disciplines and which has been processed by the analysis and production phase of the process will result in the form of an intelligence product moving from the intelligence producer to the consumer. The traditional intelligence products include the following reports: •

The President’s Daily Brief is a daily report prepared by the CIA, but now delivered by the new DNI. It provides information as to any event that has national security ramifications and has occurred within the past 24 hours, anywhere in the world. The Senior Executive Intelligence Brief is prepared by the CIA in coordination with other intelligence agencies and provides a briefing of national security issues to senior executives and members of the Senate and House Intelligence Oversight Committees. The National Intelligence Estimates are the responsibility of National Intelligence Officers, who are members of the National Intelligence Council, which is now under the DNI. National Intelligence Estimates represent the opinion of the entire intelligence community and are presented to the president and the National Security Council by the DNI. National Intelligence Estimates are long-term intelligence products that estimate the likely events or direction an issue will take in the future. These are very important products that have the ability to shape the views of our policymakers. However, as with any intelligence product, the recipient may choose to follow its parameters, ignore it, or accept certain portions of the estimate.

Intelligence products or reports can also be presented in briefings to the president or senior officials. Intelligence reports can be transmitted via secure video conferencing methods, secure telephone calls, and secure and encrypted computer messages to senior government officials and to other intelligence agencies.

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There are five categories of finished intelligence, and the three agencies responsible for producing all-source intelligence are the CIA’s Directorate of Intelligence, the DIA’s Directorate of Intelligence, and the State Departments Bureau of Intelligence and Research. Within the Department of Defense, there are four service agencies (Navy, Marine, Army, and Air Force) that also produce finished intelligence. The finished intelligence categories available are: 1. Current intelligence addresses day-to-day events, seeking to apprise consumers of new developments and related background, to assess their significance, to warn of their near-term consequences, and to signal potential dangerous situations in the near future. 2. Estimative intelligence deals with what might be or what might happen. Its main purpose is to provide informed assessments of the range and likelihood of possible outcomes. 3. Warning intelligence sounds an alarm or gives notice to policymakers. This includes identifying or forecasting events that could cause the engagement of U.S. military forces. Warning intelligence also identifies events that could impact U.S. foreign policy. 4. Research intelligence consists of in-depth studies that underpin both current and estimative intelligence. Two categories of research are included: basic intelligence that consists primarily of the structured compilation of geographic, demographic, social, military, and political data on foreign countries; and intelligence for operational support incorporating all types of intelligence production and is tailored, focused, and produced for planners and operators. 5. Scientific and technical intelligence includes information on technical developments and characteristics, performance, and capabilities of foreign technologies. It covers the entire spectrum of sciences, technologies, weapon systems, and integrated operations. 24 The dissemination of intelligence reports is an important phase of this entire process; however, one of the difficulties centers on the protection of sources and methods. Frequently, the recipient of such intelligence reports wants the assurance of the factual and objective veracity of the intelligence report, while at the same time, the intelligence-producing agency must be vigilant to protect sources and methods and may be limited in providing a full suite of information. Policy The entire intelligence process exists to provide the policymaker carefully analyzed and informed judgments on the particular problem under review so as to assist the policymaker in the decision-making process. It is imperative that

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the Intelligence Officer and intelligence process maintain objectivity and not push for specific outcomes or choices. The intelligence process has a supporting role and should not cross over into advocacy of policies or positions. In short, the goal of the entire intelligence process is to put the policymaker in the best position available to make the best informed decision possible. Evaluation The intelligence process should undergo self-evaluation of the intelligence activities, reports, and products it produces. Lisa Krizan provides a very useful framework for intelligence product evaluation and customer feedback where the following constructs are suggested for use. Accuracy: Were all sources and data free of technical error, misperception, and no attempt to mislead? Objectivity: Were all judgments free of deliberate distortions and manipulations due to self-interest? Usability: Was all production issued in a form that facilitated ready comprehension and immediate application? Relevance: Was information selected and organized for its applicability to a customer’s requirements, with potential consequences and significance of the information made explicit to the customer’s circumstances? Readiness: Are intelligence systems responsive to the existing and contingent intelligence requirements of customers at all levels of command? Timeliness: Was intelligence delivered while the content was still actionable under the customer’s circumstance?25

Conclusion This chapter has focused attention on how our intelligence process works to protect our nation from national security threats and vulnerabilities. As earlier observed, the manner in which we have organized our intelligence system to confront the challenges posed by large nation–states is not as fully applicable and useful to the challenges we now confront from terrorist organizations. We must continue to improve on our collection disciplines, but especially engaging them in more of a “jointness” with the Human Intelligence discipline. Another area that must be substantially improved is in our intelligence analysis training. We should not rely or depend on our intelligence community to share this burden by itself. Our universities can play a role in offering assistance in the preparation of intelligence analysts as well as in the development and refinement of additional analytical tools. This chapter has provided a framework and described our nation’s intelligence processing capability. Hopefully, it will provide insight as to how we can continue to gather information to protect our nation from the threats we will encounter from terrorist organizations in the future.

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The remaining chapters in this book will focus on our vulnerabilities to bioterrorism, chemical weapons, nuclear dispersal devices, agricultural terrorism and weaponization, cyber risks, and our critical infrastructure. The risks and the management of how we confront these challenges, along with the structure of our national security decisions, will be referenced within our legal system.

References 1. Lowenthal, M.M., Intelligence from Secrets to Policy, CQ Press: A Division of Congressional Quarterly Inc., Washington, D.C., 2006, 175–176. 2. Donley, M.B., O’Leary, C., and Montgomery, J., Inside the White House situation room, in George, R.Z. and Kline, R.D., Eds., Intelligence and the National Security Strategist: Enduring Issues and Challenges. Published for the Sherman Kent Center for Intelligence Studies; National War College by National Defense University Press, Washington, D.C., 2004, 447–448. 3. Ibid., p. 448. 4. Krizan, L., Intelligence Essentials for Everyone, Occasional Paper Number Six, Joint Military Intelligence College, Washington, D.C., 1999, 13–14. 5. Lowenthal, M.M., Intelligence from Secrets to Policy pp. 89–90. 6. Lowenthal, M.M., Intelligence from Secrets to Policy, p. 91. 7. Aid, M.M., The time of troubles: the U.S. National Security Agency in the 21st century, in George, R.Z. and Kline, R.D., Eds., Intelligence and the National Security Strategist: Enduring Issues and Challenges. Published for the Sherman Kent Center for Intelligence Studies; National War College by National Defense University Press, Washington, D.C., 2004, 195. 8. Lowenthal, M.M., Intelligence from Secrets to Policy, p. 92. 9. Lowenthal, M.M., Intelligence from Secrets to Policy, p. 80. 10. Goodman, G.W., Jr., Unclassified space eyes, in George, R.Z. and Kline, R.D., Eds., Intelligence and the National Security Strategist: Enduring Issues and Challenges. Published for the Sherman Kent Center for Intelligence Studies; National War College by National Defense University Press, Washington, D.C., 2004, 154. 11. Lowenthal, M.M., Intelligence from Secrets to Policy, pp. 85–86. 12. Lowenthal, M.M., Intelligence from Secrets to Policy, p. 80. 13. Macartney, J.D., How should we explain MASINT, in George, R.Z. and Kline, R.D., Eds., Intelligence and the National Security Strategist: Enduring Issues and Challenges. Published for the Sherman Kent Center for Intelligence Studies; National War College by National Defense University Press, Washington, D.C., 2004, 172. 14. Ibid., pp. 172–174. 15. Ibid. p. 175. 16. Ibid., p. 177. 17. Lowenthal, M.M., Intelligence from Secrets to Policy, p. 95.

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18. Krizan, L., Intelligence Essentials for Everyone, p. 29. 19. Davis, J., Defining the analytic mission: facts, findings, forecasts, and fortunetelling, in George, R.Z. and Kline, R.D., Eds., Intelligence and National Security Strategist: Enduring Issues and Challenges. Published for the Sherman Kent Center for Intelligence Studies; National War College by National Defense University Press, Washington, D.C., 2004, 298. 20. Imler, N.B., Espionage in an age of change: optimizing strategic intelligence services for the future, in George, R.Z. and Kline, R.D. Eds., Intelligence and National Security Strategist: Enduring Issues and Challenges. Published for the Sherman Kent Center for Intelligence Studies; National War College by National Defense University Press, Washington, D.C., 2004, 221. 21. Imler, N.B., Espionage in an Age of Change, pp. 226–227. 22. Pillar, P.R., Terrorism and U.S. Foreign Policy, Brookings Institution Press, Washington, D.C., 2001, 111. 23. Lowenthal, M.M., Intelligence from Secrets to Policy, p. 164. 24. Lowenthal, M.M., Intelligence from Secrets to Policy, p. 37. 25. Krizan, L., Intelligence Essentials for Everyone, p. 47.

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Medical Response to Chemical and Biological Terrorism


MICHAEL P. ALLSWEDE Contents Introduction .................................................................................................... 23 Quantifying Medical System Response to the Threat.................................. 25 How Should an Event of Chemical or Biological Terrorism Be Detected? ........................................................................................... 27 Chemical Terrorism .................................................................. 27 Biological Terrorism.................................................................. 28 What Are the Resources Needed to Contend with the Event?........... 30 Chemical Terrorism .................................................................. 30 Biological Terrorism.................................................................. 34 How Should Medical Systems Prepare for Terrorism? ....................... 37 How Should an Event of Chemical or Biological Terrorism Be Reported? .......................................................................................... 39 What Safeguards Are There for Privacy? ............................................. 41 How Should the Event Be Investigated? .............................................. 43 How Can the National Security Be Maintained and Improved?....... 45 Pre-Event Detection and Mitigation........................................ 46 Release Detection and Venue Protection................................. 46 Symptomatic Recognition Strategy.......................................... 46 Disease Recognition Strategy ................................................... 46 Conclusion....................................................................................................... 47 References ........................................................................................................ 48 No matter whether the event is terrorism or natural disaster, all roads eventually lead to a hospital for the victims.

Introduction In the past, medical systems could be reasonably relied upon to adequately respond to a disaster event, such as a fire, bombing, or flood, through community response planning. However, new threats, such as chemical, 23

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biological, and radiological terrorism, increase the burden on medical systems. In addition to potentially large volumes of victims, medical systems must also be responsible for recognition of insidious disease or unfamiliar syndromes. Recognition of unusual disease or chemical exposure must occur prior to rendering care for these victims. If unrecognized, these infectious and toxic threats may place the medical system and its personnel at risk by contamination of the facility. The need to detect, respond, and protect simultaneously creates a unique burden on health-care systems that is difficult to address in this modern era of terrorism. Despite the need to take on added responsibilities for community safety, medical systems today face financial, regulatory, and liability pressures that are significant and will impede their function in time of national crisis. This chapter will discuss specific problems and potential solutions for medical systems in the modern era of chemical and biological terrorism. Medical systems are a vitally important, but neglected component of the nation’s homeland defense strategy. Though a great deal of money has been spent on homeland security in a variety of departments and agencies, medical systems have been mostly left out of the partnership for preparedness. There are a number of reasons why medical systems are not yet included as full and equal partners in the national preparedness architecture. First, most U.S. medical systems are not government agencies, but are independent private businesses. These businesses compete with one another in the health-care market and are not always predisposed to cooperate with one another. In addition, each medical system represents a unique organization ranging from singleproprietor clinics to major university medical centers. It is difficult, therefore, to find a single organization that represents “medical care.” Lastly, there is a perception that disaster or a terrorist incident is mostly “scene” management. This is true in explosives, building collapse, hazardous materials (HAZMAT), and firearms incidents. However, if an event is a covert release of a biological or chemical weapon, the “scene” is the hospital, as recognition and management is primarily a medical function with first responders in support. The Incident Command System (ICS), which provides the guidelines used to respond to catastrophic events, endeavors to blend the capabilities of different local services and numerous local jurisdictions into an integrated team. The ICS scales upward toward the National Incident Management System (NIMS), which integrates multiple state and federal agencies to coordinate the overall national response to major disasters and other incidents of national significance. With few exceptions, these multiple agencies do not actually render definitive care to victims, medical systems do. In events in which medical systems detect and are the primary responders, the ICS system may have difficulty due to the variety of medical systems with which to integrate and the business nature of their organizations. ICS systems are unfamiliar to most medical practitioners and medical personnel and they

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may have difficulty accepting ICS authority about medical matters. An example may be in the ICS designation of a facility as a “contaminated” hospital, which may have severe financial repercussions on the business of that facility. Whether people will choose to go to have their future care at the “smallpox hospital” is a significant concern for medical systems to consider. A key disability for organization of medical systems with homeland security efforts is the lack of an overarching national organization of medical systems that is specifically responsible for defining the role and creating the capacity. In addition — and unlike police or fire departments, many, if not all, are designed to have extra capacity available if needed — medical systems are designed for maximum efficiency. Finally, because most cash inflows to medical systems consist of reimbursement for medical care and very little if any financial support for preparedness planning is available, any training drills or exercises, equipment, or personnel costs related to disaster training must be paid for from the medical system’s own capital or operating funds. Diverting patient revenues that otherwise could be directed to hiring more nurses or adding specialty services in favor of creating nonrevenuegenerating civic “surge” capacity is a significant ethical question. No other civilian private business is expected to be such a central part of community response for free.

Quantifying Medical System Response to the Threat The threat of chemical–biological weapons creates situations where recognition and response must occur simultaneously; therefore, information collection, analysis, decision support, needed medications, and rapid surge capacity must rapidly and accurately occur for the event to be characterized and the victims saved. Chemical and biological events are recognized by the symptoms that they produce in victims, which must be discriminated from the background of normal disease. There are hundreds of potential biological weapons and toxins and thousands of chemicals that may be used for terrorist purposes. In a covert or unannounced attack, the recognition of chemical and biological terrorism will likely start with ill victims, the medical system is the initial data collector and analyzer for disease recognition. The anthrax events of 2001 and 2002 were initially recognized within the medical system,1 as was West Nile encephalitis,2 as was Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome.3 In each of these events, detection of the disease was medical and the initial determination of the event as bioterrorism or not was based on medical judgment. Terrorism, however, is fundamentally different from infectious disease outbreaks because it is under the willful control of a malevolent individual. The manipulation of a disease or toxic chemical allows the attacker to pick targets, repeat attacks, and alter strategies at will. The best medical and public

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health management of a disease or toxicological event cannot stop the next attack. Only interdiction can stop biological or chemical terrorism. Despite these realities, the lead law enforcement agency, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the overall manager of the event, the Department of Homeland Security, have a rather informal connection to the medical community. Formal connections do exist between the FBI and various public health agencies. Public health4 agencies are the designated organizations responsible for managing infectious disease or toxic threats to the populace. Public health departments, however, are neither law enforcement agencies nor health-care providers for most people. Epidemic investigation, quarantine, and preventative measures, such as prophylaxis and vaccination, are the primary mission of most public health departments within the U.S. Recent events of bioterrorism and emerging disease have strained the existing system, often to its limits.5 The reason is that, like medical systems, public health agencies are generally not funded or trained to be emergency response agencies. It is also important to understand that “public health” refers to a patchwork of municipal, county, state, and federal agencies and departments that are of differing structure and capability. The connection of medical systems to this patchwork quilt of public health authorities leaves significant questions of authority and information flow, and renders a highly variable medical public health structure throughout the U.S. Though the FBI is the designated lead federal agency to investigate and determine the criminal aspects of bioterrorism, and clinical medical providers are the professionals that primarily see the victims of terrorism, there exists very little formal connection between the FBI and clinical medicine. The result of these variable but not integrated systems of authority, can be expected to produce parallel criminal, health care, and epidemiological investigations of the same event. Separate but incomplete investigations are not a prudent strategy.6 There are several reasons for this lack of integration. Medical privacy and public safety concerns are common when the investigations of crimes involve medical evidence. Without forward-looking policies and processes, issues of privacy7 and national security will collide when medical events are converted to criminal investigations and issues of national security. Neither medical privacy nor public safety will be supported by this organizational flaw. To improve the ability of medical systems to do their part in chemical and biological terrorism detection and response, a series of key questions should be addressed. These questions are: • • • •

How should an event of chemical or biological terrorism be detected? What are the resources needed to contend with the event? How should medical systems prepare for terrorism? How should an event of chemical or biological terrorism be reported?

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• • •


What safeguards are there for privacy? How should the event be investigated? How can the national security be maintained and improved?

The following sections will develop these seven questions and suggest methods of rational integration of the medical community in the management of terrorism. Specific recommendations will be made for application and usage by the reader. How Should an Event of Chemical or Biological Terrorism Be Detected? Chemical Terrorism Chemical terrorism refers to the use of toxic chemicals to disrupt normal functions and to sicken or kill victims within the zone of release. Chemical weapon attacks differ from chemical spills by the intent of the terrorist, the use of dissemination devices, and the choice of chemical for maximum impact. There are thousands of available toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) that are toxic to man, but the common “war agents” are: • • • • •

Organophosphate nerve agents, such as Sarin Vesicants, such as mustard gas Chemical asphyxiates, such as cyanide Pulmonary irritants, such as phosgene Riot control agents, such as tear gas

The chemical war agents as well as many toxic chemicals have distinctive odors or produce distinctive physiologic signs and symptoms in exposed victims. While there are many instances of war agents being used during World War I and in various conflicts since, the most instructive example for U.S. preparedness is the use of Sarin by the Aum Shinrikyo in Japan in 1994 and again in 1995. The Sarin attack in Matsumoto in 1994 and the Tokyo subway in 1995 each created a significant influx of victims prior to accurate information from the scene. Most of the victims were minimally exposed and needed no medical treatment to survive, but some required hospitalizations and aggressive care. Due to a general lack of familiarity with nerve agents, this care was either delayed or insufficiently aggressive until physicians were educated during the ongoing crisis. In addition, up to 23% of hospital staff was contaminated by the victims with Sarin and became incapacitated. 8 Should an organophosphate nerve agent be released into a U.S. city, the U.S. medical system can be expected to respond with similar results. Cholinergic symptoms, such as those produced by Sarin, are unusual in the dayto-day practice of medicine. Without some “just in time” information or readily available references, it is likely that delays in recognition would occur.

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Delays in diagnosis would cascade similar delays in protective measures and in decontamination. These delays will contaminate the facility, the staff, and the emergency patients who are ill, but not primary victims. To be designated as a fully functional emergency department, U.S. medical facilities must possess a decontamination room. The intent of this room is to wash a contaminated victim and to prevent secondary contamination of the medical staff and facility; however, the state or readiness of most medical personnel with respect to decontamination and proper use of personal protective equipment is suspect. In most facilities, the decontamination room will typically service a single victim at a time, which is sufficient for small volume chemical spills and accidents. The release of a war agent, however, may produce hundreds or thousands of victims, rendering the single service room insufficient. For these reasons, most experts would agree that the medical facilities most accessible to the public would be overrun by a chemical weapon release on a populated venue. Chemical testing devices do exist to detect various chemical weapons and can be used by staff familiar with the testing devices. The conduct of the test and interpretation of the results are outside the typical scope of practice for most medical facilities and, therefore, may cause confusion due to the cross reactivity of many common compounds with chemical weapons detection systems. In addition, there is no simple test to differentiate the thousands of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) from one another. Lastly, there is generally an inverse relationship between speed and accuracy in testing materials. While reference laboratory testing may be important for evidentiary purposes, rapid patient symptom recognition and decision-support information geared to the probable agent class are most efficient. Recommendation: U.S. medical facilities must expand training of emergency personnel to include recognition, protection, decontamination, triage, and treatment of chemical weapons syndromes. Biological Terrorism Biological weapons are used for by the intentional spread of disease-causing microbes and toxins. They produce disease that may be nondescript as in the initial flu-like illness associated with anthrax, or they may cause clearly abnormal disease presentations like the descending paralysis associated with botulinum toxicity. From the medical detection perspective, there are three basic characteristics available to the clinician to differentiate bioterrorismassociated disease from background illness. The three characteristics are: • • •

Detecting case clusters Syndrome recognition Abnormal test results/unusual disease presentations

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Detecting a case cluster refers to the observation of nonspecific disease occurring in a greater than expected frequency among persons of a given demographic. Terrorists are associated with victims by ideological disagreements or by the victim’s attendance at a targeted venue. Because clinicians are focused on patient care, not observation of trends, the ability to detect case clusters should be augmented by using some form of syndromic surveillance. Syndromic surveillance can be as simple as reviewing the daily log of patients seen or as complex as dedicated computer systems.9 Should there be an anticipated threat to a segment of the population, involving medical systems prospectively to survey for potential victims will likely speed recognition. Syndromic detection strategies are somewhat limited for a number of reasons. Among the more significant limitations of syndromic surveillance include: the data monitored are nonspecific and may be de-identified due to privacy concerns. Individuals who are ill, but who do not seek medical attention or seek alternative treatments are not monitored. Natural variations in disease presentation are a challenge as other factors influence disease occurrence, such as ill family members and friends, communal living, and mass transit. Lastly, syndromic detection systems only compare the number of ill individuals’ relative historical averages, not the total population served. Changes in population will change the number of ill individuals presenting to health-care facilities. Thus, case clusters detection must also have some form of directed clinical investigations to support or refute the trends in syndromic data. That stated, once a given syndrome is detected, syndromic surveillance processes can greatly enhance the characterization of an infectious outbreak. Case findings and the scale of the event are key components of response and an electronic syndromic data system can be a significant aid to these tasks. Disease recognition refers either to definitive case presentations or unusually severe disease that warrants further workup. For example, the first case of anthrax in 2001, Bob Stevens of American Media 10 presented with unusually severe meningitis that was later proven to be anthrax. The detection of these cases rests on alert and astute clinicians, with appropriate laboratory backup. Because many bioterrorism diseases are also naturally occurring diseases, the detection of an unusual syndrome should initiate a coordinated epidemiological and law enforcement investigation. The recovery of bioterrorism-related microbes from routine culture or the presentation of unusual test findings is the last method of medical detection. The culture of Yersinia pestis, the causative bacteria of the plague, from the lungs of a person with pneumonia would be an indicator that the pneumonia may be evidence of bioterrorism. Because plague can also occur naturally in rare cases,11 bioterrorism must be considered and investigated along with the infectious nature of the disease. The detection of a bioterrorism-related microbe should initiate a coordinated epidemiological and law enforcement investigation. 12

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The clinical detection of bioterrorism is clearly imperfect and requires a number of seldom-used associations.13 It should be noted that the role of law enforcement intelligence may be significant in determining the proper response to a worrisome medical anomaly that has yet to be characterized. Knowledge about given targets or likely attack scenarios in association with medical anomalies can be used to guide crisis decisions. Intelligence from law enforcement can potentially identify likely agents, likely target demographics, likely targets and venues of attack, and likely time frames for an attack to occur. Combining law enforcement intelligence with clinical investigations is probably the strongest detection-support strategy for the detection of bioterrorism. Recommendation: The U.S. medical system should develop active interfaces between public health and law enforcement to speed recognition, and improve accuracy of bioterrorism detection. What Are the Resources Needed to Contend with the Event? Chemical Terrorism One of the greater challenges of a medical facility in responding to a chemical weapon attack is the prevention of contamination. It is likely that the initial victims of a chemical weapon attack will present without warning or scene information and potentially contaminate the medical facility. Thus, medical facilities must be able to respond by limiting access, enforcing decontamination, and surety testing those victims admitted to the facility. By limiting access, a facility may opt to initially deny entry to the contaminated victims until the facility can be configured for decontamination. This response may seem a bit irresponsible, but it is a reasonable option. The medical facility has an obligation to its staff and existing patients not to contaminate them. The victims presenting early from a scene are largely those individuals who are minimally exposed and do not need extrication of scene resuscitation. In many cases, the treatment for minimally exposed chemical casualties is fresh air. Lastly, by allowing staff and the facility to become contaminated, medical resources are removed and victims are added. Once properly configured, the medical facility should decontaminate the victims with surety testing. Surety testing refers to the assurance of complete decontamination and the absence of any chemical residue. Gaseous or vapor exposures cause minimal exterior contamination and are most efficiently decontaminated by disrobing the individual of their exterior garments. Liquid or solid chemical exposure requires more significant cleansing of the skin surfaces and may be related to more significant exposures. Given the large number of potential victims, significant thought must be given to the ability to engage mass decontamination. Some strategies include: augmentation of hospital capacity by local hazardous material teams, augmentation of hospital

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capacity by purchasing additional tents or other structures, and making physical changes to the medical facility entrance to ensure no contaminated victim may enter inadvertently. Given the potential deployment of hazardous materials teams during a crisis, the medical facility should develop larger volume endogenous decontamination capability. Recommendation: U.S. medical facilities must improve decontamination facilities to accommodate larger numbers of victims, limit entry to only those who are ill, and provide surety testing for workplace safety. Once victims are decontaminated, the next challenge is to triage and deliver medical treatment. An open air gaseous or vapor exposure causes a larger number of minimally exposed victims relative to severely exposed victims due to the dilution of the contaminated air in three dimensions. In contrast, the same amount of contamination within a structure could produce a larger number of severe exposures due to the containment of the contaminated air and its recirculation. A structural contamination can be expected to generate more significant exposures than an open air venue due to the containment and recirculation of the toxin by the building’s heating ventilation and air conditioning system, as well as the movement of structure inhabitants and elevators. There are a series of challenges to treating victims of chemical exposure. Some chemical weapons have specific antidotes, such as organophosphate nerve agents and cyanide. These antidotes are “narrow” in their spectrum as they are not useful in other sorts of chemical exposures. Many chemical weapon victims require only supportive measures, such as ventilator support for pulmonary irritants. If a hospital stocks antidotal medications for chemical weapons, it is difficult to stock all of the potential antidotes in sufficient volume and in a readily available form to reverse rapidly acting toxins. Most incidents involving chemical exposure of this sort are small volume industrial or home accidents. Urban emergency medical service (EMS) systems typically will carry a small amount of antidotes intended for use by the EMS crew in the event of inadvertent exposure. Civic stockpiles of antidotes for victims are often placed in central locations for ease of inventory and security. This “stockpile strategy” emphasizes EMS provider care and administrative maintenance, but does not maximize victim care. To rapidly deliver needed antidotes to large numbers of victims requires predeployment. Predeployment is possible if a threat is known and communicated to the medical system. Not all threats can be anticipated, however. For this reason, a “disseminated strategy” is employed by the U.S. military in which every soldier or sailor carries a potentially life-saving dosage of medication. This strategy has also been applied to civilian response in Israel with rather minimal health effects.14 The correct strategy depends upon

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anticipating the size, frequency, and toxicity of the chemical attack. Large, highly toxic events favor a disseminated strategy. Regardless of predeployment strategy, rapidly available education must also be provided to the treating individual as antidotes are seldom-used medications, or medications used in doses different from their common usage. For these reasons, antidote stockpiles should be accompanied with decision-support material that can be easily disseminated. The following example is taken from the RaPiD-T Program.15 RaPiD-T is the educational and management tool for the City of Pittsburgh EMS and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. Recommendation: Antidotal stockpiles and associated decisionsupport tools be readily available to medical and EMS systems preparing for chemical terrorism. Consideration should be given to disseminated antidote strategy with educational material for higher severity and frequency threat areas. Selected Portion of RaPiD-T Manual Organophosphate Nerve Poisons Recognition:

Vapor Liquid Miosis Fasciculations, sweating Protection: Level C minimum Decontamination: 0.5% hypochlorite Triage: Based upon symptom complex as depicted below


Vapor-onset in 1-2 minutes

Liquid-onset in several minutes

Mild Moderate Severe

Miosis, Rhinorrhea, Dim Vision, All above with Nausea, Vomiting Convulsions, Apnea, Death

Local fasciculations, Local sweating All above with Nausea, Vomiting Convulsions, Apnea, Death

Treatment: Based upon triage category as depicted below Severity



Observation only


2 mg atropine, 600 mg 2-PAM, Observation 6 mg atropine, 1800 mg 2-PAM, 10 mg Diazepam


Liquid 2mg atropine, 600mg 2-PAM, Observation 2-4 mg atropine, 600-1200 mg 20PAM Observation 6 mg atropine, 1800 mg 2-PAM, 10 mg, Diazepam

The now infamous Sarin gas belongs to the group of super toxic organophosphate compounds, termed “nerve agents”. Included in this group are

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the following compounds: Tabun (designated GA), Sarin (designated GB), Soman (designated GD), and VX. The nerve agent compounds are odorless and tasteless, and are readily absorbed through the skin, or by inhalation. They are highly toxic by either route. When inhaled, toxicity is determined by a concentration time product in which the milligram concentration per cubic meter is multiplied by the time of contact. Sarin, for example, has a LCt50 of 100 mg-min/m3. This means that 50% mortality is achieved when adult subjects are exposed to 100 mg total exposure. It is important to recognize that the cumulative dose may be achieved by inspiring a low concentration for a longer period of time. It is this feature of nerve agent toxicity that mandates decontamination. In the Tokyo example, a significant number of health personnel were overcome by breathing the vapor contained on victims clothing. Simply disrobing the patients, and setting up a triage post in open air would have alleviated a number of casualties. Nerve agents are liquids at room temperature and have relatively low vapor pressures. Sarin (GB) is the most volatile at 2 mm. Hg, which is similar to water’s vapor pressure. The photo to the left demonstrates the physical appearance of common chemical weapons. Note that the compound is an oily brownish liquid. When heated, as in the Matsumoto incident, Sarin will come out of solution at a faster rate and produce a highly toxic concentration of agent. The nerve agents are also about 4 times heavier than air so they collect in low-lying areas. The Tokyo subway attack utilized this property by allowing the unheated vapor to accumulate in the lower reaches of the subway with obvious lethal consequences. The other “G” nerve agents are less volatile than Sarin and the agent VX is only considered a contact risk. It is important to note that some of the victims of the Subway attack included individuals who attempted to pick up the packets of agent and sustained a subsequent liquid exposure. Liquid exposure presents its own problems in management as the agent VX could be laid down at a location prior to occupation by the intended victims. An understanding of the effect the route of exposure has on the presentation of the clinical toxidrome is critical to the management of the victim. The toxic effects of nerve agent compounds are achieved through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, and the subsequent over-stimulation of the acetylcholine receptor. Muscarinic, Nicotinic, and CNS subtypes of receptors are affected. Muscarinic receptors, when stimulated, increase the activity of salivary glands, lacrimal glands, smooth muscle, and pupillary constriction (miosis). The muscarinic syndrome is best remembered by the SLUDGE acronym; S (salivation), L (lacrimation), U (urination), D (diarrhea/diaphoresis), G (general weakness), E (emesis). Of specific concern for medical personnel is the effect upon bronchial smooth muscle and bronchial mucous glands. Nicotinic receptors are found primarily on skeletal muscle as well as certain ganglia, most significantly, the adrenal medulla. Stimulation of nicotinic receptors results in fasciculation and ultimate paralysis of the affected

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skeletal muscle. The CNS effects of these compounds are sedation, seizure, apnea, and ultimate death. Biological Terrorism If one were to believe the media, bioterrorism consists only of a smallpox or anthrax release in a stadium resulting in thousands and hundreds of thousands of dead and dying.16 While these scenarios are motivating for certain, there has not been a single instance of that level of attack succeeding,17 though it has been attempted. The anthrax events of latter 2001, for example, were a small volume, tightly targeted attack more resembling assassination attempts than a populationbased attack.18 Although initially lumped together with Al-Qaeda, the anthrax terrorist actually provided the opportunity to prevent deaths from anthrax by taking the detection problem away from authorities.19 Twenty-two individuals developed some form of anthrax, five died, but the number of treated individuals is estimated to be 10,000 to 20,000.20 Consider for a moment, how much more difficult for health-care systems the fall/winter of 2001 would have been had the attack been larger or anonymous. Who was exposed? Where were they exposed? Who needs treatment? Which flu-like syndrome is anthrax and which is not? The inability to answer these questions, the disorganization of response, and the resultant panic would have caused significantly more social problems and potentially more deaths. In responding to bioterrorism, the scale of the attack and the time of detection of the attack are critical components. For example, the mortality of those who acted on the anthrax exposure at the time of the receipt of the letter had a 0% death rate from anthrax, but those who waited for a hospital diagnosis had a 70% death rate.21 As America invests in detection technology with better intelligence analysis,22 biosensors,23 and syndromic detection,24 medical interventions may change and survivorship increased as bioterrorismrelated disease is detected earlier. Detection of a bioterrorism attack may occur prior to release (through law enforcement and intelligence services), at the time of release (as in fall/winter 2001), at the time of nonspecific symptom occurrence in the exposed population (by a syndromic detection system), at the time of hospital diagnosis of ill individuals, or at the time of deaths/epidemic occurrence. Unfortunately, prior to these events, detection of unusual disease events occurred only after deaths of the intended victims, if at all.25 The potential stages in which a disease may be detected are represented by the following timeline. • • • • •

Prerelease Release Symptom Occurrence Illness Occurrence Deaths/Epidemic


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The stage at which disease detection occurs will alter the possible actions of the hospital or health-care system. Prophylaxis, for example, would be of primary importance early in the timeline, but wane in its effectiveness later in the timeline of an individual victim. The size of a quarantine effort would also markedly change when the later on the timeline one detects the bioterrorism event, as more secondary victims could potentially be exposed. The critical concept is that medical response varies with the timeline and scale that an event may be detected. A model for quantification of a health-care system response to bioterrorism should include both scalar effects and timeline of detection. The critical actions and priorities of a hospital or medical system will be primarily effected by these two assessments, as much as pathogen identification. A representative matrix, termed “the Pittsburgh Matrix” 26 after the location of its development, has been developed to characterize medical response to bioterrorism combining these two variables as seen below. Pittsburgh Matrix Above all capacity Augmented capacity Surge capacity Current capacity Prerelease


Symptom occurrence

Illness occurrence


“Current capacity” would be defined by the number of victims that a hospital or system could absorb without altering normal operations. “Surge capacity” refers to maximal crisis mode capacity. “Augmented capacity” refers to capacity derived with external resources and “Above all capacity” refers to “battlefield” triage in which maximum good is done for the maximum number. As a hospital or health system adds resources in terms of better organization and increased capacity, a given numerical scenario will be plotted successively lower on the vertical access. Early recognition and good early decision making can move a given scenario from right to left on the horizontal access. Poor decision making and inadequate planning will move the scenario management to the upper right. Mortality can be expected to increase by moving up and right on the matrix. Specific resources apply well in certain cells and for certain pathogens but not in others. For example, antibiotic stockpiling of oral antibiotics for anthrax is useful in the Release and Symptom occurrence columns, but loses its effectiveness after severe illness occurs. Likewise, education of physicians to recognize bioterrorism-related diseases is only effective after the disease is recognizable in the illness column.

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The confusion of fall/winter 2001 can largely be explained by the supposition on the part of most leaders that we were preparing for a “Deaths/ Epidemic Triage of Resources” problem when in fact we were in the “Release-Current Capacity” cell. As a decision-support tool, each box can be constructed to contain critical decision and resources identified along with agent specific recommendations. Hospitals do not take care of matrix cells, they take care of real patients with real infections. Pathogens have a multitude of characteristics that are of medical relevance, but from the planning and response perspective, the three primary concerns are: 1. Communicability/quarantine needs: This agent characteristic defines quarantine and isolation needs not only for patients but also for exposed but asymptomatic individuals. This is a critical characteristic, as quarantine will be a difficult civic–medical effort. 2. Effectiveness of medical treatment: Some bioterrorism diseases are not amenable to treatment, others have unproven treatments, and others have highly effective treatments. The urgency of pharmaceutical intervention and staff can be determined by this analysis. Example: Botulism treatment must be given prior to symptom onset to be effective. 3. Availability of medical treatment: Certain bioterrorism agents have obscure treatments available only in small amounts. Examples may be antitoxins, heavy metal chelators, or vaccines. The availability of a given treatment may potentially change management strategy from treatment to palliation. Using a tool like the Pittsburgh Matrix, an accurate assessment of the primary difficulties in managing communicability, effectiveness of treatments, and availability supplies and space can be mapped to matrix cells by the system preparing for the event. By identifying gaps or shortfalls within a cell, improving preparedness on the local level is possible. Armed with these matrices, it is possible for a hospital or medical system to rapidly identify critical needs, estimate casualties, as well as predict future needs as time progresses. By combining mortality expected within each cell, the value in terms of lives saved per dollar spent can be estimated for new detection technologies, such as syndromic surveillance technology or deploying bioaerosol detectors in various scenarios involving real agents and real events. The value of pre-emptive law enforcement interdiction, a vaccination program, or a new medication can also be evaluated in similar fashion. Recommendation: Resource planning must be coordinated with an overall understanding of bioterrorism in both timeline of detection and scale of response. Resource planning for bioterrorism must consist of a “defense in depth” with multiple options and strategies for each stage of the epidemic.

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How Should Medical Systems Prepare for Terrorism? An old adage in medicine is “the eye does not see what the mind does not know.” The purpose of educating the mind is to recognize disease, but most chemical and biological weapons agents are not part of a medical education. There is a need for an integrated, sustainable, comprehensive educational process for clinical practitioners in addition to providing them with new resources. Medical facilities must train their personnel on how to use new decontamination systems, access stockpiles of medications, and treat unfamiliar illness. New skills are needed. Disaster drills have been used in the past to practice mass care, but that care is largely within the normal practice of medicine. While there are a number of good training courses available on chemical and biological weapons, how personnel adapt that knowledge and apply it in practice remains a challenge. In times of crisis, additional personnel are added and more work is accomplished. Training these personnel to adapt to terrorist threats is difficult because hospitals function like a ship underway, with every person having an assigned job. To train for disaster, a hospital cannot stop its daily work. Disaster training and response capacity are simply not funded by private, municipal, county, state, or federal authorities. When confronted with the need for additional drilling, some hospitals do choose to spend money on additional staffing for drill players. While this strategy allows unencumbered drill play, it is expensive and, for many hospitals, training a shift at a time is inefficient use of money, time, and personnel. Other hospitals ask for volunteers to avoid the expense of drill pay. While volunteerism is laudable, it only trains those who self-select for training. This lack of a comprehensive approach to training may show the hospital disaster function at its best, but it does not give an accurate picture of how the hospital would function under normal circumstances. Still other hospitals refuse to play in a disaster drill as they are focused and paid to do their health-care jobs, not to treat moulage patients. No matter what skills may be taught during a disaster drill, they will degrade in time if not used. A key component to responding to high consequence but low frequency events is practice. In the case of caring for victims of hazardous materials events, rendering care in protective gear is an entirely new experience for many. In addition, heat stress, claustrophobia, and attenuation of the senses are just a few challenges of working with personal protective gear. Though blood and body fluid infection control methods are common practice in the U.S., management of airborne pathogens is not. These skills must be reinforced if the hospital is to respond efficiently on the day of the event. Recommendation: Develop a sustainable educational program focused not only on chemical and biological weapons, but also application of that knowledge to hospital operations. Develop a sustainable skill acquisition program focused on training unique new skill sets for response to chemical and biological weapons.

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A model training program would be sustainable, focused upon individual jobs, contain skill acquisition and knowledge acquisition strategies, and have associated knowledge retention tools. Fortunately, most medical practitioners have periodic continuing medical educational (CME) requirements. By adding new skills and knowledge to the ongoing CME process, all can benefit from the training, not just those who participate in the drills. A model of skill acquisition taken from military training programs is the FAPV or “familiarize,” “acquire,” “practice,” and “validate” sequence. This is similar to the “crawl,” walk,” and “run” euphemism that often characterizes training efforts. Familiarization with new knowledge and skills should maximize ease of access for the student. Smaller units of knowledge, testing, and evaluation that one could accomplish during downtime or on a training day may work better than a larger and more comprehensive program. Distance learning is ideal for this sort of knowledge dissemination. Acquisition of skills requires an experiential component. A “training room” experience in which the student wears protective garments and uses equipment is the goal. An example of a training room experience is the cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in which a mannequin is used to acquire skills. Medical simulation is in its early development, but holds significant promise in this area. An opportunity to practice the new knowledge and skills can be created by standard drilling. Validation of response can be assessed in real events or by using unannounced drills. By developing an educational strategy for new knowledge and skill acquisition and by integrating with existing educational programs, the entire staff performance cannot only be improved, it can also be measured. Recommendation: Integrate new training methodologies with existing educational programming to create a sustainable and general improvement in personal response to chemical or biological weapons response. Finally, most U.S. medical facilities are private businesses that employ private citizens for medical jobs. In response to a chemical or biological event, personnel of a medical facility may become alarmed by caring for potentially hazardous patients. Also, should the event alarm the community, one’s concerns may be with one’s dependents. The choice between professional duty, personal safety, and responsibility to dependents is a difficult one. It is important that some institutional guidance be given to those personnel who would be in that potential position. A family emergency plan is the base document that should be completed by the staff. In addition, some provision for caring

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for dependents must be made by the institution should a valuable staff member be equally needed at home. In a perfect situation, a sense of duty, purpose, and common bond should be instilled in employees to complete the medical mission, despite its challenges. “Psychological immunization” of the workforce by outreach and motivational programming is needed to mitigate the natural response to crisis. Recommendation: Medical facilities engage employees in discussions of needs and develop programs for employee support and motivation. How Should an Event of Chemical or Biological Terrorism Be Reported? Should an anomalous medical event occur and be recognized, the specifics and parameters of the event should be reported to the managing authorities. Specific characteristics of bioterrorism that should be scrutinized are: 1. Medical inputs, such as: (a) Clusters of demographics within ill populations (b) Clusters of a nonspecific disease that can be traced to a point of exposure (c) Disease recognition of bioterrorism pathogens (d)Abnormal laboratory or testing results 2. Law enforcement inputs would include (a) Likely victims as determined by annunciated threats (b) Likely venues as determined by threat analysis (c) Likely timelines as determined by surveillance techniques (d)Likely agents as determined by threat analysis 3. Public health inputs would include (a) Syndromic detection systems to include active and passive data collection (b) The National Laboratory Response System (NLRS) As previously stated, the FBI has jurisdiction of the law enforcement investigation, the public health has responsibility for the epidemiologic investigation, and the medical system has responsibility to care for the victims. Criminal and epidemiological investigations depend on medical information. There are many impediments to communication including medical privacy concerns, “need to know” thresholds for sharing intelligence, and institutional rivalry. The specific communication can be characterized by the diagram below.

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Clinical Medicine: Clusters Abnormal Disease



2 1



Public Health


Epi Info

Victims Venues



Mass Treatment



Legend: 1. Normal disease reporting 2. Public health advisement 3. Law enforcement reporting 4. Law enforcement investigations 5-6. Interagency communication

Normal disease reporting is best characterized by the normal reporting of specific diseases to the public health authority by clinicians. Most of these reports consist of culture reports or definitive clinical diagnosis of disease submitted by clinicians to local public health authorities. The reporting system is often by the mail and events are recorded, collected, and collated by hand. This laborious process is reasonable for nonserious disease or clearly recognizable disease, but may prove disastrously slow in times of infectious disease crisis.27 Obtaining relevant, timely information has been an identified problem in most emerging diseases, most recently severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Public health advisement in times of crisis has been somewhat problematic as there are multiple public health authorities that must coordinate to send a uniform message. Public health authority is highly irregular across the U.S. and manifests as city departments of public health, county department of public health, state departments of public health, and various federal agencies to include the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the Surgeon General, and the Office of Emergency Preparedness of the Health and Human Services Department. Because of the irregular reporting of clinical disease, a certain level of ignorance of bioterrorism detection criteria and the irregular public health authority, bioterrorism and emerging disease detection and decision making is not

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standardized. For example, the agencies and organizations involved in the U.S. Capitol anthrax response included: U.S. Capital Police, Architect of the U.S. Capitol, Sergeant at Arms, U.S. Senate, Office of the Attending Physician of the U.S. Senate, FBI, EPA, CDC, DARPA, HHS, NIOSH, USAMRIID, FEMA, the U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Marines CBIRF, District of Columbia Department of Health, Office of the Mayor of District of Columbia, U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, and U.S. Air Force.28 Further, a casual review of recent bioterrorism and emerging infectious disease events shows that the most often used method of communication is the media. While commendable, the use of the media prior to information sharing by the major stakeholders in management of an infectious disease crisis can be expected to increase confusion, erode privacy, and alarm the public. Recommendation: The FBI, public health, and clinical medicine must improve the communication and decision-making systems to evaluate and respond to potential infectious events. The FBI, public health, and clinical medicine define and familiarize their organizations with the specific information they must contribute to decision making in a bioterrorism crisis. What Safeguards Are There for Privacy? Reporting of relevant medical information to the FBI is, at present, not governed by any statute or regulation. Instead, there are conflicting regulations that both mandate the reporting of infectious threats to the community and protecting patient privacy.29 Clinical medicine is restrained in the sharing of clinical data by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996. HIPAA was intended to guide medical systems in the routine processing of medical information, not to guide the institution through a bioterrorism crisis response. For example, HIPAA allows the sharing of health information with the FBI under subpoena. To generate a subpoena, the FBI must first generate suspicion that a bio-crime has been committed. For this, they must have a reporting structure to receive concerns of the medical community. HIPAA creates a circular logic for the investigation of bio-crimes. In response to the need for new models of information sharing, the Model State Emergency Health Powers Act30 (MSEHPA) has been created as a framework under which information sharing should be regulated. Specific responsibilities, authority, and constraints must be analyzed for this communication to occur for each of the stakeholders. 1. Define responsibilities of clinical medicine, public health, and the FBI for use and sharing of data and decision making. 2. Define authority of clinical medicine, public health, and the FBI for use and sharing of data and decision making. 3. Define constraints on clinical medicine, public health, and the FBI for use and sharing of medical and intelligence data.

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Though not yet in force in the U.S. and opposed by those representing privacy concerns, this analytical construct may prove useful in designing new legislation to guide and support the sharing of information to determine the nature of infectious disease emergencies and to guide the roles and responsibilities of the managing authorities. Because of the potential impact of bioterrorism, national executive authority can be expected to be invoked should a significant crisis occur. Thresholds for application of the HIPAA, MSEHPA, and National Command Authority are not well explored and, in practice, will be strongly tied to the context of the event. A suspicious medical anomaly may be treated differently if it occurs at a highly contentious political event such as the United Nations or a political convention. Just as important as concerns for rapid detection and public safety, are concerns for privacy of the individual. Unregulated reporting of potential bioterrorism in the media “in the public interest” by concerned officials and medical providers has caused examples of privacy violations. The Council for Excellence in Government has explored the views of the public in this area31 and found that the public is willing to undergo intrusions of privacy in exchange for safety if the perceived threat is high. • • • • • • •

Sixty-five percent of Americans are satisfied with the government’s job in protecting our civil liberties. Only 14% of Americans trust the government to use private information appropriately. Fifty-six percent of Americans believe that the Patriot Act is good for America. Thirty-three percent of Americans believe that the Patriot Act is bad for America. Confidence in local emergency responders to provide homeland security is 73%. Confidence in the FBI to fight terrorism is 49%. Confidence in the federal government as a whole to provide homeland security is 13%.

These various data points indicate that while the federal authorities have funding and strategic direction responsibilities, the local assets are where the public places its trust. For this reason, it is imperative that critical information be obtained, shared, and preserved by the managing FBI, public health, and clinical medicine professionals. Recommendation: Structures to share information and decisionmaking must be developed to include public health, the FBI, and local medical leaders.

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How Should the Event Be Investigated? The investigation of chemical and bioterrorism can take two forms. First and best from the perspective of the public interest is pre-event detection. Pre-event detection refers to detection and interdiction of a bioterrorism event prior to the exposure of the target population. Pre-event detection can take the form of surveillance of terrorist cells, “hardening”32 of target venues, and detecting small medical events that indicate manufacture or acquisition of chemical or biological agents. Because chemical and biological weapons are toxic or infectious in minute amounts and because terrorist cells must produce, store, and transport these weapons in a clandestine manner under austere conditions, there is a potential that small spills, leaks, and inadvertent releases can be detected by monitoring culture results, unusual toxidromes, and perhaps the health of the terrorists themselves. Like medical reporting of child abuse, spousal abuse, elder abuse, and homicidal and suicidal ideation, the reporting of unusual medical events or significant medical events in potential terrorists is in the public interest. The seminal work in this area is detailed in the Tarasoff laws33 in which the physician has a clear and proscribed “duty to warn” the public of imminent danger. While medical findings of abuse or psychiatric cases are well defined and taught to clinicians and the reporting structures are well defined and include “whistle-blower” protections to the reporting physician, medical terrorism markers are largely unexplored. Some events that would fall into this category would include: • • • • •

Unexplained blast injury indicating bomb-making Unexplained toxidromes of known chemical weapons agents Unexplained culture results of known biological weapons agents Unexplained findings of radiation illness Unusual cluster of illness in known terrorist cells

Should a medical terrorism marker occur, it may be unnoticed by an uneducated or overly busy physician. If recognized by a concerned physician, there is no clear reporting mechanism. By following the Tarasoff defined “duty to warn,” the reporting individual may have violated HIPAA statutes depending on the eventual finding of the investigation. Finally, it is also a concern that in times of national crisis physicians may unwittingly report medical information inappropriately in their zeal to guard the public interest during times of attack. Medical markers of terrorism must also be interpreted correctly by public health officials and the FBI. It is not clear that either organization has a clear understanding of how to relate medical findings to syndromic data or intelligence data and how to share in that analysis. Should a concern be elevated due to corroborating threat information and medical or public health data, what is the most prudent course of action? Seemingly drastic responses, such

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as quarantine or rapid law enforcement interdiction may be life saving if employed prior to spread of disease or execution of a planned attack. Political concerns of these decisions must be weighed not only in their medical context, but also in their political impact. Typically, elected officials are more cautious and require greater surety that a given action is correct if the action will be seen as disruptive to the electorate. Recommendation: Reporting of medical markers indicating terrorism must be supported by legal statutes and formalized similar to abuse reporting. The second approach to investigation is reactive, in which an event has occurred to which the medical system must recognize and respond. Reactive investigation is primarily directed at characterizing the event and investigating its public health and criminal potential. Chemical weapons generally exert their symptoms rapidly; therefore, the detection issue is less complex as victims emerge from a venue with similar symptoms. Testing for chemical weapons is now available in most hazardous materials teams. Biological events, particularly discrimination of bioterrorism from emerging disease is more difficult. In past events, there has typically been a significant delay between the detection of a medical anomaly and the accurate and complete characterization of the event. The New York West Nile outbreak, for example, took 6 weeks to fully characterize. 34 The interim time was fraught with confusion and misstatements. Intentional terrorism in which larger numbers of victims are exposed is considerably more difficult. Investigations of a bioterrorism event must proceed simultaneously down several avenues. Medical investigations include the laboratory evaluation of the pathogen to include antibiotic resistance, the response of victims to treatment, the development of a “case definition” for unknown diseases, and analysis of virulence features. The medical assets needed to care for the event must be estimated and recruited. Public health must survey the event to determine the epidemiological cause, and the current size of the event. Victim location is a key for medical asset estimation and public heath has the mandate for this aspect. Further, the movement of national stockpiles, the development of mass treatment guidelines, and reference laboratory capability reside in the various levels of the public health system. The FBI must determine if the medical outbreak could be a crime and, if so, collect sufficient evidence to identify and apprehend the perpetrators and guide national command authority. Potentially this investigation may lead to national command authority action and result in military action. The longer an event remains undetected or underappreciated, the more difficult will be the eventual investigation and response. Speed and accuracy

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are essential for all investigations, but thresholds for the determination of event character and potential decisions are not well defined. A few sample questions would be: • • •

• • • •

How is disease determined to be bioterrorism or an emerging disease? If two or more diseases are occurring in a population, how are they both managed? Can medical facilities, which are largely private businesses, be compelled to care for hazardous infectious patients by the public health authority? Can physicians, who are private citizens, be compelled to care for hazardous infectious patients by the public health authority? Can private citizens be compelled to receive medical care against their wishes by the public health authority? Who will manage civic unrest if infectious disease is threatening a community? Who determines who must be quarantined or treated, where they will be quarantined or treated, and what shall be the proper use of force for those resisting detention or treatment?

Forced quarantine has in the past resulted in civic unrest.35 Quarantine has been inappropriately applied and has resulted in deaths.36 Though we have yet to encounter bioterrorism challenges of this nature, imagine for a moment the anthrax events of 2001 and 2002 without the annunciated threat letter. If the anthrax terrorist used the spores to contaminate a mall or airport or stadium, these decisions may have confronted us and the resultant lack of organization37 may have been disastrous. Recommendation: Structures to share information and decisionmaking must be developed to include public health, the FBI, local medical leaders, and political leadership to coordinate key decisions and assessments of potential terrorist events. How Can the National Security Be Maintained and Improved? The Japanese word for “crisis” is composed of two pictograms read vertically, one for “danger” and the other for “opportunity.” This poignant combination of meanings is particularly applicable in describing the current U.S.’s preparation for bioterrorism. We all agree that we face a new danger in the potential of bioterrorism within our borders in the hands of terrorists. However, bioterrorism for all its great potential has only been responsible for five deaths in the last year. Bioterrorism represents our current national crisis, but we have been afforded the opportunity to prepare

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the great resources of this nation prior to a more adept application of bioterrorism.

A key feature of our preparedness efforts must be to better understand and characterize the specific responsibilities and duties of the key stakeholders. No single entity holds the solution to terrorism challenges, but together, medical, public health, and law enforcement entities can combine to create a “defense in depth.” Defense in depth refers to specific strategies employed by specific entities or organizations to mitigate specific threats. Roughly separated, the stages of defense and their attendant strategies are summarized by the following. Pre-Event Detection and Mitigation The FBI and intelligence agencies must be augmented in their detection mission by appropriate sharing of medical indicators of terrorism and public health surveillance for maximum effectiveness for pre-event interdiction. Release Detection and Venue Protection Technology-based detection systems and facility hardening should be deployed at high value venues by facility and municipal safety officers. Symptomatic Recognition Strategy Public health surveillance of nonspecific disease trends must be coordinated with directed medical investigations to determine at the earliest possible moment the presence of an unusual disease or syndrome. These findings must be corroborated to intelligence services and coordinated management plans developed between political leaders, the FBI, public health, and clinical medical leadership. Disease Recognition Strategy Training physicians to recognize unusual diseases or toxidromes must be supported and needed antidotes and medications stockpiled in accessible locations for maximal utility and life saving. Critical decisions involving mass

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treatment and control of the population must be coordinated with public health, law enforcement, and political leadership. To manage this defense in-depth strategy, a focused flexible system of local management is optimal. The components of such a system are surveillance, monitoring, reporting, synthesis/analysis, and response. Due to the highly technical nature of each component, it is not efficient to train every physician, medical facility, or public health official to a high degree of competence. It is, however, necessary to train a smaller group or team to respond to these challenges.38 This team would respond to local threat changes and national threat levels by deploying different threat-based strategies for detection and response. Should evidence of bioterrorism occur, corroboration and analysis would be initially performed by this group and reported to the stakeholder communities. Strategy and decision making would then ensue and incorporate local, state, and federal partners as indicated. Response would be coordinated in a similar manner. Early detection, systematic preparations, and a defense in depth strategy are the key needs in developing a better system to respond to chemical and biological terrorism. Recommendation: Adopt a systematic approach to preparedness that is focused on increasing local competence in detection, evaluation, and response to terrorist threats.

Conclusion If terrorism could be reasonably relied upon to produce a few victims per year, as bad as that would be, terrorism management would not be a priority. However, chemical and biological terrorism has the capability to overwhelm our resources and alter the course of this nation and potentially the world. Taking well-reasoned steps toward preparedness is the responsibility of medical systems and providers. Strengthening local medical systems will create better detection and response capability. Improved local recognition and response will make the nation safer, one community at a time. In the development of a competent, flexible, system of making informed decisions to manage bioterrorism, the medical systems must understand its role in the recognition of these threats, the protection of its staff and patients, the need for nontraditional operations like decontamination, and finally train and guide its staff in the management of chemical and biological weapons events. This challenge takes resources and committed leadership, but it also requires the ability to characterize the new challenges and to create new organizational structure. Similar to the intelligence community, information sharing under HIPAA has largely been governed by a “need to know” rationale. “Need to know” refers

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to the general lack of information sharing unless it is determined that an individual has a need for that information. As this nation prepares for terrorist threats, information sharing will become a key for good decision making. A “need to share” paradigm should be adopted in which key bioterrorism or chemical terrorism-related information must be shared under proper controls. Shared information and decision making are in the best interest of the nation.

References 1. Bush, L.M., Abrams, B.H., Beall, A., and Johnson, C.C., Index case of fatal inhalational anthrax due to bioterrorism in the United States, N. Engl. J. Med. 2001. 2. New York City encephalitis outbreak of 1999. 3. Forty-two deaths of suspicious pneumonia in the Four Corners region of Southwest U.S., 1994. 4. Public health refers to municipal, county, state, and federal agencies. 5. Bioterrorism: Public Health Response to Anthrax Incidents of 2001, GAO-04152, Washington, D.C., Oct. 15, 2003. 6. Ibid. 7. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). 8. Okumura, T., Suzuki, K., Ishimatsu, S., Takasu, N., Fuiji, C., and Kohama, A., Lessons learned from the Tokyo subway Sarin attack, Prehosp. Disast. Med., 15(3), s30, 2000. 9. Syndromic detection refers to the science of collecting and analyzing data to determine anomalous disease patterns. Examples would include the computer-based real-time outbreak detection system (RODS), the system in place during the Salt Lake City Winter Olympics (http://www.health.pitt.edu/ rods/) or clinical systems, such as standard public health sentinel physician networks. 10. Bush, L.M., Abrams, B.H., Beall, A., and Johnson, C.C., Index case of fatal inhalational anthrax due to bioterrorism in the United States, N. Engl. J. Med., 2001. 11. Plague occurs in less than 10 cases per year in the U.S. 12. Henderson, D.A., Inglesby, T.V., and O’Toole, T., Bioterrorism: guidelines for medical and public health management, JAMA Arch. J., 2002. 13. Committee on Assuring the Health of the Public in the 21st Century, Institute of Medicine, The Future of the Public’s Health in the 21st Century, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 2003. 14. Amitai, Y., Almog, S., Singer, R., Hammer, R., Bentur, Y., and Danon, Y., Atropine poisoning in children during the Persian Gulf crisis: a national survey in Israel, JAMA, 268, 5, 1992. 15. Allswede, M., Suyama, J., and Stoy, W., RaPiD-T Program, Center for Emergency Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, in press, Prentice-Hall-Brady.

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16. Example: “Dark Winter” Exercise, June 2001. 17. Example: In 1992, the Aum Shinrikyo released anthrax aerosol in downtown Tokyo for three days with no human deaths. 18. Limited dissemination, tightly targeted releases directed at famous people. 19. The letters contained an accurate description of the pathogen and suggested antibiotics that were also correct. 20. Henderson, D.A., Inglesby, T.V., and O’Toole, T., Bioterrorism: guidelines for medical and public health management, JAMA Arch. J., 2002. 21. Heyman, D., Lessons from the anthrax attacks: implications for U.S. bioterrorism response, A Report on a National Forum on Biodefense, Center for Strategic Studies, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Apr. 2002, DTRA01-02C-0013. 22. Refers to current intelligence pooling initiatives. 23. Refers to detection of pathogenic biological aerosols. 24. Refers to detection of latent illness in the population by data mining and analysis. 25. Example: Sin Nombre virus 1992 and West Nile outbreak 2000. 26. Allswede, M. and Savitz, L., Pittsburgh Matrix Project, Agency for Healthcare Resources and Quality; Bioterrorism Toolbox Presentations, San Diego, Atlanta, 2003 and 2004. 27. Heyman, D., Lessons from the anthrax attacks: implications for U.S. bioterrorism response, A Report on a National Forum on Biodefense, Center for Strategic Studies, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Apr. 2002, DTRA01-02C-0013. 28. Ibid. 29. Fairchild, A. and Bayer, R., Ethics and the conduct of public health surveillance, Science, 303, 631, 2004. 30. Gostin, L.,The Model State Emergency Health Powers Act, The Center for Law and the Public’s Health at Georgetown and Johns Hopkins Universities, Prepared for the CDC to assist National Governors Association, National Conference of State Legislatures, Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, and the National Association of County and City Health Officials, Dec. 2001, http://www.publichealthlaw.net/ 31. The Council for Excellence in Government, From the Home Front to the Front Lines: America Speaks Out about Homeland Security; Mar. 2004. 32. Hardening is a term borrowed from the cold war in which the target venue is made more difficult to attack through making its heating ventilation and air conditioning systems more difficult to contaminate, creating better surveillance systems, or by placing early warning monitors in vulnerable locations. 33. Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California, 17 Cal.3d 425, 1976. 34. Nash, D., Mostashari, F., Fine, A., Miller, J., O’Leary, D., Murray, K., Huang, A., Rosenberg, A., Greenberg, A., Sherman, M., Wong, S., and Layton, M.,

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35. 36. 37.


The outbreak of West Nile virus infection in the New York City area in 1999, 1999 West Nile Outbreak Response Working Group, N. Engl. J. Med., 344 (24), 1807–1814, 2001. Eidson, W., Confusion, controversy, and quarantine: the Muncie smallpox epidemic of 1893, Indiana Mag. Hist., LXXXVI, 1990. Markel, H., Knocking out the cholera: cholera, class, and quarantines in New York City, 1892, Bull. Hist. Med., 69, 1995. Heyman, D., Lessons from the anthrax attacks: implications for US bioterrorism response, A Report on a National Forum on Biodefense, Center for Strategic Studies, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Apr. 2002, DTRA01-02C-0013. Joyce, G., Abarbanel, H., Block, S., Drell, S., Dyson, F., Henderson, R., Koonin, S., Lewis, N., Schwitters, R., Weinberg, P., and Williams, E., Biodetection Architectures, JASON JSR-02-330, Feb. 2003, The Mitre Corporation.

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Agroterrorism SIMON J. KENYON Contents

Agrosecurity and Agroterrorism.................................................................... 53 Agroterrorism Targets..................................................................................... 55 Attacks on the Agricultural Economy.................................................. 55 Attack on the Food System................................................................... 59 Dissemination of Zoonotic Diseases.................................................... 60 Who Are the Terrorists? ................................................................................. 61 Agroterrorism Agents ..................................................................................... 63 Protection and Surveillance ........................................................................... 63 Vaccination and Population Resistance......................................................... 66 Diagnostic Resources ...................................................................................... 66 Response .......................................................................................................... 68 Conclusion....................................................................................................... 71 References ........................................................................................................ 72 There is no terror in the bang, only in the anticipation of it. Alfred Hitchcock No one can terrorize a whole nation, unless we are all his accomplices. Ed Murrow This chapter is about agricultural terrorism. I am writing from the perspective of a food animal veterinarian, perhaps more accurately described as a food systems veterinarian, who deals with animal health and the safety of food derived from animals, as part of the same job description. When we discuss acts of terrorism against either crop or animal agriculture, we are not just talking about the impact of a terrorist act on the agricultural economy, but also on the security of the food supply and the safety of food. The disruptions brought about by naturally occurring disease outbreaks, particularly in food animal species, such as cattle, sheep, and pigs, can be very large indeed, leading to disruption of the market system, movement restrictions on animals and sometimes humans, the shutting down of export markets, 51

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and all the costs associated with bringing an outbreak under control. During the 10 years I spent as a veterinary officer in Africa and Southeast Asia, I worked on the control of epidemic diseases, such as foot and mouth disease (FMD) and rinderpest, and saw the devastation they can wreak on people’s lives and livelihoods in developing countries. Epidemiological exercises and disease simulations, however, show that diseases such as FMD have the potential to cause just as great hardship and heartbreak to livestock owners in the developed world, as in Africa, and even greater economic loss. In fact, a General Accounting Office report in 2002 suggested that the cost of eradicating an FMD outbreak in the U.S. could be as high as $24 billion. 1 The recent history of FMD and other diseases in Europe and the U.S. makes it clear that the risk of unintentional spread of animal and plant diseases is at least as great as the risk of deliberate attacks on agriculture and the food supply. The wake-up call for agriculture and the food system was not the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in 2001, but the FMD outbreak in Britain earlier in the same year. It is not necessary to raise the specter of terrorism to justify beefing up agricultural security measures. The appearance of viruses new to the U.S., such as West Nile Virus, the recent appearance of mad cow disease in North America, outbreaks of exotic newcastle disease in poultry in California, and the possibility of a human pandemic caused by an avian influenza virus, is justification enough. Control of these diseases calls for education about their risks, for better surveillance, improved preparedness, improved diagnostic capacity, and swifter response. Preparation for natural disease events and the unintentional introduction of foreign animal diseases leads to improved preparedness for dealing with deliberate acts of terrorism. The elevated political status of terrorism and the rhetoric of national security color our thinking on the critical issues involved in disease management. For instance, there is a tendency for the political status of terrorism to change the way we think about risk; in fact, the word “threat” is often substituted where the word “risk” would be more appropriate. Threats are to be confronted, and though from a political point of view this may be a useful idea, it does little to help in planning for disease events. Elevating all risks to the same status by referring to them as threats hinders a nuanced response to risk based on probability and potential impact. The “all hazards” approach to emergency management does not mean that all hazards have equal risk of occurring and should be confronted in the same way and with the same commitment of resources. The all hazards approach simply means that preparation is more effective if emergency management procedures are set up that can accommodate hazards of different types. One of the consequences of focusing on terrorism as an overriding threat is a loss of perspective on the likelihood of particular agents being used for an attack. When considering preparedness for terrorist attacks, a risk assessment of the suitability of agents must be a part of the planning process. The World

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Organization for Animal Health (OIE)* maintains lists of animal diseases that are notifiable to the international community. They are reportable because introduction of these diseases to a new country would threaten the animal population and, in some cases, the human population; affect the agricultural economy; and risk the imposition of movement restrictions and trade sanctions. These disease agents, particularly the so-called List A diseases, have been considered as among most likely to be used in terrorist attacks against agricultural targets. However, just because the use of these agents is possible does not mean that it is likely. In this chapter, I show where agricultural terrorism fits into the much broader field of agricultural security. I also discuss whether agriculture and the food system make attractive targets for terrorist activity and who would be likely to mount such an attack. Lastly, I ask what role disease control and food safety measures play in protecting and responding to deliberate interference with agriculture and the food system. My principal focus is on animal diseases and the safety of food of animal origin because that is my area of expertise, but I also address issues related to crop agriculture.

Agrosecurity and Agroterrorism I am defining agroterrorism as a deliberate attack on agricultural production systems designed to cause economic injury, disruption of the production system, human disease, or political change. Agroterrorism falls under the general rubric of agrosecurity, which is the conceptual framework of a food system that is resistant to natural disasters, accidental introduction of disease agents or toxins, or deliberate mischief, and one that is economically self-sustaining. Preparation for, and mitigation of, terrorist attack is only one part of agrosecurity. Agroterrorism is but one of many threats to a secure agricultural and food system. Agriculture is an industry that is fraught with risk from natural disasters such as drought, or the introduction of animal or plant diseases, as well as the business risks that other manufacturing businesses face, such as interest rate and currency fluctuations, or market competition. Naturally occurring disease outbreaks, and the appearance of contaminants in the food chain that might threaten human health, have always been a risk. The control of animal and plant diseases and the assurance of a safe food supply were concerns long before the current focus on agrosecurity and agroterrorism. Indeed, the predecessor of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Bureau of Animal Industry, was created in 1890 to inspect and certify that pork products for export were free of trichinosis, a parasite in the meat of pigs that can infect humans. * The World Organization for Animal Health was previously known as the Office International des Épizooties, but has retained the acronym OIE.

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Deliberate introduction of animal or plant diseases through criminal activity has historically been very rare, although deliberate contamination of food or the food chain has occurred with more frequency. Even so, the only documented case of casualties in the U.S. from an attack on the food system was from Salmonella food poisoning among restaurant patrons in Oregon in 1984, perpetrated by a religious cult. 2 Although a single act of agroterrorism could cause large economic loss, it is unlikely (except in the case of one or two infectious animal and plant diseases) to compete with the annual losses from natural disasters or unintentionally introduced diseases. The possibility of a deliberate attack against agriculture must certainly be entertained, but it is also important to keep the risk in perspective. It is difficult to document examples of attacks on agricultural targets by terrorists, although crop destruction and the propagation of disease have been used by nation states in the conduct of warfare. Fortunately, developed economies already have systems in place to minimize naturally occurring and unintentional risk to plants, animals, and the food supply, and these may serve to contain the effects of deliberate attack. Even so, the outbreak of FMD that began in the U.K. in 2001, and the appearance of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in North America in 2003, both of which received a vast amount of media coverage, focused attention on the vulnerability of both agriculture and the food system to disease risks. A broad reassessment of the ability of the animal health authorities to recognize and respond to epidemic disease outbreaks followed. The elevation of terrorism to a major political issue in the same time frame led to attempts to create a more responsive and integrated system for dealing with threats to agriculture and the food system, whether intentional or unintentional. As part of this process, U.S. agriculture has been declared a critical infrastructure industry in Homeland Security Presidential Directive No. 9 (HSPD-9), which establishes a national policy to protect agriculture and the food system against terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies. The changes to the structure of government and commercial organizations involved in preparedness and response to agricultural and food system emergencies were still in process in 2006. A significant change in the approach to disease outbreak control during the past 10 years has been the recognition that large epidemic disease events have many of the characteristics of large natural disasters and that multiagency approaches, integrated into the emergency management incident command system, are appropriate. For instance, in a number of states a declaration of an animal health emergency by the state veterinarian leads to the declaration of an emergency by the governor, which in turn activates the state’s Department of Homeland Security in a support role.

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Agroterrorism Targets Many nations have had biological weapons programs. These have generally focused on the weaponization of disease agents to improve their delivery and effectiveness as bioweapons directed against humans, animals, and plants. Large numbers of candidate pathogens have been examined for their suitability as bioweapons and there is evidence of occasional use for this purpose. Glanders, for instance, an infectious disease of horses that is transmissible to humans, was believed to have been used to infect large numbers of Russian horses and mules on the eastern front in World War I in an attempt to cripple the military transport system.3 It is not only infectious disease agents that have been used against plants and animals. Chemical weapons have been developed, particularly in the 20th century, by nation states for use in wartime. To give two examples: defoliant herbicides were used in Malaya by the British in the 1950s to remove vegetation from potential ambush sites and to destroy crops in order to deny food to insurgents. In the Vietnam, conflict defoliants were used by U.S. forces to improve visibility by reducing the forest canopy and also to attack agricultural crops in order to encourage the population to leave Viet Cong controlled areas.4 Besides the use of biological weapons in conventional warfare and counter-insurgency operations, similar agents could be used by terrorists. The following list attempts to identify the potential targets for terrorist use of biological weapons. 1. The agricultural economy by disruption of the production system or by causing the imposition of trade barriers by trading partners because of the presence of disease. For example, loss of export markets for live animals, meat, and meat products following an FMD outbreak. 2. The safety of the food supply by contamination of agricultural products or interference with the wholesomeness of food products, resulting in harm to humans or loss of confidence in the safety of the food supply. 3. The human population through the dissemination of zoonotic diseases, which are diseases transmitted from animals to man. 4. The human population directly using animal or plant pathogens, such as anthrax bacillus, or toxins, such as botulinum or ricin, used against the human population so as to cause sickness or disease. This contingency is outside the scope of this discussion and falls more properly into a discussion of bioterrorism directed at the human population. Attacks on the Agricultural Economy The agricultural economy is a huge and diffuse target, extraordinarily complex and very difficult to defend. The food system from the farm to the consumer’s plate consists of a vast network of production facilities, material-handling

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systems, food processing plants, transportation networks and product distribution systems, and a plethora of retail stores and restaurants. Because of its size and complexity, this immense and dispersed network is difficult to protect from interference and it is, at least potentially, vulnerable at every point. At some points, however, production agriculture is more vulnerable than at others. Infectious diseases are more likely to spread when there is large, high density, susceptible populations of plants or animals in close proximity. Modern agricultural production in the U.S. is characterized partly by concentration of production. There are 10,000 cow dairies and 50,000-head beef feedlots, crops concentrated in distinct geographical areas, such as the intensive farming of corn and soybeans in the Midwest, or of wheat in the Upper Plains states. The concentration of production in large units means that infectious diseases can spread rapidly on the same farm and to neighboring farms. In animal agriculture, at least, the means of disease spread from an initial infected premises to other farms lies in the patterns of livestock movement that are also characteristic of the U.S. livestock industry. Large numbers of young feeder pigs, up to 20,000 per day, move from breeding facilities in North Carolina to contract feeding operations in the Midwestern states where the feed, based on corn and soybeans, is cheaper. During a 2002 emergency planning exercise carried out by the National Defense University, a putative FMD infection centered on five farms in North Carolina spread to 35 states within 10 days. 5 Similarly, large dairies send their female calves to specialist calf growers and heifer raisers, who may raise the calves received from a large number of dairies before sending them back, as pregnant heifers 2 years later. These calf and heiferraising operations may have thousands of animals, move large numbers of them in and out every week, and be two or three states away from the dairy farms with which they have contracts. Chalk has suggested that the tendency to breed out differences in populations of animals or plants, combined with modern husbandry practices, may increase their vulnerability to disease by limiting the protective effect of genetic diversity and by subjecting them to additional stress.6 In plants, this has taken the form of monocropping species or varieties, and in animal agriculture, particularly in the pig and poultry industry, of breeding genetically specialized animals to meet the demands of the market for faster maturity or uniform size. Although the introduction of disease-resistant genes has been widely carried out (particularly in plants), allowing for increased intensity of production, the increased animal or plant density within a farm or region puts them at risk of more rapid spread of new diseases. Attacks on crops may be less dramatic than deliberately caused outbreaks of animal disease, but still have severe economic consequences. Karnal bunt is a fungal disease of wheat, which causes only small losses of crop yield, but affects the quality of grain. Generally, wheat containing more than 3% bunted

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kernels is considered unfit for human consumption because of its effect on the odor and taste of flour made from the grains. The greatest impact of widespread Karnal bunt infection in the U.S. would most likely be on grain exports because the U.S. is the world’s leading exporter of wheat, accounting for one third of total wheat exports worldwide. The U.S. prohibits the import of wheat and materials, such as straw and wheat chaff, from countries where Karnal bunt is known to occur, but its presence was detected in Arizona in 1996 and, subsequently, in Texas and California. Fortunately, the countries that import grain from the U.S. have continued to accept imports as long as they are certified as coming from areas in which Karnal bunt is not known to occur. But clearly, a major outbreak of a crop disease, whether naturally occurring or deliberately introduced, could result in both domestic losses and loss of important export markets. Attacks on the agricultural sector can be purely economic in effect or can have the effect of disrupting society by causing interruptions in the operation of markets, restrictions on people’s daily lives, or, in some cases, by putting the public health at risk. Although attacks on commercial agricultural crops can have massive economic consequences, they are less likely to fulfill terrorist aspirations for public outrage, fear, or political disquiet than attacks that affect animals or humans directly. This may not be true for attacks on some agricultural crops in which the public invests social value, such as Christmas tree farms or grape crops in the Napa Valley of California. Attacks on these operations could well be viewed much more as an attack on people’s way of life than on the crop itself. In general, though, the consequences of an economic attack on agricultural production would be inconvenience for the public through supply interruption or added expense because of higher prices for scarce agricultural commodities. In 1996, citrus canker, a bacterial disease of grapefruit, limes, oranges and other citrus fruit, thought to have originated in Asia, appeared in a residential area close to Miami International Airport. In 2006, after an unsuccessful 10-year effort to eradicate the disease, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) banned the shipment of fresh Florida oranges to 11 other citrus-growing states.7 The effects of a direct attack on agricultural production are mitigated by the fact that it is relatively difficult to disrupt the domestic supply of food raw materials because the U.S. has such a massive agricultural industry and a large surplus of most agricultural products. Of all the U.S. industrial sectors that produce trade goods, agriculture is the only one that is a net exporter. For instance, the U.S. produces 40% of the world’s maize supply and 6% of the world’s meat. However, this very commodity surplus has buried within it a vulnerability of its own: The threat of losing export markets because of bans on the export of these commodities under international phytosanitary rules designed to protect importing countries.

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Except for certain activist groups, production agriculture itself, whether crop or animal agriculture, does not make an attractive target for terrorists wishing to use terrorism to communicate in “symbolic ways.” 8 Economic attacks on the agricultural industry lack the iconic impact and visible and dramatic results that attacks on other targets, such as landmark buildings, may have. The introduction of a disease, such as FMD, resulting in the destruction of millions of domestic animals, restricted access to the countryside, and upsetting visual images, could have such an impact. On the other hand, it is difficult to imagine other animal diseases or (even more so) crop diseases that would have this effect. However, issue-based activist groups, such as environmental or animal rights, or antigenetically modified (anti-GM) crops groups, whose target issue is closely related to agriculture itself, may find farm targets attractive and symbolic. The British experience of a major animal disease epidemic in 2001 showed that the “collateral damage” to the economy caused by outbreaks of diseases, such as FMD or classical swine fever, may exceed the direct economic losses to agriculture from the disease and from the costs to contain it. The closure of the British countryside to hiking and other country pursuits, such as hunting, was used as a biosecurity measure to prevent the spread of FMD from one farm to another. The restrictions were aimed at preventing people from carrying the virus to another part of the country on vehicles, clothing, and footwear and resulted in the tourist industry bearing the economic brunt of the outbreak. The Cumbria region of Britain is thought to have lost 31% of its tourist revenue in 2001, and Gross Domestic Product in Britain fell by 2.5 billion pounds of which 1.93 billion was accounted for by reduction in tourism expenditure.9 The restrictions imposed on people’s daily lives by, for instance, restricting access to the countryside, forced government agencies to make controversial decisions that can affect public confidence in political institutions and cause profound changes in government policy toward agriculture and the use of the countryside. The British Prime Minister was prompted to delay national elections by 1 month, and the renaming of the British Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food (MAFF) in the aftermath of the 2001 FMD outbreak to the Department of the Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) is emblematic of the political downgrading of production agriculture and the rethinking of government policy toward rural areas. In Britain, the loss of rural tourism and restriction of public access to both private and public land accelerated a change in attitudes to land use. Policy decisions and public attitudes attributable in large part to the effects of the 2001 FMD outbreak are making the countryside less a primarily agricultural production area and more an amenity for the general population maintained for the public good by the agricultural community. In the U.S., the current social contract with agriculture is that rural areas are primarily agricultural production areas and public parklands and wildlife areas are

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more clearly demarcated from production areas than they are in Europe. In many parts of the U.S., however, farming communities are in close proximity to urban areas, and there are already clear tensions over farming operations close to suburban and exurban homes. A disruptive disease incident could exacerbate these tensions. A major disease outbreak could have major impact on public access and tourism in such areas as Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, home to a large Amish community, or to the Central Valley of California, site of many large dairies on the edge of a densely populated area. The U.S. has not had an outbreak of FMD since 1929. FMD virus is the most infectious virus of either humans or animals. The U.S. public has seen televised images from Britain of domestic livestock being slaughtered en masse, pictures of heaps of carcasses lying in farm yards and fields, and of cattle and sheep burning on funeral pyres, but public reaction to the reality of a major disease outbreak at home is difficult to predict. The public may question, as they did in Britain, whether a disease that kills relatively few animals itself should result in the slaughter of millions. They may also query the competence of animal health authorities and question policies, both disease control policy and wider agricultural policy that appear to put the interests of commercial agriculture and agribusiness ahead of the public good. Attack on the Food System The food industry, which is supplied by agriculture, is much more vulnerable. There is a certain fragility to public trust and confidence in the safety of the food supply. A good example is the Alar episode of 1989. Alar was a chemical used to make crops of apples ripen at the same time, and the contention that caused the scare was that it was carcinogenic and posed particular risks to children. Apple producers suffered large losses and eventually the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) banned the use of the chemical.* There is ample evidence that the public is sensitive to the risks of food-borne illness, although not necessarily well informed.10 The susceptibility of the public to food scares may make contamination of the food supply a more attractive option for terrorists than direct attacks on agricultural production. It certainly seems that agriculture is a much more attractive target in the postharvest phase of production; the bulk ingredients leaving farms to processing plants, and the processing plants themselves, where large batches of products, often in the hundreds of thousands of pounds, make their way into products packaged for the consumer, into stores across the nation, and onto the kitchen tables of millions of homes across the country. Thus, the security, not only of the farms and orchards that produce the foodstuffs, but also of the transportation, processing, and distribution system that prepares and delivers the food for * ‘‘Daminozide (Alar) Pesticide Canceled for Food Uses,” EPA Press Release, Nov. 7, 1989.

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the consumer, is a matter of great concern. In many ways, the postharvest phase of food production, between the farm and final packaging when food material is often handled in bulk, is the most vulnerable to intentional interference. It is also technically much easier to contaminate a tanker load of milk or a grain bin than it is to infect or poison cattle or fields of wheat, in the hope of causing harm to humans that consume products made from them. In 1999, the U.S. was responsible for 46% of world soybean production and about 32% of the world’s soybean oil. A semitrailer holds 24 tons of soybeans, enough to make nearly 5000 pounds of oil. Processing plants handling many truckloads of soybeans for processing per day have the potential to contaminate very large batches of edible oils in the event of deliberate contamination of the raw material. Locally produced food, processed in small processing facilities and sold in local markets, is much less vulnerable to this problem. The complex food distribution system makes commodity food production vulnerable, not just to terrorist interference but to accidental contamination as well, by such well known and ubiquitous pathogens as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, or plant toxins. Food products, whether grains or hamburger, which are processed in bulk in a few large plants and directly packaged in those plants for the consumer, have the potential for one contaminated batch to be delivered to thousands of consumers. The consolidation of both production and processing into large farm units and processing plants increases the risk that large amounts of product will be contaminated by a single event. The production of food on an industrialized scale increases the vulnerability of the food chain to contamination by increasing the batch size in which commodities, such as beef hamburger, milk, or grains, are transported and processed. In 1997, Hudson Foods recalled 25 million pounds of ground beef after E. coli serotype O157:H7 contamination was found in quarter-pound hamburger patties.11 This recall from one plant represented 0.3% of the 8 billion pounds of annual U.S. ground beef production. Contamination of a milk tank on a large dairy farm with a toxin, such as an organophosphorus pesticide, could affect products ranging from bottled milk to manufactured products, such as butter, sour cream, and cheese. Even when small numbers of cows are involved, the impact may be widespread. In 2002, after five or six cows on a farm in Indiana were believed to have eaten from a field that had been sprayed with pesticide, milk and cottage cheese were recalled from stores in Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Michigan.* Dissemination of Zoonotic Diseases There seems to be little incentive for terrorists to infect animal populations with disease agents in the expectation that this will result in disease in * http://www.wndu.com/news/productr/022002/productr_31897.php, accessed on August 14, 2006.

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humans. In the vast majority of imaginable scenarios, health surveillance of animals and existing food safety inspection procedures make even a moderatesized outbreak of human disease highly unlikely. There are, however, possible candidate infections which if established in animals could cause life-threatening disease in humans. Rift Valley fever, an insect-transmitted viral disease most often seen in North Africa and Arabia, can cause hemorrhagic fevers and hepatitis in humans. Although it is possible for humans to be infected by close contact with infected animals and their carcasses, in order to infect substantial numbers of humans, affected animals would have to pass the infection to a susceptible mosquito population, which would then be the vector for transmission to humans. This is theoretically possible, but it seems an unlikely terrorist aspiration. Although the infection of animals with zoonotic pathogens in order to harm humans is relatively unlikely, the same is not true of the use of zoonotic pathogens to infect humans directly. Although it is outside the scope of the present discussion, some animal disease agents, such as anthrax spores, have been used directly in attacks on humans and animal bacteria, such as Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 can be used to directly contaminate food supplies, e.g., salads, dairy, or meat products. (The reader is referred to texts on bioterrorism.)

Who Are the Terrorists? Acts against agriculture and the food system, which may be construed as agroterrorism, could be carried out by different groups with widely differing capabilities and widely differing agendas. To a certain extent, the nature of the terrorist group may determine the type of target chosen and the nature of the action. For instance, groups that are sponsored by nation states, or nation states themselves, may have access to sophisticated and large-scale production of biological or toxic materials and, in some cases, sophisticated or militarized delivery systems. Given an appropriate delivery system, weaponized disease agents, such as anthrax organisms directed against humans and livestock, could expose large numbers of people and animals to anthrax infection during an initial attack. Ideologically or politically motivated nonstate terror groups could get access to weaponized materials through theft or diversion of materials, but could more easily acquire infectious materials, such as FMD virus-infected tissue. Small amounts of infected tissue taken from animals in a country in which FMD is endemic could be smuggled into the U.S. and used to infect only small numbers of animals, but create a very large disease outbreak through subsequent spread of infection in the animal population. The attraction for a terrorist is that such materials are relatively easy to obtain from animals in the field, do not require any processing in a

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laboratory, do not present a disease risk to the perpetrator, are very simple to deliver to the target population, and are highly infectious. Such terrorist groups may also be able to acquire or manufacture small quantities of toxic material, such as ricin, which, if used to contaminate food ingredients, could be widely spread through the food manufacturing and distribution system. Individual agricultural and food businesses are also vulnerable to malicious criminal rather than terrorist attack, which although not initially aimed at the wider economy may have widespread impact. Antibiotic contamination of a farm milk tank in which milk is stored before being picked up from the farm could be aimed at causing economic harm to an individual dairy farmer, but if not detected may result in the contamination of large quantities of milk at the milk plant. Domestic issue-based activist groups, the “terrorists so-called special interest,” such as environmental, antiglobalization, animal rights, or anti-GM crops groups, may target the same agricultural targets, but as a way of attacking domestic policies or particular types of farm operations or commodities. Historically, they have engaged in more limited acts; sinking metal spikes in trees to cause damage to logging equipment and injuries to loggers when the spikes are struck by a chain saw; an arson attack on a livestock slaughtering plant in Redmond, California in 1997 that caused $1.3 million in damage. Activists opposed to the introduction of GM crops, including maize and oilseed rape (canola) into Europe have been responsible for the destruction of fields of GM crops at test sites. Criminal mischief has always been a part of rural life, and the availability of laws to prosecute criminal acts as agroterror crimes makes the elevation of ordinary criminal acts directed at individual farms a prosecutorial temptation. Some of these crimes may inadvertently contaminate the food supply and cause mass public harm. The contamination with antibiotics of a milk storage tank on a dairy farm by a disgruntled former employee, aimed at causing business disruption and financial loss to the dairy producer may have the same effects as a deliberate act of terrorism aimed at exposing large numbers of the population to a harmful agent. With changes in the law in the U.S., the distinction between criminal acts and terrorist acts is in danger of becoming blurred. The Star Press of Muncie, Indiana (February 18, 2006) reported that investigators considered charging an individual, who put metal spikes in farm fields with the intent of damaging the tires of farm equipment, with agricultural terrorism. The field spiking was done as a protest against a planned agricultural business park on the site, and the person was eventually charged with criminal mischief. Interestingly, in a case involving the destruction of GM crops in France in 2004 and 2005, the court acquitted 49 activists who destroyed GM plants after ruling that their actions were justified.

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Agroterrorism Agents Agents that can be used in attacks against agriculture and the food system fall into a number of broad areas.12 1. Pathogens that affect animals only (e.g., rinderpest virus) 2. Pathogens that affect plants only (e.g., karnal bunt in wheat) 3. Zoonotic pathogens that affect animals and man (e.g., anthrax, rabies, and Brucella) 4. Pathogens spread by insect vectors to animals and man (e.g., Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus) 5. Animal- and plant-related toxins (e.g., botulinum, ricin, aflatoxin, fumonisins, and tricocethenes) 6. Advanced biochemical agents, such as genetically manipulated organisms with enhanced toxicity or pathogenicity Another way of looking at these agents is classify them as those that may be effectively used in a direct economic attack on agricultural production, those that may damage public confidence in the food supply, and zoonotic diseases. From a very large number of candidate pathogens, the following could be considered to have terrorism risk potential. 1. Economic attack (a) Animal diseases – Foot and mouth disease – Exotic Newcastle disease – Classical swine fever – African swine fever (b) Plant diseases – Soybean rust – Corn seed blight – Karnal bunt 2. Public confidence (a) Avian influenza (b) Anthrax (c) Brucellosis 3. Zoonotic diseases (a) Rift Valley fever

Protection and Surveillance Protection of agricultural production in the U.S. has mainly been aimed at preventing the spread of infectious disease in livestock and crops between the different states and controlling the entry of disease agents at the borders.

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Certificates of veterinary inspection (health papers) are used to regulate the movement of animals and to control the transmission of disease between states, with each state deciding on the requirements it wishes to impose on the movement of animals from other states. It is up to the person wishing to move livestock to another state to find out what the state requirements are in terms of documentation and testing. From time to time, these requirements change as states become free of diseases (such as brucellosis) or when there is a resurgence of disease, such as the current concern over the reappearance of tuberculosis in dairy cattle. Indeed, many states have recently established a requirement that any dairy animal over 6 months of age must be tested for tuberculosis before being allowed across the state line. This system, at least in theory, means that only healthy animals are moving between states, and it works well for animals that may have an established but not particularly infectious condition, such as brucellosis or tuberculosis. The weakness of any inspection system is that an animal may be exposed to a highly infectious disease, such as FMD after veterinary inspection and before traveling to another state or even be in the incubation period of the disease, but not yet showing any clinical signs. In the event of an epidemic disease outbreak, interstate movement of livestock would be restricted or banned once the disease is recognized. The dangerous period for disease spread is from the time of first introduction of a disease into the country to the time of diagnosis, and the imposition of movement restrictions — a crucial period of time, as far as disease control, is concerned. By the time FMD was recognized in the U.K. in 2001, it is thought that up to 57 premises spread over a large part of England were already infected.13 Even so, a 3-day delay in halting animal movement in the U.K. after confirmation of the diagnosis of FMD has been blamed in part for the size of the outbreak.* The protection of livestock from exotic diseases depends to a very large extent on the protection that is given by border inspection and quarantine. The ability to prevent smuggling of animal and plant products, whether for profit, with criminal intent, or simply by uninformed travelers, is crucial to the protection of domestic agriculture. Some diseases can cross borders without human assistance — soybean rust for instance, the spores of which are carried by air disturbances, particularly hurricanes and other severe weather systems, or avian influenza carried by migratory waterfowl, such as swans and ducks. Introductions of diseases of terrestrial animals, such as FMD or classical swine fever, are most likely to be through the illegal imports of animal products, such as hams, sausages, or dried meat, that then infect pigs through the practice of * At the Royal Society of Edinburgh inquiry into the FMD epidemic, it was suggested that imposition of movement controls immediately after the confirmation of the diagnosis, as was done for international movement, instead of 3 days later, would have reduced by one third the number of animals that had to be killed. (Inquiry into FMD in Scotland, p. 18, July 2002, Royal Society of Edinburgh.)

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feeding them household or restaurant waste (garbage feeding). In the U.S., the responsibilities for border inspection have been transferred to the Department of Homeland Security Customs and Border Protection, whereas quarantine stations for handling live animal imports are the responsibility of USDA Animal Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) National Center for Import and Export. There is a little risk of epidemic diseases finding their way into the U.S. among quarantined animals; quarantine times are relatively long and the incubation times for diseases that can threaten an epidemic are short. The danger at the border is the difficulty of intercepting animal products carried by innocuous travelers who are contaminated with infectious agents (the virus of swine vesicular disease can live in a salami sausage for up to 200 days at room temperature) and of intercepting terrorists carrying contaminated materials or infectious agents. The magnitude of the task is illustrated by the fact that 400 million people entered the U.S. in 2002, of which 330 million crossed at land crossings rather than at airports or seaports.* The OIE is the international organization responsible for compiling disease reports provided by national governments. From the point of view of threats to the domestic animal population in the U.S., the most important are the List A diseases. These are also the diseases that, if present in a country, are most likely to result in the imposition of trade barriers. List A diseases are those transmissible diseases, which have the potential for very serious and rapid spread, irrespective of national borders, which are of serious socioeconomic or public health consequence, and which are of major importance in the international trade of animals and animal products. The reports published by OIE are the main source of intelligence about the worldwide distribution of infectious diseases and provide an important method of assessing the risk of introduction of infectious disease through the movement of people, animals, or animal products. Ultimately, the protection of agricultural production from the introduction of infectious disease agents depends on biosecurity measures adopted by the farmer. Farm-level biosecurity has received much more attention in recent years and has been a focus of many outreach and educational programs for producers. Poultry and pig farms in general employ higher levels of biosecurity than do beef, dairy, or sheep farms because of the nature of the agents that threaten the health of their animals. Pseudorabies virus infection in pigs and fowl cholera in poultry, for instance, can easily be introduced to farms that have lax security measures. Poultry and pig farms routinely restrict access to their premises, quarantine animals coming to the farm, and take precautions against service people, feed trucks, or livestock haulers carrying infection onto the farm. Farm biosecurity protocols may include such precautions as rodent control, restrictions on farm workers having contact with * U.S. Department of Transportation and U.S. Department of Homeland Security statistics.

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farm livestock off the farm, and even the provision of meals for the workforce so that illegally imported meat products, which may be contaminated with viruses, do not find their way onto the farm. Once agricultural products have left the farm and become part of the food processing and distribution system, they need protection against accidental or deliberate contamination. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) systems have been widely adopted by food processors and as the framework of the Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) procedures for monitoring the safety of the food supply. HACCP is aimed at determining the points in a process, in this case food materials handling and processing, at which contamination or process failures (for instance, failure to control product cooling) may affect the safety of the product. Since 1996, FSIS has applied this system to slaughter and processing plants in the U.S. as the basis of their regulatory inspection system. HACCP can be extended beyond processing plants to encompass the whole food system from farm-to-plate.

Vaccination and Population Resistance Vaccination of susceptible animal populations would seem to offer opportunities for increasing resistance to infectious disease agents, thus mitigating the effects of a terrorist attack using infectious agents as a bioterror weapon. However, the logistical, technical, and economic obstacles to mass vaccination against a wide variety of diseases are huge. Vaccination has been successfully used in the eradication of diseases, such as FMD, following outbreaks of the disease caused by a single strain of the virus. Arguments against prophylactic vaccination for FMD are the number of animal species affected (all clovenhoofed domestic species), the large number of distinct virus strains that can cause outbreaks of FMD, constant mutation, the possibility that a vaccinated population will mask the presence of active infection, that animals with antibodies to the vaccine strain will confuse diagnostic testing in the event of an outbreak, and the expense of maintaining vaccination cover over multiple species of animals. Other viruses, such as African swine fever, are difficult to vaccinate against because of the meager immune response elicited by the virus. Currently, stocks of vaccines for diseases, such as FMD, are held in vaccine banks and are available for deployment internationally to aid in the control of new incursions of the disease into countries previously free of it.

Diagnostic Resources Computer modeling of infectious disease outbreaks and experience in the field shows that the time from first appearance of the disease on a farm to the time the diagnosis is made is a crucial factor in limiting the size of the

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outbreak. The 2001 FMD outbreak in Britain had been in progress for approximately 3 weeks when infected sows were found in a packing plant during veterinary inspection before slaughter. It is now estimated that by that time 57 premises were already infected, leading to an outbreak that overwhelmed the government veterinary service right at the beginning. The development of the National Animal Health Laboratories Network (NAHLN), which has brought existing state diagnostic laboratories into the Foreign Animal Disease (FAD) diagnostic effort, has marked a major philosophical shift in the management of serious disease outbreaks. In 2001, the National Research Council (NRC) formed a committee to study the susceptibility of U.S. agriculture to bioterrorism. At the time, terrorist attacks on U.S. soil were thought to be unlikely. However, the World Trade Center attack on September 11, 2001 raised the specter of attacks against other targets, including essential industries. There was an increasing awareness of the vulnerability of agriculture and the food system to terrorist interference. The NRC study found that the U.S. was not equipped to respond to biological threats to animal and public health and the agricultural economy. One of the major roadblocks to agrosecurity was the lack of a network of animal disease diagnostic laboratories capable of diagnosing diseases exotic to the U.S. As a result of the attacks on the World Trade Center, the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act became law in 2002. This act enabled the Secretary of Agriculture to develop programs that would enhance tracking of animal diseases and allow better communication between federal and state laboratories. In order to reach this goal, supplemental Homeland Security funding was used by the Veterinary Services division of USDA’s APHIS to develop the NAHLN. At the time of the British FMD outbreak in 2001, diagnostic specimens from an animal in the U.S. suspected of having a foreign animal disease could only be sent to the Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (FADDL) on Plum Island, NY for testing and confirmation. Samples collected in the field by USDA or state-employed FAD diagnosticians were sent by air package service to an airport near Plum Island, which is off the eastern tip of Long Island. From there, it was taken by courier to the dock at Orient Point and by boat to Plum Island. The delay in receiving samples at the Plum Island facility, particularly those originating in the western states, could be considerable. In addition, the massive number of samples needing to be tested during the management of a major disease outbreak could easily overwhelm a single facility. Expanding the number of laboratories capable of carrying out diagnostic testing for epidemic diseases would solve some of these problems. It would increase the number of scientists able to work on the problem, improve crucial day-by-day situational awareness, and provide redundancy in the system to mitigate equipment or other breakdowns.

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The NAHLN pilot program restructured the manner in which foreign and emerging animal diseases were monitored and confirmed. Originally, the NAHLN program offered funding for training and improved facilities to 12 laboratories across the U.S. However, the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL) in Ames, Iowa and FADDL on Plum Island remain the main reference laboratories for the detection of animal diseases. Currently, several laboratories across the U.S. now assist the NVSL in the development of assays and surveillance of certain foreign animal diseases that are considered an agrosecurity risk. These diseases include African swine fever, classical swine fever, rinderpest, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, lumpy skin disease, vesicular stomatitis, Rift Valley fever, and FMD. A parallel organization focusing on plant diseases is the National Plant Diagnostic Network (NPDN). The Animal and Plant Disease and Pest Surveillance and Detection Network was established by the Secretary of Agriculture to develop a network linking plant and animal disease diagnostic facilities across the country. It was established to deal with the issues of timely diagnosis and, just as importantly, to create a mechanism for the sharing of diagnostic information among the laboratories and state and federal authorities. It consists of the NAHLN and the NPDN.

Response Models of infectious disease outbreaks show the importance of early detection and early activation of the control methods employed to limit spread of the disease. Response times are critically important for control of highly infectious animal diseases, such as FMD and classical swine fever. This early response requires a cadre of professionals, whether they are veterinarians and animal scientists, agricultural extension agents, crop specialists, or farmers themselves, who are educated about the types of diseases that are mostly exotic to the U.S. and which they would not see in the normal course of their careers and have the confidence to report their suspicions of an unusual disease outbreak. Disease outbreaks initiated as a result of terrorist or criminal acts may not behave in the same way as unintentional outbreaks. They may, unlike most infectious disease outbreaks, begin at multiple sites simultaneously. They may begin at unusual locations, and the disease agents used and characteristics of the disease may be different from those expected. Early detection of such events requires that veterinarians and diagnosticians widen their index of suspicion beyond their knowledge of the epidemiology and appearance of naturally occurring disease. A schematic of the steps and agencies involved in the response to a foreign animal disease outbreak in the U.S. is shown in Figure 3.1. A veterinarian suspecting the presence of a foreign animal disease in a client’s animal or

Dept. of Defense

DHS – Homeland Security Operations


in the U.S.


Figure 3.1 Schematic of steps and agencies involved in the response to a foreign animal disease outbreak

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers




FBI – Weapons of Mass Destruction Unit




APHIS – Animal Health Emergency Management System

Confirmed Animal Disease

Samples to Plum Island/NVSL

Euthanasia/ Disposal

USDA – Area Vet in Charge


IDHS Support

Local Law Enforcement Dept. of Justice Dept. of Transportation USPS

Secretary of AgricultureIndemnity

Presidential State of Emergency

Governor State of Emergency

State or Federal Veterinarian

Suspected Animal Disease: Farm Veterinarian

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herd will make a telephone call to the office of either the state or federal veterinarian in the state. The state veterinarian or federal Area Veterinary Officer-in-Charge (USDA-AVIC) will assign a specially trained foreign animal disease diagnostician from the local office to conduct an examination and take the appropriate samples for diagnosis. At present, the samples are dispatched to NVSL or the Plum Island laboratory for diagnosis and confirmation of the presence of a foreign animal disease. Depending on the situation, the state veterinarian and the USDA-AVIC may request the assistance of the USDA Regional Emergency Animal Disease Eradication Organization (USDA-READEO) and place restrictions on the farm to prevent the spread of the disease while awaiting confirmation. This may require the involvement of local, county, and state law enforcement to isolate the area. If a positive diagnosis is made, a USDA-READEO team is assigned to the outbreak. Simultaneously, the state veterinarian and the governor of the state may declare a State of Emergency that brings the state Department of Homeland Security and other agencies into the picture in supporting functions. Ultimately, a presidential declaration of a State of Emergency may be sought to provide access to funds for indemnification of producers for animals slaughtered to contain the outbreak. Disease outbreaks are reported to the National Animal Health Reporting Service (NAHRS) and through them and the Center for Epidemiology and Animal Health (CEAH) to the OIE in fulfillment of international reporting obligations. If the origin of the disease outbreak is suspected to involve a terrorist or criminal act, then the FBI and the Department of Homeland Security will become involved as a result of contacts by the Office of the Inspector General of the USDA. One should not underestimate the logistical challenges of bringing a highly infectious disease outbreak under control. Both state and federal personnel are involved in the responses to disease outbreaks, but, in the event of a major disease outbreak, other professionals are likely to be recruited into the effort. Personnel cuts have become a fact of life for the regulatory organizations that must be mobilized to deal with introductions of epidemic diseases. These cuts have been compounded by an increasing number of regulatory functions and increased responsibilities for homeland security issues. Many states have organized teams of private veterinary practitioners and university veterinary faculty to support the state and federal veterinary staffs, who have limited established manpower to deal with major infectious disease outbreaks. The logistical challenges for veterinary authorities include the ability to furnish sufficient trained veterinarians to diagnose new outbreaks of the disease, to handle the epidemiological data generated during a major disease outbreak, to kill affected and in-contact herds and flocks in a timely fashion, if that is the control policy, and to dispose of the carcasses promptly. If there is suspicion

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of criminal or terrorist involvement in the disease outbreak, then the complications of crime scene management and chain of custody of specimens are added to the logistical challenges. Delays in the diagnosis of disease outbreaks on new premises, and from diagnosis to slaughter of the affected herds, result in increased risk of spread of the infection. In the case of highly infectious diseases, such as FMD, it is necessary to aim for a time from diagnosis of the disease to slaughter of the animals of 48 hours or less in order to effectively control the outbreak. This capacity needs to be achieved early on in the outbreak while few premises are infected if an exponential increase in infected premises is to be avoided. The successful response to a major infectious disease outbreak requires a clear and well-rehearsed plan, flexible execution based on good epidemiological field data, a high degree of cooperation between agencies, clearly defined responsibilities in the Incident Command System, the ability to mount a control effort very quickly, and assign and, if necessary, recruit and train the required personnel in a matter days.

Conclusion Agroterrorism is one facet of agrosecurity, which includes the protection of animal health and plant health in production agriculture, the safety of the food supply, and the economic security of an agriculturally based food system. Agriculture and the food industry deal daily with risk, including the occurrence of animal and plant diseases and the risk of contamination of the food supply by pathogens and toxins. Agriculture has experience with naturally occurring diseases, with unintentional introduction of animal and plant diseases, and of contaminants into the food supply. The food system has risk assessment tools, preventive measures, and incident control methodologies, such as HACCP, for food safety, and biosecurity measures and the Incident Command System for disease outbreaks. These have been mostly directed toward preventing and dealing with nonterrorist incidents. There is some experience with criminal contamination of the food supply, but virtually none with criminal or terrorist propagation of animal and plant diseases, except for small-scale incidents associated with issue-based radical groups. The elevated political status of all types of terrorism, including agroterrorism, has not been validated by open source risk assessment or by experience. Risk assessment for terrorist activities is, in any case, difficult to do and this makes it difficult to allocate resources based on the probability of terrorist events occurring. In the absence of viable risk assessment methodology, there has been a tendency to substitute threat for risk in the rhetoric surrounding terrorism, thus justifying a large commitment of resources to the prevention of acts of

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terrorism. In the case of agriculture, this may not be as large a problem as it may be in other spheres, since the disease agents and contaminants that could be used by terrorists are, in most cases, those that already supply risk to agriculture and the food system: FMD virus, botulinus toxin, Salmonella, etc. Measures aimed at controlling these risks provide a framework for dealing with terrorist and criminal interference within production agriculture and the food chain. The additional resources allocated to agrosecurity in the name of terrorism prevention and terrorist incident management already pay dividends in an increased ability to deal with the better understood risks to agrosecurity.

References 1. United States General Accounting Office (GAO), Foot and Mouth Disease: To Protect U.S. Livestock, USDA Must Remain Vigilant and Resolve Outstanding Issues, GAO-02-0808, July 2002. 2. Carus, W.S., Bioterrorism and Biocrimes: The Illicit Use of Biological Agents in the 20th Century, Center for Counterproliferation Research, National Defense University, Washington, D.C., 1999. 3. U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Glanders and melioidosis, Biological Warfare and Terrorism: Medical Issues and Response, 2000, pp. 21–25. 4. Westing, A.H., Herbicides in warfare: the case of Indochina, in Ecotoxicology and Climate, Bourdeau, P., et al., Eds., 1989, archived at Stanford University, Department of Global Ecology. 5. Reardon, J.W., Food Administrator, North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Testimony to the House Committee on Homeland Security, May 25, 2005. 6. Chalk, P., Hitting America’s Soft Underbelly: The Potential Threat of Deliberate Biological Attacks Against the U.S. Agricultural and Food Industry, RAND Corporation, National Defense Research Institute, 2004, pp. 9–10. 7. USDA/APHIS News Release, USDA Announces Availability of Draft Citrus Health Response Plan, USDA/APHIS News Release Mar. 7, 2006. 8. Wilkins, L. and Vultee, F., Disasters that communicate: a proposal for a definition and research agenda, Nat., Haz. Obs., 29 (3), 5, 2005. 9. Quantifying the Economic Impact of Foot and Mouth Disease in the UK: Results from the Nottingham Model. Christel DeHaan Tourism and Travel Research Institute, Nottingham University Business School, University of Nottingham, U.K., 2001. 10. Fischoff, B. and Downs, J.S., Communicating foodborne disease risk, Emerg. Infect. Dis., 3 (4), 489–495, 1997.

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11. USDA Press Release, Glickman announces Hudson to act on USDA recommendation. USDA Press Release No. 0283.97, Washington D.C., Aug. 21, 1997. 12. Horn, F.P. and Breeze, R.G., Agriculture and Food Security in Food and Agricultural Security, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 894, 9–17, 1999. 13. Evans, A., The 2001 Foot and Mouth Disease Epidemic In Great Britain, Proceedings of The Office of Science and Technology Blue Ribbon Panel on the Threat of Biological Terrorism Directed Against Livestock, December 8-9, 2003, pp. 147–152.

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Illicit Trafficking in Nuclear and Radiological Materials DAVID YORK Contents

Introduction: Defining the Threat ................................................................ 75 Nuclear Proliferation ...................................................................................... 77 Classes of Nuclear Proliferation..................................................................... 78 Vertical vs. Horizontal Proliferation .................................................... 79 Induced vs. Latent Proliferation........................................................... 81 Categories of Nuclear Proliferation ............................................................... 83 Diversion of Material ............................................................................ 83 Transportation of Diverted Material.................................................... 84 Processing of Diverted Material ........................................................... 84 Generation of a Weapon....................................................................... 84 Conclusion....................................................................................................... 84 Suspected Nuclear Weapon States........................................................ 85 Israel ........................................................................................... 85 States Formerly Possessing or Suspected of Developing Nuclear Weapons.............................................. 85 Nuclear Trafficking ......................................................................................... 85 The Nuclear Black Market ............................................................................. 86 Nuclear Trafficking Examples............................................................... 88 Analysis of Illicit Trafficking Trends .................................................... 90 Points to Consider .......................................................................................... 91 Scenario ........................................................................................................... 92 Effects ..................................................................................................... 92 References ........................................................................................................ 93

Introduction: Defining the Threat The Cold War never ended, it just expanded to incorporate new silent enemies in a polarized world. As a result, other nation–states have initiated their search for the concept of mutually assured destruction to hold timeless enemies 75

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at bay, which were previously restrained by the polarization between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. Everything changed in 1991 with the fall of the latter. In 1991, it is estimated that the Soviet Union’s nuclear arsenal consisted of 35,000 nuclear weapons.1 After the Soviet Union collapsed, it is estimated that about 22,000 nuclear weapons were in newly independent states that were once a part of the Soviet Union.2 Each of these states was in a decrepit state of disarray and financial ruin as each newly formed state’s financial institutions were in dissolution. This forced each of the 15 republic central banks to increase the production of rubles and ruble credits to accommodate the price freeze on most items, which was put into effect to stifle the skyrocketing inflation. This, in turn, only created more inflation due to the lack of financial discipline among the individual financial institutions; inflation increased to over 1000%. Overnight, the Russian “Black Market” was seemingly legalized, nurturing smaller criminal groups into international criminal networks, and one product the former Soviet Union had a lot of was military weaponry and equipment.3 During this time, the Nunn–Lugar Nuclear Threat Reduction Act, fostered by Senator Sam Nunn (D-Ga.) and Richard Lugar (R-Ind.), was passed by Congress to provide assistance in dismantling or safely storing the majority of weapons that were in the suddenly independent republics of Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Belarus.4 However, most of the money provided to the Russian Federation was siphoned off into private bank accounts, leaving nuclear material stockpiles guarded with a master lock and a guard on duty, who would take a very long nap for a very small price. The Russian nuclear black market has grown at breakneck speed since 1991, and has become an international crisis. Multiple incidents of trafficking in nuclear weapons, nuclear weapons grade material, nuclear triggers, nuclear weapons-related equipment, nuclear weapons schematics and blue-prints, and scientists selling their expertise have been recorded and are increasing in their frequency. The director of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Director General Mohamed El Baradei dubbed the crisis a “nuclear Wal-Mart.”5 To begin, it is important to understand exactly the threat that nuclear proliferation and trafficking of nuclear and radiological material poses to the U.S. Thus, we shall consider the following evidence. In 1995, shortly after Chechens planted several canisters of cesium-137 in Izmailovsky Park in Moscow, Dzokhar Dudayev, Chechen mafia leader, made an interesting proposal to the U.S. Dudayev would sell his stockpile of nuclear weapons to the U.S. if the U.S. would recognize Chechnya as an independent state. The U.S. refused. Dudayev sold the estimated 20 nuclear suitcase bombs to Al-Qaeda for $30 million and two tons of no. 4 heroin.6 During the fruition of the deal, Al-Qaeda’s

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no. 2, Ayman al-Zawahiri, was arrested in Dagestan for illegal entry while traveling to Chechnya. He served 6 months in jail and was released.7 The existence of these suitcase nukes was further corroborated when General Alexander Lebed, a high-ranking GRU officer, suggested during an interview with CBS 60 Minutes, on September 7, 1997, that the Russian armed forces had lost more than 100 of the suitcase bombs. 8 Even more alarming was the suggestion made by Stanislav Lunev, the highest-ranking Soviet military intelligence officer to defect, that during the Cold War, Russian Spetsnaz (Russian Special Forces) were forward deployed with atomic demolition munitions (ADMs) to the U.S. In the event of a U.S.–Soviet war, the Spetsnaz would detonate ADMs in strategic locations throughout the U.S.9 According to several sources, Soviet-made ADMs have found their way onto the Russian black market and into the hands of terrorists. During interrogations of captured Al-Qaeda leaders, a plan was uncovered dubbed the “American Hiroshima.” This plan consists of multiple detonations of nuclear weapons in major U.S. cities. It is suggested that the range of nuclear weapons already smuggled into the U.S. is between 12 and 70.10 During 2001, shortly after September 11, George Tenet, the director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), informed President Bush that at least two suitcase nukes had been smuggled into the U.S. The two devices, containing at least 2 kilotons of fissionable material, one bearing the serial number 9999, were believed to have been purchased by Al-Qaeda agents from Central Asian criminal groups. The devices are suspected to be of Russian make, as one of the devices had a Russian manufacturing date of 1988.11 Although this chapter is not focused on Al-Qaeda’s plans in general, it is important to understand how nuclear proliferation and nuclear trafficking affect the U.S. as well as the international community. Nuclear trafficking is a part of nuclear proliferation. Thus, to comprehend the extent of nuclear trafficking, we must first understand the categories of nuclear proliferation.

Nuclear Proliferation Nuclear proliferation is not limited to the diversion or dissemination of nuclear and/or radiological material, but encompasses the spread of nuclear weapons technology. This ultimately includes nuclear and radiological materials, dual-use items, weapon designs, and any type of technology that is considered necessary or accommodating to the production of nuclear weapons.12

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As an example of nuclear proliferation involving the proliferation of material, one might consider the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRKNorth Korea). Yongbyon, 60 miles north of Pyonyang, hosts North Korea’s Special Weapons Facilities, which include a 5-megawatt (MW) research reactor, the Radiochemical Laboratory of the Institute of Radiochemistry, the Nuclear Fuel Rod Fabrication Plant, a 50-MW reactor currently under construction, and a spent fuel storage pond. On January 8, 2004, an unofficial American delegation visited Yongbyon where they were shown an empty spent fuel storage pond where 8000 nuclear spent fuel rods once resided and remained under the watchful eye of the IAEA, sanctioned under the Agreed Framework and the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT): international treaty devised to prevent the proliferation of nuclear material and technologies.13 North Korean scientists claimed that the spent fuel rods had been removed and reprocessed. 14 It is suspected that the 8000 spent fuel rods contained enough plutonium for six nuclear weapons.15 As mentioned previously, nuclear proliferation is not limited to the proliferation of nuclear or radiological material, and it does not necessarily have to be considered illicit in its nature. In 1995, Russia signed a deal with Iran to build two VVER-1000 light water reactors (LWR) at Bushehr. The Russian–Iranian deal also included a centrifuge facility to enrich uranium, which would provide fuel for the LWR. Shortly thereafter, the agreement for Russia to provide the centrifuge facility was cancelled under U.S. pressure.16 Such a deployment of nuclear facilities by one nation–state to another is an excellent example of nuclear proliferation within international norms. Regardless of the international community’s endorsement of these types of agreements between two nations, the deployment of any nuclear facility requires the technical expertise associated with handling such a facility, and warrants the country married to expansion of the nuclear fuel cycle due to financial investment. In 2002, Russia agreed to build several more reactors as a draft plan for technical cooperation between the two countries.17

Classes of Nuclear Proliferation Due to the complexity of identifying the various forms of nuclear proliferation, we shall cover several classes that define the specific types of proliferation. The first class is divided into vertical and horizontal proliferation, which is directly associated with the proliferation of nuclear weapons capabilities. The second class, divided into induced and latent proliferation, deals more with the social interaction between nation–states and their capabilities as a function of current nuclear fuel cycle technologies.

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Vertical vs. Horizontal Proliferation Vertical proliferation is considered to be the modernization or advancement of existing weapons technologies in countries already possessing nuclear weapons. A perfect example of vertical proliferation is using tritium to “boost” fissionable devices. In weapons development, a tritium–deuterium mix is utilized inside a plutonium pit, replacing the external neutron generator. This is primarily to increase the rate of burn of the fissile material, thus consuming more plutonium prior to pit disintegration. Therefore, the fission bomb can be doubled, respectively, using of a fusion boosted core by providing a burst of additional neutrons.18 Further development of nuclear weapons boosting has led to replacement of tritium–deuterium mix with lithium–deuteride, decreasing some of the maintenance issues posed by using tritium (short half-life requiring frequent replacement in an aging stockpile and the complications of dealing with a radioactive gas). Lithium splits into tritium and helium upon absorption of a neutron. Because lithium, deuterium, and other potentially dangerous elements may be used in large concentrations to facilitate the fission and fusion fuel cycles, it is important to keep in mind the danger dual-use items pose, which will not be covered in the scope of this chapter. 19,20 Vertical proliferation encompasses the advancement of technologies to field a more sophisticated nuclear weapon, meaning it is not limited necessarily to the actual nuclear device. Rather, vertical proliferation may also include multiple re-entry vehicle technology and missile advancements, for example.21 Horizontal proliferation is considered to be the spread of nuclear materials and/or technologies by private companies or state nuclear programs to assist nation–states that do not have nuclear weapons or that possess a covert nuclear weapons program. There is no better example of horizontal proliferation than the infamous Khan network.22 In 1976, Abdul Qadeer Khan, a German-educated metallurgist, left the Urenco enrichment facility at Almelo, The Netherlands, taking with him uranium enrichment design blueprints. He returned to his home in Pakistan and began a covert nuclear weapons program that would be known as the Dr. A. Q. Khan Research Laboratories (KRL). This ultimately led to the successful detonation of Pakistan’s first nuclear device on May 28, 1998. 23 In October 2003, the BBC China, a German-flagged ship destined for Libya, was intercepted by a U.S. warship and forced to divert to Italy. Aboard the ship investigators found several thousand gas centrifuge components used for uranium enrichment.24 It was determined that the centrifuge technology was part of a vast international black market for nuclear technology and material.

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Not only did Khan proliferate nuclear centrifuge trade secrets to his country, but the Khan network expanded to include technology transfers to Iran, Libya, North Korea, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Nigeria, Malaysia, Indonesia, Algeria, Kuwait, Myanmar, Brazil, and possibly Syria, Egypt, South Africa, Turkey, and other South American countries. It is also suspected that workable designs for a nuclear warhead were sold to Libya and several other countries.25 Even more disturbing, a KRL scientist, Dr. Sultan Bashiruddin Mahmood, after being interrogated for several weeks by CIA officers in Pakistan, admittedly met with Osama bin Laden, al-Zawahiri, and other AlQaeda officers in Kabul, Afghanistan. The contents of the meeting consisted of technical details regarding a nuclear blast in an American city. Interestingly enough, the meeting took place on September 11, 2001.26 The Khan network is a special case where nation–states with varying technical capabilities trade to enhance their nuclear weapons efforts. The discovery led to Libya’s renunciation of a covert nuclear weapons program and the uncovering of Khan’s trafficking network that undoubtedly spanned four continents.23 Horizontal proliferation might also include the transfer of advanced military technologies that would help field a more sophisticated nuclear arsenal. Thus, we can take into consideration the transfers of advanced Kh-55 missile technology from the Ukraine to China, Iran, and eventually North Korea as an incident of horizontal proliferation. The transfer of Kh-55 missile technology is a particularly interesting case where advanced missile technology, abandoned in the Ukraine during the dissolution of the Soviet Union, made its way into the international arms market. In 2000, O. H. Orlov and E. V. Shelenko, two Russians associated with the Progress export company, furnished UkrSpetzExport, a Ukrainian exporter, with falsified contracts from Rosvooruzheniya arms for the transfer of 20 Kh-55SM missiles. It is suggested that six of the missiles went to China, six were transferred to Iran, and the remaining to undisclosed nation–states. The discovery of this transfer took place in January 2006, when Hrihory Omelchenko, deputy chairman of the committee on organized crime and corruption, informed Viktor Yushchenko, the new Ukrainian president.27,28 It was discovered that the former Ukrainian Defense Ministry, under a pro-Russian government, knew of the missile transfer and assisted in providing falsified documentation to support the unimpeded shipment. The Kh-55 missile, similar to the U.S. AGM-86B and the BGM-109B Tomahawk, is an air-launched nuclear-armed cruise missile with a range of 1500 miles and has the potential of fielding a 200 kiloton warhead.29,30 Thus, vertical proliferation can be defined as the advancement or modernization of a nation–state’s nuclear arsenal, whereas horizontal proliferation is the direct or indirect transfer of technologies from one

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nation–state to another, which ultimately leads to the advancement of developing a nuclear weapon or fielding a more capable nuclear arsenal. It is also necessary to remember that both vertical and horizontal proliferation may not necessarily be illicit in nature, but that the transfer of dual-use items for a legitimate industry could also provide nation–states with latent, advanced technology to aid potential aspirations for joining the nuclear club. Induced vs. Latent Proliferation One of Khan’s first customers was Iran. During 1987, Khan visited the Bushehr site and is suspected of supplying, at that time, blueprints for a uranium enrichment facility with a cascade of 50,000 P-1 centrifuges.28 During the 1990s, A. Q. Khan expanded his network to include centrifuge shipments to Libya, Iraq, Iran, and North Korea; it is suspected that Khan provided nuclear weapon blueprints to several of these countries as well. Khan’s network provided the means for advancing Pakistan’s own nuclear ambitions, which were in large influenced by India’s nuclear weapons program. The obvious pressure that India placed on Pakistan to develop nuclear weapons was depicted in May 1998. Several days after India conducted underground, experimental nuclear detonations, Pakistan conducted similar detonations. 29 This type of influence that one nation–state has on another to either initiate or hasten a nuclear weapons program is considered induced proliferation. Another interesting example of induced proliferation involves two seemingly unlikely countries, Brazil and Argentina. It is assumed that the inception of Brazil’s interest in nuclear technology far exceeded Argentina’s. Brazil became interested in nuclear technology in the 1930s, with research into fission. Brazil’s vast deposits of uranium ore aided in concessions for the transfer of nuclear technology, largely with the U.S. and West Germany from 1950 to 1970.30 Brazil’s nuclear ambitions focused primarily on energy production up to the 1970s. However, in 1975, Brazil transferred technology from its commercial nuclear energy program to a covert nuclear weapons program code-named “Solimoes.” This project was eventually reclassified as the Navy Nuclear Parallel Program. Then, in 1990, the Brazilian president, Fernando Collor de Mello, exposed Brazil’s intentions to build an atomic bomb and launched a congressional investigating committee to examine the covert weapons program managed by Brazil’s National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN).31 Alarmingly, it was discovered that two atomic devices, with yields of 12 and 30 kilotons, had been developed by the Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv).30 While Argentinean interest in nuclear technology began in the 1950s, efforts to increase research into nuclear weapons amplified in 1976, after Brazil signed a deal to acquire an entire nuclear fuel cycle from West Germany.

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In 1978, under the directorate of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Argentina directed the construction of a secretive enrichment facility at Pilcaniyeu. However, in 1983, with the inauguration of a new president, Argentina’s nuclear ambitions cooled and legislation was passed to prohibit the development of nuclear weapons.32 The revelation of both countries nuclear weapons programs led to an agreement between Brazil and Argentina, dubbed Argentina–Brazil Declaration on Common Nuclear Policy of Foz do Iguacu, which denounces the research and development of nuclear weapons. Argentina became a signatory of the NPT in 1995. Brazil followed in 1998.33 Latent proliferation is considered when a nation–state’s technical expertise and industrial capability to facilitate nuclear energy will pose a serious latent proliferation potential or the inherent capability for applying a commercial nuclear energy program to weapons development and design. The proliferation of nuclear technology alone may induce other countries to understand better the capabilities of nuclear energy in relation to weapons development.20 The concern of latent proliferation capability accompanying the augmentation of fusion energy generation was described by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation: … one cannot rule out that a technologically advanced country would be able to field a very conservatively designed thermonuclear weapon that would present a credible threat without nuclear testing…34 For instance, South Korea’s uranium enrichment and plutonium extraction capabilities lend for the technical expertise required for nuclear weapons development. In August 2004, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) disclosed that in February 2000, researchers had enriched uranium on three occasions without reporting these experiments to the Ministry of Science and Technology, violating South Korea’s obligations under the NPT. Very small quantities of uranium were enriched to ~10% using an advanced separation technology, atomic vapor laser isotope separation.35 An exhaustive understanding of international and multilateral treaties is important when taking into consideration the legalities of nuclear proliferation. For example, countries that pose a serious threat due to previous behavior, but are interested in the nuclear fuel cycle for commercial electricity must accept the NPT and, possibly, additional protocols that supplement the NPT if they are to receive technical help from NPT members or members of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG). This is to limit the import of certain materials and technologies that would assist that nation–state in diverting material or technology to a covert nuclear weapons program. If a nation–state ratifies the NPT, that nation–state must allow the IAEA to inspect operations at nuclear facilities within that nation–state.

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The NPT is not without its faults. Nation–states may abrogate from the treaty after they have successfully deployed the nuclear fuel cycle within their country. Others may take advantage of vulnerabilities in monitoring by actively diverting material from the nuclear fuel cycle. As with several of the previous examples, nation–states might traffic in nuclear material and technology in trade for military technologies. Thus, we consider the illicit transport of nuclear material and or technologies.

Categories of Nuclear Proliferation The categories of nuclear proliferation focus strictly on the proliferation of nuclear material from nuclear facilities for the purpose of supporting a covert nuclear weapons program. These categories consist of: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Diversion of material from the nuclear fuel cycle. Transportation of diverted material to a covert weapons program. Processing of material into fissionable weapons-grade material. Generation of the actual weapon.

Diversion of Material Diversion occurs when nuclear material is transferred out of the civilian nuclear fuel cycle within a nation–state for the purpose of sustaining a covert nuclear weapons program. A nation–state engaged in diversion must take into consideration the material attractiveness, which includes: • • • •

Fissionable isotopic content: The amount of fissionable material that could be extracted from the diverted material. Detectability: The capabilities for an international nuclear watchdog, such as the IAEA, to detect diversion of the material from the facility. Handling ability: The difficulty with which to handle the specific nuclear material. Processing potential: The amount of processing the material requires before it could be used in a nuclear device.

Take into account material that would be deployed to a LWR; LWR types include pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), and water-moderated–water-cooled reactor (VVR). Nuclear fuel that is deployed to a typical LWR is considered inherently proliferation resistant. This is because uranium-235, the fissionable isotope of uranium, has a concentration of less than 20% in LWR fuel rods; anything below 20% is considered to be low enriched uranium. As well, spent fuel from a LWR has a plutonium concentration of ~1% and is quite radioactive. Thus, LWR fuel would require significant material processing resources for use in a covert nuclear program.36

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At this level, it is also necessary to consider international agreements and treaties that require obligatory monitoring, material control, and accounting systems to be in place. Thus, a nation–state determined to divert material may participate in facility modification or detection facility modification to support undeclared production and/or diversion. Transportation of Diverted Material Attributes to consider during transportation of diverted material include the handling ability of the material and the remote detection capabilities during transportation. At this level, it is assumed that material diverted would remain within the nation–state that hosted the commercial facility. However, it is necessary to consider the possibility that nation–states may engage in horizontal proliferation, providing reciprocal assistance for the advancement of a covert nuclear weapons program or to support the means by which terrorists might acquire weapons-usable material. In 2003, a prominent North Korean defector suggested that Pakistan transported to North Korea either the nuclear material required or a duplicate of the actual weapon that was tested by Pakistan in 1998. 37 Processing of Diverted Material It is assumed that, regardless of the material quality or attractiveness, there is some processing of the material that must take place. Attributes involved with processing of the material for use in a nuclear weapon include the facilities and equipment needed, knowledge and skills, transformation time of the material, and detectability of transformation activities and facilities. For example, on July 21, 2003, U.S. government officials announced the detection of krypton-85 at the border between North Korea and South Korea. Experts suggest that this could be indicative of spent fuel reprocessing. 38 Generation of a Weapon Weapon fabrication involves design and handling difficulties, detectability of fabrication activity, facilities and equipment needed, the technical expertise involved, and the fabrication time.

Conclusion Though nuclear proliferation is a generalized label for a multifaceted issue, it remains to say that nuclear proliferation can best be described as the spread of material, production technology, or expertise to support a nuclear weapons program.

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Declared Nuclear Weapon Statesa Country

Warheads Active/Total a

U.S. Russia (formerly the Soviet Union) U.K. France People’s Republic of China India Pakistan North Korea a

5735/9960 5830/16000

Year of First Test 1945 (“Trinity”) 1949 (“RDS-1”)

E-Book Information

  • Series: Forensic Science Series

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